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Daniel de A. Carreiro ◽  
Renata A. e Amariz ◽  
Luciana G. Sanches ◽  
Jackson T. Lobo ◽  
Vespasiano B. de Paiva Neto ◽  

ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the application of fenpropimorph and paclobutrazol on gas exchanges and photosynthetic pigments of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango grown in the semi-arid region in different evaluation periods. Two experiments were carried out in ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango orchards in the first production cycle between September and December 2018 (first experiment) and between September and December 2019 (second experiment) in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in split plots in time, 4 × 4 + 1, with four replicates. The plots corresponded to the concentrations of fenpropimorph: 0, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 g per linear meter of plant canopy diameter plus the additional paclobutrazol treatment (1 g per linear meter of plant canopy diameter), and the subplots corresponded to the evaluation dates (0, 30, 60, and 90 days after the first application of treatments). The following traits were evaluated: CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, water use efficiency, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids. The fenpropimorph dose of 1.3 g per linear meter of plant canopy promotes a higher rate of CO2 assimilation; however, paclobutrazol was more effective in the accumulation of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, and the use of fenpropimorph did not interfere in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments.


Despite abundant resources, the automotive industry is reported to adversely impact the environment owing to the use of heavy machinery, diverse and governmental management policies for car production per hour, remarkable employed labor force, production cycle timing, etc. For this purpose, many studies involving environmental risk management have been conducted. To this aim, the present study has been carried out in pre-paint part No. 2 of IKCO (preparation process). In this regard, using FUZZY FMEA and VIKOR methods, the identified risks were assessed and reformative measures and solutions were classified, respectively. A total of 15 individuals considered HSE experts of IKCO were selected as a statistical sample size according to the Morgan table. Consequently, the high level risks were identified and appropriate solutions were suggested to reduce the environmental effects, and according to achieved scores, “torch adjustments based on compliance report” with the objective of reducing air pollution was selected as the compromise solution. IKCO should consider torch adjustment based on compliance report actions as its first priority.

Bowen Wei ◽  
Tao Jiang ◽  
Shiju Li ◽  
Youyun Zhang ◽  
Guangming Xu ◽  

Abstract The effect of superheat melt treatment(SMT) on microstructure and properties of Al-Mg-Si alloy fabricated by twin roll casting(TRC) was analyzed using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, emission electron probe micro analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. SMT increased the subcooling degree of melt during TRC. The solidification microstructure with high dendrite density and small dendrite spacing was obtained. The second phase was evenly distributed between dendrites and the solute concentration gradient was decreased. Intergranular solute aggregation caused by Reynolds’ dilatancy in TRC slab was effectively suppressed. The homogeneous solute distribution of TRC slab with SMT can be realized by short-time homogenization heat treatment. The size of insoluble particles was greatly reduced. The complete decomposition of non-equilibrium eutectic phase increased the solute concentration in α-Al, which promoted the precipitation of precipitates during aging heat treatment. The tensile strength and yield strength of T6 slab were improved, while the uniform elongation are almost not decreased. The strength and uniform of slab in T4P state were both improved. The obtained results can help further shorten the production cycle of TRC slabs and improve mechanical properties.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Mohammadreza Ramezani ◽  
Arash Dourandish ◽  
Tinoush Jamali Jaghdani ◽  
Milad Aminizadeh

The cultivation of saffron, which is one of the most expensive agricultural products in the world, is the main source of livelihood and economic wellbeing for the rural communities of Gonabad county in the eastern part of Iran. Nevertheless, farm monitoring in the region has shown that many saffron growers apply a high-density planting system for more profit. This practice results in the loss of land productivity after a six-year production cycle. As a consequence, farmers abandon the cultivated lands and move to plant saffron in available virgin lands. The purpose of this study is to analyse the technical efficiency of saffron farms and its determinants with an emphasis on the role of planting density. A survey was conducted in 2019, and a cross-sectional random sampling technique was used to select 110 saffron growers. We first assessed the technical efficiency of farms using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model with input orientation. In the next step, efficiency scores were regressed on explanatory variables using OLS and bootstrapped truncated regression to identify efficiency related factors. We find that planting density negatively influenced technical efficiency, suggesting that it is necessary for saffron growers to be educated on the negative impacts of the dense planting system.

R. E. Viol ◽  
P. M. Peche ◽  
D. H. Farias ◽  
L. V. Vilas Boas ◽  
P. N. Curi ◽  

Abstract Peach trees initiate flowering and then dense budding when the temperatures in winter are steadily low. When temperatures during the winter are high or when the chilling accumulation needs of the cultivar are not met, it is necessary to apply chemicals that stimulate flowering and budding in a uniform manner. This study aimed to evaluate alternative products for breaking the dormancy of ‘Kampai’ peach trees in a subtropical region. The experiment was conducted with ‘Kampai’ peach trees in the 2018, 2019 and 2020 production with the following treatments: (1) negative control composed only of water (control); (2) positive control composed of hydrogen cyanamide at a dose of 1.5% (commercial product Dormex®) plus 4.5% mineral oil; (3) Erger G® organomineral fertilizer supplemented with calcium nitrate at a dose of 3%; (4) potassium nitrate at a dose of 5%; and (5) copper sulphate at a dose of 0.3%. We evaluated affected budding capacity, flowering, the production cycle, peach production, the quality of peach trees and the enzymatic activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase. Hydrogen cyanamide and the organomineral fertilizer Erger G® promoted earlier flowering and an earlier production cycle. On the other hand, hydrogen cyanamide and copper sulphate stimulated flower opening and peach production. The chemicals used decreased catalase activity (24 h after application) and increased guaiacol peroxidase activity (6 h after application). The application of copper sulphate may be an option to break the dormancy of peach trees in the subtropics.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 144
Laura Lorenzo-Rebenaque ◽  
Danish J. Malik ◽  
Pablo Catalá-Gregori ◽  
Clara Marin ◽  
Sandra Sevilla-Navarro

Bacteriophage therapy is being considered as a promising tool to control Salmonella in poultry. Nevertheless, changes in gastrointestinal tract environmental conditions throughout the production cycle could compromise the efficacy of phages administered orally. The main objectives of this study were to assess the optimal timing of the phage administration over a 42-day production cycle and to compare microencapsulated and non-encapsulated phages and the spatial and temporal dynamics of the phage delivery along the gastrointestinal tract. Phage FGS011 was encapsulated in the pH-responsive polymer Eudragit® L100 using the process of spray drying. At different weeks of the chicken rearing period, 15 broilers were divided into three groups. Over a period of 24 h, group 1 received non-encapsulated phages (delivered through drinking water), group 2 received microencapsulated phages (incorporated in animal feed), and group 3 did not receive any phages. Microencapsulation was shown to enable efficient delivery of the bacteriophages to the animal gut and cecum throughout the animal rearing period. During the six weeks of application, the crop displayed the highest phage concentration for both phage delivery methods. The L100 based encapsulation offered significant protection to the phages from the harsh environmental conditions in the PV-Gizzard (not seen with phages administered in drinking water) which may help in the delivery of high phage doses to the cecum. Future Salmonella challenge studies are necessary to demonstrate the benefits of microencapsulation of phages using L100 formulation on phage therapy in field studies during the rearing period.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

The proper production plan plays an important role in the cashew nuts market enterprise in order to reduce cost. This study aims to find the optimal production plan for cashew nuts using ant lion optimization (ALO), symbiotic organisms search (SOS), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC). The novel objective function is introduced in this study. Three input data set, including production cost, holding cost and inventory quantity are investigated. The experiment cases consist of the frequency of production cycle time in January, February and March, respectively. As a results, four algorithms are available to estimate not only the proper production plan of cashew nuts but also an ability in reducing the inventory and the holding costs. In summary, the ALO algorithm provides better predictive skill than others for the cashew nuts production plan with the lowest RMSE value of 0.0913.

Iván González-Puetate ◽  
Carmen Luisa Marín Tello ◽  
Henry Reyes Pineda

Blockchain technology is a distributed database, an innovation tool in the agri-food supply chain in processes such as production, distribution, marketing. In this research work, the blockchain technology application in agri-food security processes was evaluated, establishing the best conditions for its adoption in companies, this proposal synthesizes the contributions as a disruptive technology, for this, the information was collected from the period 2018-2020 from the Scopus and Web of Science bases, performing an analysis of the information using the Atlas TI 8.4 software, establishing the focus of the research on a network of codes suggested by some authors. It was found that the contribution of Blockchain for the years of study was traceability 26%, supply chain 17.5%, technological development 10.4%, trust 9.8%, among others. It is concluded that establishing the theoretical link between technology and traceability processes in supply chains, traceability in the agri-food sector is essential to certify information of interest to the stakeholder group. This is because traceability is the transcendental element of the food safety system that allows guaranteeing control in the supply chain when processes are being recorded and enriching the databases, which can be available to the final consumer to check the details of the production cycle and that technological elements generate competitiveness in companies with blockchain in their procedures, promote high levels of transparency, data security, decentralization, among other terms associated with trust, and a better relationship with the consumer is developed and a greater number of sale increasing profitability.

Elfira Kariane Suawa ◽  
J R Roberts

Abstract The cuticle is the outermost layer of the egg which deposited on to the surface of the egg during the final 1-1.5 hours prior to oviposition. It is a protective coating which prevents bacterial penetration through the gas exchange pores in the eggshell. The aim of this research is analysing the cuticle cover and ultrastructural features of the mammillary layer cover during production cycle in the free-range system. Data were collected from age 26, 37, 50 and 60 weeks of age to observe the eggshell colour (%), cuticle cover following the MST blue dye which analysed by spectrophotometry based on L*a*b system and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analysed using Statview Software (SAS Institute Inc., Version A two way analysis of variance was conducted taking flock age and shed/flock as the independent variables and body weight, egg quality measurements, spectrophotometry (L*a*b) measurements, single score measurements for cuticle cover, and ultrastructural features as dependent variables. Level of significance was indicated by probability of less than 5%. The Fishers PLSD test was used to differentiate between mean values. The result of this research showed that the cuticle cover is vary from age to age. The greater value of cuticle cover in at 37 weeks of age which the same result also showed by single scrore and SEM. The cuticle cover of the shell is mostly affected by age and also strain. Keyword: Cuticle; Eggshell quality; Laying hens.   Abstrak Kutikula pada telur merupakan lapisan terluar telur yang dideposisikan pada lapisan palisade kurang lebih 1,5 – 2 jam di akhir pembentukan kerabang di dalam uterus. Kutikula berfungsi sebagai benteng pertahanan pertama untuk mencegah masuknya bakteri ke dalam telur. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada usaha peternakan ayam petelur yang dipelihara dengan system free range. Telur diambil untuk dianalisa penyebaran kutikula telur pada umur 26, 37, 50, dan 60 minggu. Variable yang diamati meliputi reflektifitas warna kerabang (%), penyebaran kutikula diukur menggunakan MST blue dye dan selanjutnya diukur melalui sistim spectrophotometry, yang difokuskan pada sistim pewarnaan berdasarkan sistim L*a*b* dan single score, dan dilanjutkan dengan pengamatan menggunakan scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Selanjutnya data dianalisis menggunakan Staview software (SAS Institute Inc. version dengan analisis anova dua arah, dimana umur ayam sebagai variable independent dan nilai SCI a* sesudah perendaman dan nilai single score (ΔE*ab) sebagai variable dependent, pada level of significance 5%. Pengaruh yang nyata diuji lanjut menggunakan Fisher PLSD. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa penyebaran kutikula pada kerabang telur bervariasi selama pengamatan. Penyebaran kutikula terbanyak ditemukan pada saat ayam berumur 37 minggu. Hal ini juga diperkuat dengan hasil yang diperoleh dengan single score (ΔE*ab) yang memperlihatkan nilai ΔE*ab yang tinggi pada umur 37 minggu. Penyebaran kutikula pada kerabang telur sangat dipengaruhi oleh umur dan juga strain ayam. Kata kunci: Ayam petelur;  Kualitas telur; Kutikula.

Italus Hortus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-12
Elena Baldi ◽  
Maurizio Quartieri ◽  
Givambattista Sorrenti ◽  
Moreno Toselli

Understanding nutrient dynamics within a peach orchard is fundamental to the development of accurate nutrient management practices. The present study investigated the nutrient uptake and redistribution in a 14-years-old commercial orchard in the Po valley. At the end of the experiment, trees were harvested, biomass and organ nutrient concentration were determined. Skeleton and roots accounted for the highest plant biomass, followed by fruits at harvest, pruned wood and abscised leaves; thinned fruits were less than 1 kg tree-1. The difference between the amounts of nutrients in leaves sampled in summer and in autumn (at abscission) was used to estimate the fraction of nutrients remobilized during the vegetative season inside the tree. The decrease of N, P, S, Cu, Mn and Zn concentration in abscised, compared to summer-sampled leaves was the result of the translocation of nutrients into fruits and storage organs. Nutrient circulation in a commercial nectarine orchard was calculated by determination of the fractions of each nutrient recycled (sum of nutrients in abscised leaves, thinned fruits and pruned wood) and remobilized (sum of nutrients in fruits at harvest, roots and skeleton). In our experimental conditions, on average, nectarine Stark RedGold showed an annual request of (in kg ha-1) 100, 17, 73, 129, 16, and 6 of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, respectively. More than half of these quantities were recycled in the orchard and returned back to the soil; consequently, if the nutrient use efficiency is maximized, the fertilization of nectarine requires only small amount of external inputs.

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