antifungal effects
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1251 ◽  
pp. 132076
Rihab Dridi ◽  
Badiaa Essghaier ◽  
Hédia Hannachi ◽  
Ghada Ben Khedher ◽  
Chiraz Chaffei ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 295 ◽  
pp. 110862
María Cecilia Lutz ◽  
Adrián Colodner ◽  
Marisa Alumine Tudela ◽  
Marcelo Anibal Carmona ◽  
María Cristina Sosa

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-50
Mahrokh Marzi ◽  
Mojtaba Farjam ◽  
Zahra Kazeminejad ◽  
Abolfazl Shiroudi ◽  
Amin Kouhpayeh ◽  

A pharmacophore system has been found as 1,2,3-triazole, a five-membered heterocycle ring with nitrogen heteroatoms. These heterocyclic compounds can be produced using azide-alkyne cycloaddition processes catalyzed by ruthenium or copper. The bioactive compounds demonstrated antitubercular, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, and antidiabetic properties. This heterocycle molecule, in particular, with one or more 1,2,3-triazole cores has been found to have the most powerful antifungal effects. The goal of this review is to highlight recent developments in the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation of this prospective fungicidal chemical. Also there have been explained drugs and mechanism of action of a triazole compound with antifungal activity. This review will be useful in a variety of fields, including medicinal chemistry, organic chemistry, mycology, and pharmacology.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 33
Meenakshi Srinivas Iyer ◽  
Anil Kumar Gujjari ◽  
Sathishbabu Paranthaman ◽  
Amr Selim Abu Lila ◽  
Khaled Almansour ◽  

Denture stomatitis (DS), usually caused by Candida infection, is one of the common denture-related complications in patients wearing dentures. Clove and cinnamon oils have been acknowledged for their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity, and antifungal effects in the oral cavity. The aim of this study, therefore, was to prepare clove/cinnamon oils-loaded emulgel and to assess its efficacy in treating Candida albicans-associated denture stomatitis. Central composite design was adopted to formulate and optimize clove/cinnamon extracts-loaded emulgel. The formulated preparations were assessed for their physical appearance, particle size, viscosity, spreadability, and in-vitro drug release. In addition, in-vivo therapeutic experiments were conducted on 42 patients with denture stomatitis. The prepared emulgel formulations showed good physical characteristics with efficient drug release within 3 h. In addition, in-vivo antifungal studies revealed that the optimized formula significantly (p < 0.001) reduced Candida colony counts from the denture surface, compared to commercially available gel (240.38 ± 27.20 vs. 398.19 ± 66.73 CFU/mL, respectively). Furthermore, the optimized formula and succeeded in alleviating denture stomatitis-related inflammation with a better clinical cure rate compared to commercially available gel Collectively, herbal extracts-loaded emulgel might be considered an evolution of polyherbal formulations and might represent a promising alternative to the existing allopathic drugs for the treatment of denture stomatitis, with better taste acceptability and no side effects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 1079
Adriana de Almeida Pinto Bracarense ◽  
Jociani Ascari ◽  
Giovanni Gontijo de Souza ◽  
Thays Silva Oliveira ◽  
Antonio Ruano-González ◽  

Clovane and isocaryolane derivatives have been proven to show several levels of activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Both classes of sesquiterpenes are reminiscent of biosynthetic intermediates of botrydial, a virulence factor of B. cinerea. Further development of both classes of antifungal agent requires exploration of the structure–activity relationships for the antifungal effects on B. cinerea and phytotoxic effects on a model crop. In this paper, we report on the preparation of a series of alkoxy-clovane and -isocaryolane derivatives, some of them described here for the first time (2b, 2d, 2f–2h, and 4c–4e); the evaluation of their antifungal properties against B. cinerea, and their phytotoxic activites on the germination of seeds and the growth of radicles and shoots of Lactuca sativa (lettuce). Both classes of compound show a correlation of antifungal activity with the nature of side chains, with the best activity against B. cinerea for 2d, 2h, 4c and 4d. In general terms, while 2-alkoxyclovan-9-ols (2a–2e) exert a general phytotoxic effect, this is not the case for 2-arylalkoxyclovan-9-ols (2f–2i) and 8-alkoxyisocaryolan-9-ols (4a–4d), where stimulating effects would make them suitable candidates for application to plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 533-542
Florencia Anabel Mesas ◽  
María Cecilia Terrile ◽  
María Ximena Silveyra ◽  
Adriana Zuñiga ◽  
María Susana Rodriguez ◽  

Chitosan has been considered an environmental-friendly polymer. However, its use in agriculture has not been extended yet due to its relatively low solubility in water. N-Methylene phosphonic chitosan (NMPC) is a water-soluble derivative prepared by adding a phosphonic group to chitosan. This study demonstrates that NMPC has a fungicidal effect on the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. eumartii (F. eumartii) judged by the inhibition of F. eumartti mycelial growth and spore germination. NMPC affected fungal membrane permeability, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death. Also, this chitosan-derivative exerted antifungal effects against two other phytopathogens, Botrytis cinerea, and Phytophthora infestans. NMPC did not affect tomato cell viability at the same doses applied to these phytopathogens to exert fungicide action. In addition to water solubility, the selective biological cytotoxicity of NMPC adds value in its application as an antimicrobial agent in agriculture.

2021 ◽  
pp. 103967
Xinyu Cai ◽  
Jianrui Qi ◽  
Zhe Xu ◽  
Lingxuan Huang ◽  
Yihan Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 1023
Xingchen Song ◽  
Qijun Zhao ◽  
Aiai Zhou ◽  
Xiaodong Wen ◽  
Ming Li ◽  

The natural product citral has previously been demonstrated to possess antifungal activity against Magnaporthe oryzae. The purpose of this study was to screen and annotate genes that were differentially expressed (DEGs) in M. oryzae after treatment with citral using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Thereafter, samples were reprepared for quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis verification of RNA-seq data. The results showed that 649 DEGs in M. oryzae were significantly affected after treatment with citral (100 μg/mL) for 24 h. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and a gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolic pathways, including the chitin synthesis pathway and UDP sugar synthesis pathway. The results of the RT-qPCR analysis also showed that the chitin present in M. oryzae might be degraded to chitosan, chitobiose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and β-D-fructose-6-phosphate following treatment with citral. Chitin degradation was indicated by damaged cell-wall integrity. Moreover, the UDP glucose synthesis pathway was involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, providing precursors for the synthesis of polysaccharides. Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, which is involved in the regulation of UDP-α-D-galactose and α-D-galactose-1-phosphate, was downregulated. This would result in the inhibition of UDP glucose (UDP-Glc) synthesis, a reduction in cell-wall glucan content, and the destruction of cell-wall integrity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (7) ◽  
pp. 1167-1172
K. Adamu ◽  
H. Musa ◽  
A.B. Aliyu ◽  
A.O. Musa

Control of plant fungal diseases using synthetic fungicides continue to cause major problems to human health and the entire ecosystem. The aim of this research was to investigate the phytochemical and antifungal properties of Hyptis spicigera methanol leaf extract and flavonoid fraction on Aspergillus and Fusarium species, with a view to uncovering effective bio-fungicides for development as substitutes to chemical fungicides. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols and triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. The quantitative analysis showed that saponin (690 mg/g GAE), phenolics (220 mg/g GAE) and flavonoids (140 mg/g GAE) were found to be in high concentration. The antifungal effects of H. spicigera methanol extract on F. graminearum (21 mm) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control fungicide (Mancozeb). Similarly, the flavonoid fraction was more effective on A. parasitic (18 mm) than the control fungicide used. The extract and fraction exhibited MIC with range 3.13-12.5 mg/mL and MFC 6.25-12.5 mg/mL, indicating promising antifungal efficacies against A. flavus and F. graminearum. Our findings have revealed that H. spicigera flavonoid rich fraction has potential for development as effective bio-fungicide to control plant fungal diseases of the Aspergillus and Fusarium species.

2021 ◽  
Ying Tang

<p>The lignocellulosic fibres extracted from the leaves of New Zealand flax, Phormium tenax, have been used as the principal textile fibre by Maori since pre- European times. Variations of antifungal activity were observed in Phormium fibres of different cultivars. The most resistant cultivars of P. tenax in an aqueous antifungal assay also possessed the greatest variety of naturally-occurring 7-hydroxycoumarins as identified by mass spectroscopy, ESI-MS. In addition to antifungal effects, coumarins function as fluorescent whitening agents in Phormium fibres and play a role in the fibre’s photodegradation. Ultraviolet irradiation (350 – 400 nm) of the fibre resulted in a substantial loss of the blue fluorescence originating from a number of 7-hydroxycoumarins present, together with the formation of new fluorophores absorbing and emitting at longer wavelengths, which contribute to the photoyellowing of the fibre. The photolysis of two standard 7-hydroxycoumarins in aqueous solution was examined and two primary photoproducts were elucidated by ESI-MS: a photodimer containing a linking cyclobutane ring and a monomeric photooxidation product. The formation of at least some of the photoproducts is associated with the coumarin-sensitised generation of reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. The fluorescence properties and photodegradation of Chinese handmade papers were also investigated. Papers manufactured by traditional methods were found to be more photostable than that produced from chemically-facilitated techniques.</p>

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