hepatic ischemia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaoling Qiang ◽  
Jianhua Li ◽  
Shu Zhu ◽  
Mingzhu He ◽  
Weiqiang Chen ◽  

BackgroundHepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury is commonly associated with surgical liver resection or transplantation, and represents a major cause of liver damage and graft failure. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent hepatic I/R injury other than ischemic preconditioning and some preventative strategies. Previously, we have revealed the anti-inflammatory activity of a sweat gland-derived peptide, dermcidin (DCD), in macrophage/monocyte cultures. Here, we sought to explore its therapeutic potential and protective mechanisms in a murine model of hepatic I/R.MethodsMale C57BL/6 mice were subjected to hepatic ischemia by clamping the hepatic artery and portal vein for 60 min, which was then removed to initiate reperfusion. At the beginning of reperfusion, 0.2 ml saline control or solution of DCD (0.5 mg/kg BW) or DCD-C34S analog (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg BW) containing a Cys (C)→Ser (S) substitution at residue 34 was injected via the internal jugular vein. For survival experiments, mice were subjected to additional resection to remove non-ischemic liver lobes, and animal survival was monitored for 10 days. For mechanistic studies, blood and tissue samples were collected at 24 h after the onset of reperfusion, and subjected to measurements of various markers of inflammation and tissue injury by real-time RT-PCR, immunoassays, and histological analysis.ResultsRecombinant DCD or DCD-C34S analog conferred a significant protection against lethal hepatic I/R when given intravenously at the beginning of reperfusion. This protection was associated with a significant reduction in hepatic injury, neutrophilic CXC chemokine (Mip-2) expression, neutrophil infiltration, and associated inflammation. Furthermore, the administration of DCD also resulted in a significant attenuation of remote lung inflammatory injury. Mechanistically, DCD interacted with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a key regulator of liver inflammation, and significantly inhibited hepatic I/R-induced phosphorylation of EGFR as well as a downstream signaling molecule, protein kinase B (AKT). The suppression of EGFR expression by transducing Egfr-specific shRNA plasmid into macrophages abrogated the DCD-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production induced by a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, CIRP.ConclusionsThe present study suggests that human DCD and its analog may be developed as novel therapeutics to attenuate hepatic I/R-induced inflammatory injury possibly by impairing EGFR signaling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xin-li Mao ◽  
Yue Cai ◽  
Ya-hong Chen ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Xiu-xiu Jiang ◽  

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), a fascinating topic that has drawn a lot of interest in the last few years, is a major complication caused by a variety of clinical situations, such as liver transplantation, severe trauma, vascular surgery, and hemorrhagic shock. The IRI process involves a series of complex events, including mitochondrial deenergization, metabolic acidosis, adenosine-5'-triphosphate depletion, Kupffer cell activation, calcium overload, oxidative stress, and the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine signal transduction. A number of protective strategies have been reported to ameliorate IRI, including pharmacological therapy, ischemic pre-conditioning, ischemic post-conditioning, and machine reperfusion. However, most of these strategies are only at the stage of animal model research at present, and the potential mechanisms and exact therapeutic targets have yet to be clarified. IRI remains a main cause of postoperative liver dysfunction, often leading to postoperative morbidity or even mortality. Very recently, it was reported that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of a superfamily of nuclear transcription factors activated by agonists, can attenuate IRI in the liver, and FAM3A has been confirmed to mediate the protective effect of PPARγ in hepatic IRI. In addition, non-coding RNAs, like LncRNAs and miRNAs, have also been reported to play a pivotal role in the liver IRI process. In this review, we presented an overview of the latest advances of treatment strategies and proposed potential mechanisms behind liver IRI. We also highlighted the role of several important molecules (PPARγ, FAM3A, and non-coding RNAs) in protecting against hepatic IRI. Only after achieving a comprehensive understanding of potential mechanisms and targets behind IRI can we effectively ameliorate IRI in the liver and achieve better therapeutic effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ying Xin ◽  
Yifeng Zhang ◽  
Simin Deng ◽  
Xinqun Hu

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a protective effect on distal organ injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We aimed to investigate the protective efficacy of VNS on hepatic I/R injury-induced acute skeletal muscle injury and explore its underlying mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (sham operation, n = 6); I/R group (hepatic I/R with sham VNS, n = 6); and VNS group (hepatic I/R with VNS, n = 6). A hepatic I/R injury model was prepared by inducing hepatic ischemia for 1 h (70%) followed by hepatic reperfusion for 6 h. VNS was performed during the entire hepatic I/R process. Tissue and blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment for biochemical assays, molecular biological preparations, and histological examination. Our results showed that throughout the hepatic I/R process, VNS significantly reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, while significantly increasing the protein levels of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and decreasing the levels of acetylated forkhead box O1 and Ac-p53, in the skeletal muscle. These data suggest that VNS can alleviate hepatic I/R injury-induced acute skeletal muscle injury by suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, potentially via the SIRT1 pathway.

Luca Erlitz ◽  
Caleb Ibitamuno ◽  
Benedek Kasza ◽  
Vivien Telek ◽  
Péter Hardi ◽  

BACKGROUND: The cold ischemia –reperfusion injury may lead to microcirculatory disturbances, hepatocellular swelling, inflammation, and organ dysfunction. Nicorandil is an anti-ischemic, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener drug and has proved its effectiveness against hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Nicorandil on mitochondrial apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, histopathological changes, and cold ischemic tolerance of the liver in an ex vivo experimental isolated-organ-perfusion model. METHODS: We used an ex vivo isolated rat liver perfusion system for this study. The grafts were retrieved from male Wistar rats (n = 5 in each), preserved in cold storage (CS) for 2 or 4 hours (group 1, 2), or perfused for 2 or 4 hours (group 3, 4) immediately after removal with Krebs Henseleit Buffer (KHB) solution or Nicorandil containing KHB solution under subnormothermic (22–25°C) conditions (group 5, 6). After 15 minutes incubation at room temperature, the livers were reperfused with acellular, oxygenated solution under normothermic condition for 60 minutes. RESULTS: In the Nicorandil perfused groups, significantly decreased liver enzymes, GLDH, TNF-alpha, and IL-1ß were measured from the perfusate. Antioxidant enzymactivity was higher in the perfused groups. Histopathological examination showed ameliorated tissue deterioration, preserved parenchymal structure, decreased apoptosis, and increased Bcl-2 activity in the Nicorandil perfused groups. CONCLUSIONS: Perfusion with Nicorandil containing KHB solution may increase cold ischemic tolerance of the liver via mitochondrial protection which can be a potential therapeutic target to improve graft survival during transplantation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 13155
Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka ◽  
Mariusz G. Fleszar ◽  
Paulina Fortuna ◽  
Kinga Gostomska-Pampuch ◽  
Łukasz Lewandowski ◽  

Molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of sitagliptin repurposed for hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) are poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the impact of IRI and sitagliptin on the hepatic profile of eicosanoids (LC-MS/MS) and expression/concentration (RTqPCR/ELISA) of GLP-1/GLP-1R, SDF-1α/CXCR4 and VIP/VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1 in 36 rats. Animals were divided into four groups and subjected to ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion (24 h) with or without pretreatment with sitagliptin (5 mg/kg) (IR and SIR) or sham-operated with or without sitagliptin pretreatment (controls and sitagliptin). PGI2, PGE2, and 13,14-dihydro-PGE1 were significantly upregulated in IR but not SIR, while sitagliptin upregulated PGD2 and 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2. IR and sitagliptin non-significantly upregulated GLP-1 while Glp1r expression was borderline detectable. VIP concentration and Vpac2 expression were downregulated in IR but not SIR, while Vpac1 was significantly downregulated solely in SIR. IRI upregulated both CXCR4 expression and concentration, and sitagliptin pretreatment abrogated receptor overexpression and downregulated Sdf1. In conclusion, hepatic IRI is accompanied by an elevation in proinflammatory prostanoids and overexpression of CXCR4, combined with downregulation of VIP/VPAC2. Beneficial effects of sitagliptin during hepatic IRI might be mediated by drug-induced normalization of proinflammatory prostanoids and upregulation of PGD2 and by concomitant downregulation of SDF-1α/CXCR4 and reinstating VIP/VCAP2 signaling.

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