control diet
Recently Published Documents





2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Ayub ◽  
F. Rasool ◽  
N. Khan ◽  
S. N. Qaisrani ◽  
S. Parveen ◽  

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
B. Ahmad ◽  
A. Sharif

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 611-628
João Marcos Monteiro Batista ◽  
Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal ◽  
José Humberto Vilar da Silva ◽  
Veruska Dilyanne Silva Gomes ◽  

Fish larviculture exert great influence in the subsequent phases, in which nutrition is a basic prerequisite for success. Therefore, when it is in an intensified production system, it promotes the limitation of some minerals, making it necessary to supplement selenium in diets for post-larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate selenium levels and sources in post-larvae Nile tilapia diets on muscle performance and histology. A total of 1,260 post-larvae with an initial average weight of 0.010 g were used, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme with four supplementation levels (0.6; 0.9; 1.2 and 1.5 mg of Se/Kg) and two sources (sodium selenite and selenium yeast), plus the negative control, with 35 post-larvae Nile tilapia used per experimental unit. The physical-chemical parameters of water quality were within those recommended for tilapia cultivation. Feed consumption (p < 0.05) and hepatosomatic index (p < 0.05) were affected by the source used. Effects of supplemented selenium levels and sources were not observed for the other performance variables. Higher values for final height, final width, specific development rate and protein efficiency rate were found (p < 0.05) when comparing the control diet with diets containing the sodium selenite source. No effects on muscle fiber morphometry were observed (p > 0.05) in the studied variables. It is concluded that 0.6 mg of selenium in the diet, regardless of the source used, met the mineral requirement for post-larvae Nile tilapia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Estelle Strydom ◽  
Lizelle Zandberg ◽  
Erna T. Kemp ◽  
Philip vZ. Venter ◽  
Cornelius M. Smuts ◽  

Both iron and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may play an important role in bone development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post-natal iron and n-3 fatty acid deficiency (FAD), alone and in combination, on bone development in rats, and to determine whether effects are reversible when a sufficient diet is provided post-weaning. Using a 2×2-factorial design, 56 female Wistar rats were allocated to one of four diets: (1) control, (2) iron deficient (ID), (3) n-3 FAD or (4) ID and n-3 FAD, and were maintained on the respective diets throughout gestation and lactation. At weaning (post-natal day [PND] 21), offspring (n = 24/group; male:female=1:1) were randomly allocated to either continue with their respective diets or to switch to the control diet until PND 42-45. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength were determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending tests, respectively. Pre- and post-natal ID resulted in significantly lower BMD in the spine and bone strength in the left femur. Both ID and n-3 FAD resulted in lower BMD in the right femur, with an additive reduction in the combined ID and n-3 FAD group vs. controls. While negative effects of pre- and post-natal ID alone were reversed in offspring switched to a control diet post-weaning, lower BMD and bone strength persisted in offspring with combined ID and n-3 FAD during the prenatal and early post-natal period. Effects were not sex-specific. These results indicate that ID during early life may negatively influence bone development, with potential additive effects of n-3 FAD. While the effects of ID alone seem reversible, a combined ID and n-3 FAD may result in irreversible deficits in bone development.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 203
Grazia Pastorelli ◽  
Valentina Serra ◽  
Lauretta Turin ◽  
Veronica Redaelli ◽  
Fabio Luzi ◽  

Tail docking has been used in the pig industry to decrease the occurrence of tail biting behavior. This abnormal behavior has a multifactorial origin since it is a response to simultaneous environmental, nutritional and management changes. Given the calming properties of Passiflora incarnata, we hypothesized that dietary supplementation with the extract in weaned pigs could result in a modification of behavior and physiologic indicators linked to stress. Weaned piglets (n = 120, mean body weight 9.07 ± 2.30 kg) were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: control diet (CON) and CON supplemented with 1 kg/t of P. incarnata (PAS). The trial was 28 days long. The presence of skin lesions was assessed at d-1, d-10, d-19, and d-28, and saliva samples were collected for IgA and cortisol determinations at the same sampling times. Results showed the PAS group was characterized by equal growth performance as the CON group, fewer ear lesions (p < 0.05), less aggressive behavior (p < 0.001), higher enrichment exploration (p < 0.001) and lower cortisol levels (p < 0.01). Time effect was observed for tail lesions (p < 0.001) and behavioral observations (p < 0.001). Additional research is required to determine the effect of P. incarnata extract using a larger number of animals and longer period of supplementation when risks associated with tail biting are uncontrolled.

2022 ◽  
Yohei Shirakami ◽  
Junichi Kato ◽  
Toshihide Maeda ◽  
Takayasu Ideta ◽  
Hiroyasu Sakai ◽  

Abstract Although liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy, the mechanism behind their association has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of aging and NASH on the skeletal muscle and the interaction between the liver and muscle were investigated using a diet-induced NASH model in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). A total of four groups of SAM and its control mice were fed either an NASH-inducing or control diet. In the SAM/NASH group, the histopathology of NASH and markers of oxidative stress were significant. Skeletal muscles were also markedly atrophied. The expression of the ubiquitin ligase Murf1 in the muscle was significantly increased with muscle atrophy, while that of Tnfa was not significantly different. In contrast, the hepatic Tnfa expression and serum TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the SAM/NASH group. These results suggest that liver-derived TNF-α might promote muscle atrophy associated with steatohepatitis and aging through Murf-1. The metabolomic analysis of skeletal muscle indicated higher spermidine and lower tryptophan levels in the NASH-diet group. The findings of this study revealed an aspect of liver-muscle interaction, which might be important in developing treatments for sarcopenia associated with liver diseases.

Takaaki Miyata ◽  
Takayasu Mizushima ◽  
Nobuyuki Miyamoto ◽  
Takahiro Yamada ◽  
Koji Hase ◽  

Abstract Dietary factors, affect Akkermansia muciniphila (AM) abundance in the colon, have attracted attention, driven by the inverse correlation between AM abundance and metabolic disorders. We prepared skate-skin mucin (SM), porcine stomach mucin (PM), and rat gastrointestinal mucin (RM). SM contained more sulfated sugars and threonine than PM or RM. Rats were fed a control diet or diets including SM, PM, or RM (15 g/kg), or SM (12 g/kg) from five different threonine contents for 14 d. Cecal total bacteria and AM were less and more numerous, respectively, in SM-fed rats than the others, but SM did not affect microbial species-richness. Low-threonine SM did not induce AM proliferation. The in vitro fermentation with human feces showed that the rate of AM increase was greater with SM than PM. Collectively, heavy SM sulfation facilitates a priority supply of SM-derived amino sugars and threonine that promotes AM proliferation in rats and human feces.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mariana Ferreira ◽  
Pedro C. Ribeiro ◽  
Laura Ribeiro ◽  
Marisa Barata ◽  
Valentina F. Domingues ◽  

Efforts have been made to find natural, highly nutritious alternatives to replace fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO), which can simultaneously promote fish health and improve the nutritional quality of filets for human consumption. This study evaluated the impact of biofortified diets containing microalgae (as replacement for FM and FO), macroalgae (as natural source of iodine) and selenised yeast (organic source of selenium) on gilthead seabream growth, nutrient utilization, tissue composition and gene expression. A control diet (CTRL) with 15% FM and 5.5% FO was compared with three experimental diets (AD1, AD2, and AD3), where a microalgae blend (Chlorella sp., Tetraselmis sp., and DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp.) replaced 33% of FM. Diet AD1 contained 20% less FO. Diets were supplemented with Laminaria digitata (0.4% AD1 and AD2; 0.8% AD3) and selenised yeast (0.02% AD1 and AD2; 0.04% AD3). After feeding the experimental diets for 12 weeks, growth was similar in fish fed AD1, AD2, and CTRL, indicating that microalgae meal can partially replace both FM and FO in diets for seabream. But AD3 suppressed fish growth, suggesting that L. digitata and selenised yeast supplementation should be kept under 0.8 and 0.04%, respectively. Despite lower lipid intake and decreased PUFAs bioavailability in fish fed AD3, compared to CTRL, hepatic elovl5 was upregulated resulting in a significant increase of muscle EPA + DHA. Indeed, filets of fish fed AD2 and AD3 provided the highest EPA + DHA contents (0.7 g 100 g–1), that are well above the minimum recommended values for human consumption. Fish consuming the AD diets had a higher retention and gain of selenium, while iodine gain remained similar among diets. Upregulation of selenoproteins (gpx1, selk, and dio2) was observed in liver of fish fed AD1, but diets had limited impact on fish antioxidant status. Overall, results indicate that the tested microalgae are good sources of protein and lipids, with their LC-PUFAs being effectively accumulated in seabream muscle. Selenised yeast is a good fortification vehicle to increase selenium levels in fish, but efforts should be placed to find new strategies to fortify fish in iodine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiangbing Mao ◽  
Rui Sun ◽  
Qingxiang Wang ◽  
Daiwen Chen ◽  
Bing Yu ◽  

Inflammatory bowel disease (namely, colitis) severely impairs human health. Isoleucine is reported to regulate immune function (such as the production of immunoreactive substances). The aim of this study was to investigate whether l-isoleucine administration might alleviate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. In the in vitro trial, IEC-18 cells were treated by 4 mmol/L l-isoleucine for 12 h, which relieved the decrease of cell viability that was induced by TNF-α (10 ng/ml) challenge for 24 h (P &lt;0.05). Then, in the in vivo experiment, a total of 44 Wistar rats were allotted into 2 groups that were fed l-isoleucine-supplemented diet and control diet for 35 d. From 15 to 35 d, half of the rats in the 2 groups drank the 4% DSS-adding water. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion of rats were impaired by DSS challenge (P &lt;0.05). Drinking the DSS-supplementing water also increased disease activity index (DAI) and serum urea nitrogen level (P &lt;0.05), shortened colonic length (P &lt;0.05), impaired colonic enterocyte apoptosis, cell cycle, and the ZO-1 mRNA expression (P &lt;0.05), increased the ratio of CD11c-, CD64-, and CD169-positive cells in colon (P &lt;0.05), and induced extensive ulcer, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and collagenous fiber hyperplasia in colon. However, dietary l-isoleucine supplementation attenuated the negative effect of DSS challenge on growth performance (P &lt;0.05), DAI (P &lt;0.05), colonic length and enterocyte apoptosis (P &lt;0.05), and dysfunction of colonic histology, and downregulated the ratio of CD11c-, CD64-, and CD169-positive cells, pro-inflammation cytokines and the mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB in the colon of rats (P &lt;0.05). These results suggest that supplementing l-isoleucine in diet improved the DSS-induced growth stunting and colonic damage in rats, which could be associated with the downregulation of inflammation via regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway in colon.

Maykelly da S Gomes ◽  
Alysson Saraiva ◽  
Dante T Valente Júnior ◽  
Leandro L de Oliveira ◽  
Amanda M Correia ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementing arginine (Arg) + glutamine (Gln) replacing antibiotics on performance, immune response, and antioxidant capacity of pigs in the growing phase. One hundred and fifty 63-d-old pigs with initial body weight (BW) of 25.0 ± 1.46 kg were distributed in a randomized block design, with three treatments and ten replicates. The three diets were control; antibiotic, control + 100 mg/kg tiamulin and 506 mg/kg oxytetracycline; amino acid, control + 10 g/kg Arg and 2 g/kg Gln. Dietary treatments were fed from 63 to 77 d. Following the treatment period, all pigs were fed the control diet from 77 to 90 d. Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX and UNIVARIATE in SAS 9.4. From 63 to 70 d, pigs fed diets with antibiotics had improved (P &lt; 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gain (ADG), gain to feed ratio (G:F), and 70 d BW compared to those fed control or amino acid diets. From 70 to 77 d, including antibiotics in the diet increased (P &lt; 0.05) ADG and 77 d BW. From 77 to 90 d, pigs fed the amino acid diet had greater (P &lt; 0.05) ADG and ADFI than those fed an antibiotic diet. From 63 to 90 d, although pig performance was not affected (P &gt; 0.05), growth curve of pigs fed the antibiotic diets was different (P &lt; 0.05) from those fed the control and amino acids diets. At 70 d, serum tumor necrosis factor-α and diamine oxidase (DAO) were lower (P &lt; 0.05) in pigs fed the antibiotic diet than the control diet, and pigs fed the amino acid diet had intermediate results. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was lower (P &lt; 0.05) in pigs fed the amino acid diet than the antibiotic diet, and pigs fed the control diet had intermediate results. At 70 and 77 d, serum urea nitrogen was higher (P &lt; 0.05) in pigs fed the amino acid diet. At 77 d, DAO and serum immunoglobulin G was lower (P &lt; 0.05) in pigs fed the antibiotic diet. FRAP was lower (P &lt; 0.05) in pigs fed the amino acid and control diets. Serum malondialdehyde was higher (P &lt; 0.05) in pigs fed the amino acid diet than those fed the control diet, and pigs fed the antibiotic diet had intermediate results. At 90 d, antibiotics or amino acids did not affect (P &gt; 0.05) serum parameters. Amino acid blend supplementation at the selected doses in this study did not positively affect growing pigs. Although from 63 to 77 d, antibiotics improved performance, when considering the overall study period, growing pigs did not benefit from a diet containing antibiotics.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document