scholarly journals Short Term Outcome in Sleep Disturbance Intervention in Children with ASD in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 325-332
Shaoli Sarker

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral difficulties in children with ASD using sleep disturbance treatments. Methods: We selected a total 41 children with sleep disorders as study population. The sleep services (behavioral sleep management techniques) were given by the child development center team of Dhaka Shishu Hospital comprising of physician , developmental therapist and psychologist. Children were split into eight groups and two gender divisions based on their age, and they were then studied over a period of 6 months . Sleep disorders were investigated both before and after intervention. Results: The results revealed that the children’s sleep dysfunction improved from before, with the lowest improvement percentage decreasing from 62.9 percent to 51.8 percent and the greatest improvement percentage increasing from 100 percent to 59.2 percent, whereas a sleep problem showed no change at all (sleepwalking). Conclusion: The study has tried and succeeded to an extent to intervene in the sleep dysfunction process of children with ASD in a tertiary care hospital. However, there is still much to learn about the clinical efficacy of these types of behavioral interventions in children with ASD who have sleep disruption.

Amy Nolen ◽  
Rawaa Olwi ◽  
Selby Debbie

Background: Patients approaching end of life may experience intractable symptoms managed with palliative sedation. The legalization of Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) in Canada in 2016 offers a new option for relief of intolerable suffering, and there is limited evidence examining how the use of palliative sedation has evolved with the introduction of MAiD. Objectives: To compare rates of palliative sedation at a tertiary care hospital before and after the legalization of MAiD. Methods: This study is a retrospective chart analysis of all deaths of patients followed by the palliative care consult team in acute care, or admitted to the palliative care unit. We compared the use of palliative sedation during 1-year periods before and after the legalization of MAiD, and screened charts for MAiD requests during the second time period. Results: 4.7% (n = 25) of patients who died in the palliative care unit pre-legalization of MAiD received palliative sedation compared to 14.6% (n = 82) post-MAiD, with no change in acute care. Post-MAiD, 4.1% of deaths were medically-assisted deaths in the palliative care unit (n = 23) and acute care (n = 14). For patients who requested MAiD but instead received palliative sedation, the primary reason was loss of decisional capacity to consent for MAiD. Conclusion: We believe that the mainstream presence of MAiD has resulted in an increased recognition of MAiD and palliative sedation as distinct entities, and rates of palliative sedation increased post-MAiD due to greater awareness about patient choice and increased comfort with end-of-life options.


Objective: Antibiotics are the only drug where use in one patient can impact the effectiveness in another, so antibiotic misuse adversely impacts the patients and society. Improving antibiotic use improves patient outcomes and saves money. Antibiotic resistance has been identified as a major threat by the WHO due to the lack of development of new antibiotics and the increasing infections caused by multidrug resistance pathogens became untreatable. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for a period of 6 months. Data were collected from prescriptions and inpatient record files at the surgery department of the tertiary care hospital. Patients above age of 18 years of either gender whose prescription containing the antibiotics and patients who are willing to participate in the study were included in the study. Microsoft Excel was used for recording and analyzing the data of recruited subjects. Results: During our study period, we have collected 100 cases as per inclusion criteria, in total collected 100 cases, 52% are male and 48% are female. The mean age and standard deviation of the study population were found to be 46.61±16.12. The most commonly prescribed classification before and after the surgery is cephalosporin’s that is 57%. Results show that in pre-surgery, almost 93% of prescriptions have chosen the drugs as per ASHP guidelines, whereas in post-surgery, 95% of drugs have selected the drug as per ASHP guidelines. Conclusion: Our study has observed that some of the prescriptions are irrationally prescribed so the pharmacist has to take the responsibility to improve the awareness regarding rational prescribing of antibiotics. The national wide monitoring of antibiotics use, national schemes to obtain rational use of antibiotics, reassessing the prescriptions, education to practitioners, and surveys on antibiotics should be implemented.

2015 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 76-77
Shirin Akhter ◽  
Rumana Nazneen

Total abdominal Hysterectomy are gradually rising in our country. This study has been designed to find out the common indications of abdominal hysterectomy in a tertiary care hospital,. to know the clinical characters of the patients and. o elucidate postoperative complication of abdominal hysterectomy.Methodology : Cross- sectional observational study was done during 1st October 2007 to 30th September 2008. Holy Family Red Crescent Medical College Hospital (HFRCMCH). Total 100 patients were selected following enclusion & exclusion criteria hyperposive sampling. Data were recorded before and after operation and analyzed by SPSS version 15.Result : In the present study patients with leiomyoma of uterus was found to be the major indication of hysterectomy followed by dys functional uterine bleeding (DUB) 18.0%, Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) 14.0%, chronic cervicitis 10.0%, adenomyosis 10.0%, pelvic endometriosis 6.0%, cervical polyp 2.0%, ovarian cysts 1.0% and chriocarcinoma 1.0%. Mean duration of operation (hour) and hospital stay was 1.15 hours and 7.48 days respectively. Most common complication of present series was fever 20.0% followed by 13.0% had wound infection, 6.0% UTI and 2.0% wound dehiscence.Conclusion : Hysterectomy is now the most widely performed major operation in gynaecology. Indication and post operative complications of hysterectomy varies from region to region.Northern International Medical College Journal Vol.6(2) 2015: 76-77

1998 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 248-253 ◽  
Mary V. Singer ◽  
Rachel Haft ◽  
Tamar Barlam ◽  
Mark Aronson ◽  
Amy Shafer ◽  

ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Evaluate vancomycin prescribing patterns in a tertiary-care hospital before and after interventions to decrease vancomycin utilization.DESIGN: Before/after analysis of interventions to limit vancomycin use.SETTING: 420-bed academic tertiary-care center.INTERVENTIONS: Educational efforts began August 10, 1994, and involved lectures to medical house staff followed by mailings to all physicians and posting of guidelines for vancomycin use on hospital information systems. Active interventions began November 15, 1994, and included automatic stop orders for vancomycin at 72 hours, alerts attached to the medical record, and, for 2 weeks only, computer alerts to physicians following each vancomycin order. Parenteral vancomycin use was estimated from the hospital pharmacy database of all medication orders. Records of a random sample of 344 patients receiving van-comycin between May 1, 1994, and April 30, 1995, were reviewed for an indication meeting published guidelines.RESULTS: Vancomycin prescribing decreased by 22% following interventions, from 8.5 to 6.8 courses per 100 discharges (P<.05). The estimated proportion of van-comycin ordered for an indication meeting published guidelines was 36.6% overall, with no significant change following interventions. However, during the 2 weeks that computer alerts were in place, 60% of vancomycin use was for an approved indication.CONCLUSIONS: Parenteral vancomycin prescribing decreased significantly following interventions, but the majority of orders still were not for an indication meeting published guidelines. Further improvement in the appropriateness of vancomycin prescribing potentially could be accomplished by more aggressive interventions, such as computer alerts, or by targeting specific aspects of prescribing patterns.

2020 ◽  
pp. postgradmedj-2019-136992
Kuo-Kai Chin ◽  
Amrita Krishnamurthy ◽  
Talhah Zubair ◽  
Tara Ramaswamy ◽  
Jason Hom ◽  

BackgroundRepetitive laboratory testing in stable patients is low-value care. Electronic health record (EHR)-based interventions are easy to disseminate but can be restrictive.ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of a minimally restrictive EHR-based intervention on utilisation.SettingOne year before and after intervention at a 600-bed tertiary care hospital. 18 000 patients admitted to General Medicine, General Surgery and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).InterventionProviders were required to specify the number of times each test should occur instead of being able to order them indefinitely.MeasurementsFor eight tests, utilisation (number of labs performed per patient day) and number of associated orders were measured.ResultsUtilisation decreased for some tests on all services. Notably, complete blood count with differential decreased 9% (p<0.001) on General Medicine and 21% (p<0.001) in the ICU.ConclusionsRequiring providers to specify the number of occurrences of labs changes significantly reduces utilisation in some cases.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 778
Alexandre Castro-Lopes ◽  
Sofia Correia ◽  
Cátia Leal ◽  
Inês Resende ◽  
Pedro Soares ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses novel challenges in antimicrobial consumption metrics and stewardship strategies. COVID-19 patients became the major cause of hospital admission during the first wave of the pandemic, often leading to an antimicrobial prescription upon admission or treatment for superinfections. The aim of this study was to understand how antimicrobial consumption was impacted at the beginning of the pandemic in a tertiary care hospital, a reference center for COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A retrospective before-and-after study was done. Descriptive statistics of discharges, patient-days, and antimicrobial use indicators (defined daily doses (DDD)/100 discharges, DDD/100 patient-days) for various groups were calculated for the first three months of the pandemic (March, April, and May 2020) as a quarterly value, and for each year in 2011–2019, and their annual percentage changes were used to estimate 95% confidence intervals. The indicators were compared to patient type (medical/surgical), type of admission (urgent/elective), and age groups using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: Statistically significant increases occurred in 2020 for total antibacterials, macrolides, cephalosporins, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, carbapenems, meropenem, and third-generation cephalosporins, while a reduction was seen in cefazolin/cefoxitin. A correlation was found between antibacterial consumption and patient or admission type. In 2020, unlike in pre-pandemic years, there was a different impact in DDD/100 discharges and DDD/100 patient-days due to increased lengths-of-stay and longer antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in antimicrobial consumption with a different impact in DDD/100 discharges and DDD/100 patient-days. This highlights the need to use both indicators simultaneously to better understand the causes of antimicrobial consumption variation and improve the design of effective antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

Irfan Ul Haq ◽  
Mansoor Ali Hameed ◽  
Abbas Abdallah Alabbas ◽  
Shakeel Ahmed ◽  
Khezar Shahzada Syed ◽  

2015 ◽  
Vol 30 (6) ◽  
pp. 593-598 ◽  
Rahul Choudhary ◽  
Ashish Goel ◽  
Sonal Pruthi ◽  
Sarathi Kalra ◽  
Sunil Agarwal ◽  

AbstractIntroductionWith an increasing number of sicker patients, limited hospital beds, and an emphasis on day care, the profile of patients hospitalized to medicine wards has undergone a radical re-definition. The increasing share of patients hospitalized through the emergency department for acute care to medicine wards has left little space for hospitalization through the outpatient department (OPD). There are some global data available on the profile of patients presenting to the emergency rooms (ERs) and their subsequent outcome. Data from developing countries, especially India, in this regard are lacking.MethodsThis cross-sectional study included all patients hospitalized to the medicine ward through the medical emergency services, provided by the Department of Medicine, each Wednesday and every sixth Sunday for the entire year (a total of 62 days), from November 2010 through October 2011, and followed their outcome up to seven days after hospitalization.ResultsOf the 3,618 cases presenting to medicine emergency on these days, 1,547 (42.3%) were advised admission. Nine hundred sixty-seven reported to the medicine wards. One hundred eleven (7.73%) expired within 24 hours; others absconded, were lost in transit, did not consent to participation, or were discharged. During the next seven days, 452 (46.7%) recovered sufficiently and were discharged to go home. Two hundred thirty (23.8%) left the hospital without informing the medical staff. Fourteen (1.4%) patients were transferred to other departments. One hundred thirty-seven (8.8%) patients died during the next six days of hospitalization. After Multivariate Logistic Regression analysis, abnormal Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, high systolic blood pressure (BP), age, increased total leucocyte count, increased globulin, low bicarbonate in arterial blood, low Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, and a raised urea >40 mg/dL were found to be associated significantly with mortality.ConclusionOf the 1,547 patients who needed urgent hospitalization, 248 (16%) died within the first week, one-half of them within the first 24 hours. An advanced age, abnormal GCS score, low MMSE score, increased systolic BP, leukocytosis, acidosis, and uremia were found to be associated with a fatal outcome. Therefore, nearly one-half of the patients who would have a fatal short-term outcome were likely to do so within the first 24 hours, making the first day of presentation “the golden day” period.ChoudharyR, GoelA, PruthiS, KalraS, AgarwalS, KalraOP. Profile of patients hospitalized through the emergency room to the medicine ward and their short-term outcome at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(6):593–598.

2020 ◽  
Irfan Ul Haq ◽  
Mansoor Ali Hameed ◽  
Merlin Marry Thomas ◽  
Khezar Shahzada Syed ◽  
Ahmad Mohammad Mahmoud Othman ◽  

BACKGROUND Sleep disorders (SD) constitute a major health problem because of their relatively high and rising prevalence. Several studies have analyzed the knowledge of SD among healthcare providers worldwide. We aimed to assess the knowledge of SD among physicians in Qatar OBJECTIVE To assess the knowledge of sleep medicine among physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS Total of 250 physicians were surveyed regarding their knowledge in sleep medicine using a validated 30 item “ASKME Survey”. The participants included residents, fellows and consultants in medicine and allied subspecialties. A score ≥60% was considered a high score implying adequate knowledge of SD. RESULTS Response was received from 158 physicians with a responder rate of 63.2%. We analyzed the data from 34 residents, 74 clinical fellows and 50 consultants. The overall mean score was 15.53± 4.42 out of 30. Only 57 (36%) respondents were able to answer ≥60% of the questions correctly. There was no statistically significant difference in the scores of the participants with regard to their ranks (residents, fellows, consultants) or years of training CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that healthcare providers in Qatar have decreased awareness and knowledge about sleep medicine which may reflect a lesser emphasis during medical school and medical training on SD. Increasing awareness regarding sleep medicine among non-specialist physicians will allow early detection and treatment of SD, improving the morbidity attached with these disorders CLINICALTRIAL The research was approved by the Institutional review board MRC-01-18-022

2013 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 220-226 ◽  
Mohammed A. Aseeri

OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to compare the rate of dosing errors for antibiotic orders in pediatric patients before and after the implementation of an antibiotic standard dosing table with precalculated dosage for different weight ranges at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS A retrospective study of 300 antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric patients in three different settings (ambulatory care, inpatient, and emergency department) at a tertiary care hospital assessed the appropriateness of antibiotic dosing. The need for an antibiotic dosing standardization policy was identified after finding that more than 30% of patients experienced a dose variation of ±10% of the recommended daily dose. An antibiotic dosing standardization policy was implemented with an antibiotic standard dosing table for different weight ranges, and a hospital wide-education program was conducted to increase awareness of this new practice and its benefits. Three months after implementation, a random sampling of 300 antibiotic prescriptions collected from the same settings as the pre-intervention period was evaluated for compliance with the new policy and its effect on the number of antibiotic dosing errors. RESULTS Six hundred prescriptions were included in this study (300 in the pre-implementation phase and 300 in the post-implementation phase). Patient characteristics were similar in both groups in terms of sex, age, and weight. Physician compliance with the antibiotic dosing standardization policy after its implementation was 62%. The dosing standardization policy reduced the rate of dosing errors from 34.3% to 5.06% (p=0.0001), and weight documentation on the antibiotic prescription improved from 65.8% to 85.7% (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Implementation of an antibiotic dosing standardization policy significantly reduced the incidence of dosing errors in antibiotics prescribed for pediatric patients in our hospital.

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