Gas Exchanges
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sylvain Pincebourde ◽  
Jérôme Ngao

Herbivore insects have strong impacts on leaf gas exchange when feeding on the plant. Leaf age also drives leaf gas exchanges but the interaction of leaf age and phloem herbivory has been largely underexplored. We investigated the amplitude and direction of herbivore impact on leaf gas exchange across a wide range of leaf age in the apple tree–apple green aphid (Aphis pomi) system. We measured the gas exchange (assimilation and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentration) of leaves infested versus non-infested by the aphid across leaf age. For very young leaves up to 15 days-old, the gas exchange rates of infested leaves were similar to those of non-infested leaves. After few days, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate increased in infested leaves up to about the age of 30 days, and gradually decreased after that age. By contrast, gas exchanges in non-infested leaves gradually decreased across leaf age such that they were always lower than in infested leaves. Aphids were observed on relatively young leaves up to 25 days and despite the positive effect on leaf photosynthesis and leaf performance, their presence negatively affected the growth rate of apple seedlings. Indeed, aphids decreased leaf dry mass, leaf surface, and leaf carbon content except in old leaves. By contrast, aphids induced an increase in leaf nitrogen content and the deviation relative to non-infested leaves increased with leaf age. Overall, the impacts of aphids at multiple levels of plant performance depend on leaf age. While aphids cause an increase in some leaf traits (gas exchanges and nitrogen content), they also depress others (plant growth rate and carbon content). The balance between those effects, as modulated by leaf age, may be the key for herbivory mitigation in plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Martin Penzel ◽  
Werner B. Herppich ◽  
Cornelia Weltzien ◽  
Nikos Tsoulias ◽  
Manuela Zude-Sasse

The capacity of apple trees to produce fruit of a desired diameter, i.e., fruit-bearing capacity (FBC), was investigated by considering the inter-tree variability of leaf area (LA). The LA of 996 trees in a commercial apple orchard was measured by using a terrestrial two-dimensional (2D) light detection and ranging (LiDAR) laser scanner for two consecutive years. The FBC of the trees was simulated in a carbon balance model by utilizing the LiDAR-scanned total LA of the trees, seasonal records of fruit and leaf gas exchanges, fruit growth rates, and weather data. The FBC was compared to the actual fruit size measured in a sorting line on each individual tree. The variance of FBC was similar in both years, whereas each individual tree showed different FBC in both seasons as indicated in the spatially resolved data of FBC. Considering a target mean fruit diameter of 65 mm, FBC ranged from 84 to 168 fruit per tree in 2018 and from 55 to 179 fruit per tree in 2019 depending on the total LA of the trees. The simulated FBC to produce the mean harvest fruit diameter of 65 mm and the actual number of the harvested fruit >65 mm per tree were in good agreement. Fruit quality, indicated by fruit's size and soluble solids content (SSC), showed enhanced percentages of the desired fruit quality according to the seasonally total absorbed photosynthetic energy (TAPE) of the tree per fruit. To achieve a target fruit diameter and reduce the variance in SSC at harvest, the FBC should be considered in crop load management practices. However, achieving this purpose requires annual spatial monitoring of the individual FBC of trees.

Plant Methods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Nicole Salvatori ◽  
Alberti Giorgio ◽  
Onno Muller ◽  
Uwe Rascher ◽  
Alessandro Peressotti

Abstract Background Obtaining instantaneous gas exchanges data is fundamental to gain information on photosynthesis. Leaf level data are reliable, but their scaling up to canopy scale is difficult as they are acquired in standard and/or controlled conditions, while natural environments are extremely dynamic. Responses to dynamic environmental conditions need to be considered, as measurements at steady state and their related models may overestimate total carbon (C) plant uptake. Results In this paper, we describe an automatic, low-cost measuring system composed of 12 open chambers (60 × 60 × 150 cm; around 400 euros per chamber) able to measure instantaneous CO2 and H2O gas exchanges, as well as environmental parameters, at canopy level. We tested the system’s performance by simulating different CO2 uptake and respiration levels using a tube filled with soda lime or pure CO2, respectively, and quantified its response time and measurement accuracy. We have been also able to evaluate the delayed response due to the dimension of the chambers, proposing a method to correct the data by taking into account the response time ($${t}_{0}$$ t 0 ) and the residence time (τ). Finally, we tested the system by growing a commercial soybean variety in fluctuating and non-fluctuating light, showing the system to be fast enough to capture fast dynamic conditions. At the end of the experiment, we compared cumulative fluxes with total plant dry biomass. Conclusions The system slightly over-estimated (+ 7.6%) the total C uptake, even though not significantly, confirming its ability in measuring the overall CO2 fluxes at canopy scale. Furthermore, the system resulted to be accurate and stable, allowing to estimate the response time and to determine steady state fluxes from unsteady state measured values. Thanks to the flexibility in the software and to the dimensions of the chambers, even if only tested in dynamic light conditions, the system is thought to be used for several applications and with different plant canopies by mimicking different environmental conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Benjamin Turc ◽  
Pierre Vollenweider ◽  
Didier Le Thiec ◽  
Anthony Gandin ◽  
Marcus Schaub ◽  

With background concentrations having reached phytotoxic levels during the last century, tropospheric ozone (O3) has become a key climate change agent, counteracting carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems. One of the main knowledge gaps for implementing the recent O3 flux-based critical levels (CLs) concerns the assessment of effective O3 dose leading to adverse effects in plants. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of physiological, structural, and morphological responses induced by two levels of O3 exposure (80 and 100 ppb) in the foliage of hybrid poplar, as a function of phytotoxic O3 dose (POD0) and foliar developmental stage. After a latency period driven by foliar ontological development, the gas exchanges and chlorophyll content decreased with higher POD0 monotonically. Hypersensitive response-like lesions appeared early during exposure and showed sigmoidal-like dynamics, varying according to leaf age. At current POD1_SPEC CL, notwithstanding the aforementioned reactions and initial visible injury to foliage, the treated poplars had still not shown any growth or biomass reduction. Hence, this study demonstrates the development of a complex syndrome of early reactions below the flux-based CL, with response dynamics closely determined by the foliar ontological stage and environmental conditions. General agreement with patterns observed in the field appears indicative of early O3 impacts on processes relevant, e.g., biodiversity ecosystem services before those of economic significance – i.e., wood production, as targeted by flux-based CL.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Liping Xu ◽  
Yanbo Hu ◽  
Guangze Jin ◽  
Pei Lei ◽  
Liqun Sang ◽  

Various environmental stresses strongly influence plant development. Among these stresses is drought, which is a serious threat that can reduce agricultural productivity and obstruct plant growth. Although the mechanism of plants in response to drought has been studied extensively, the adaptive strategies of Amygdalus mira (Koehne) Yü et Lu grown in drought and rewatered habitats remain undefined. Amygdalus mira from the Tibetan Plateau has outstanding nutritional and medicinal values and can thrive in extreme drought. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses in leaves of A. mira were investigated during drought and recovery period. The changes in plant growth, photosynthesis, enzymes, and non-enzymatic antioxidant under drought and rewatering were also analyzed in leaves. Compared with controls, A. mira showed stronger adaptive and resistant characteristics to drought. In addition, the proteomic technique was also used to study drought tolerance mechanisms in A. mira leaves. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using mass spectrometry. Accordingly, 103 proteins involved in 10 functional categories: cytoskeleton dynamics, energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, transcription and translation, transport, stress and defense, molecular chaperones, other materials metabolism, and unknown function were identified. These results showed that an increase of stress-defense-related proteins in leaves after drought treatment contributed to coping with drought. Importantly, A. mira developed an adaptive mechanism to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), including enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant contents, reducing energy, and adjusting the efficiency of gas exchanges. These results may help to understand the acclimation of A. mira to drought.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 1179
Luigi Formisano ◽  
Michele Ciriello ◽  
Valerio Cirillo ◽  
Antonio Pannico ◽  
Christophe El-Nakhel ◽  

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a winter-spring leafy vegetable, but the high demand for fresh products available year-round requires off-season production. However, the warm climate of the Mediterranean areas can impair the summer production of lettuce, thus requiring the adoption of genotypes tolerant to high irradiance as well as useful agronomic strategies like shading net installations. The aim of our research was to assess the leaf morpho-physiological and anatomical changes, in addition to productive responses, of four lettuce cultivars (‘Ballerina’, ‘Maravilla De Verano Canasta’, ‘Opalix‘, and ‘Integral’) grown under shading and non-shading conditions to unveil the adaptive mechanisms of this crop in response to sub-optimal microclimate (high irradiance and temperature) in a protected environment. Growth and yield parameters, leaf gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence and morpho-anatomical leaf traits (i.e., leaf mass area, stomatal density and epidermal cell density) were determined. Under shading conditions, the fresh yields of the cultivars ‘Ballerina’, ‘Opalix’ (‘Oak leaf’) and ‘Integral’ (‘Romaine’) increased by 16.0%, 26.9% and 13.2% respectively, compared to non-shading conditions while both abaxial and adaxial stomatal density decreased. In contrast, ‘Canasta’ under non-shading conditions increased fresh yield, dry biomass and instantaneous water use efficiency by 9.6%, 18.0% and 15.7%, respectively, while reduced abaxial stomatal density by 30.4%, compared to shading conditions. Regardless of cultivar, the unshaded treatment increased the leaf mass area by 19.5%. Even though high light intensity and high temperature are critical limiting factors for summer lettuce cultivation in a protected environment, ‘Canasta’ showed the most effective adaptive mechanisms and had the best production performance under sub-optimal microclimatic conditions. However, greenhouse coverage with a white shading net (49% screening) proved to be a suitable agricultural practice that ensured an adequate microclimate for the off-season growth of more sensitive cultivars ‘Ballerina’, ‘Oak leaf’ and ‘Romaine’.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 1291
Annalisa Rotondi ◽  
Lucia Morrone ◽  
Osvaldo Facini ◽  
Barbara Faccini ◽  
Giacomo Ferretti ◽  

The olive fruit fly is worldwide considered a major harmful pest of the olive agroecosystem. In Italy, the fruit fly infestation is traditionally countered by spraying chemical insecticides (e.g., dimethoate), but due to the recent ban of dimethoate by the Reg EU2019/1090 and the increasing awareness of consumers of food sustainability, the interest in developing chemical-free alternatives to pesticides, such as the use of particle-films, is rising. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different particle films (kaolin-base and zeolitite-base) on leaf gas exchanges and leaf optical properties. Results showed that with the dust accumulation on the leaves’ surface, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency were significantly lower in kaolin-treated olive trees compared to those treated with zeolitite and to the control, while olive trees treated with zeolitite showed physiological parameters similar to the untreated plants. Microstructural differences of different particle film on the leaf and olive surfaces emerged by ESEM observations also influenced leaf optical properties. Oils produced by zeolitite-treated plants show higher intensities of gustatory and olfactory secondary flavors compared to kaolin and test oils.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 1141
Melissa Venturi ◽  
Luigi Manfrini ◽  
Giulio Demetrio Perulli ◽  
Alexandra Boini ◽  
Kushtrim Bresilla ◽  

Climate change is leading to higher plant water requirements and rootstock can play a role in tree adaptation, since the more vigorous ones are also likely to be more stress resistant. Pear trees of the cv. Abbé Fetél grafted on BA29 (more vigorous) and SYDO (more dwarfing) quince were irrigated according to three different treatments: 110 C, 80 DI and 60 DI, corresponding to 110%, 80% and 60% of the crop evapotranspiration rate (ETc), respectively. Shoot and fruit growth, water potentials, leaf gas exchanges and dry matter content were monitored during the season. Fruit quality was evaluated at harvest and after 6 months of storage at 1 °C. Results show how for both rootstocks, 60 DI significantly decreased their stem (Ψstem) and leaf (Ψleaf) water potentials as well as leaf gas exchanges. In SYDO, final fruit size was affected by irrigation, with lower values on 60 DI, but in BA29, no differences were found between treatments. After storage, BA29 60 DI fruit showed a higher soluble solid content, while in SYDO fruit, firmness was more affected by irrigation level. In conclusion, despite a slight decrease in fruit size, reduced irrigation led to fruit with higher quality features that were also maintained after a long period of storage.

Sara Safikhan ◽  
Mohammad Reza Chaichi

Identifying environmental factors, plant characteristics, and agronomic activities plays an essential role in medicinal plant production. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is a well-known medicinal plant with extensive use in diverse liver diseases and is economically a significant crop. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of the sole and integrated applications of graphene oxide (GO), zeolite, and chitosan as modifying materials on gas exchange and the secondary metabolites of milk thistle under severe salinity stress. Seven sole and integrated combinations of nano-materials comprised of T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, and control (T8, no nano-materials application) and two levels of saline water (12 ds/m) and tap water (control, 0.8 ds/m) were applied to the soil of experimental plots based on a factorial design with three replications. The results showed that the highest photosynthesis rate was obtained with T7 treatment for both water treatments. The highest plant silymarin concentration was obtained from the T6 treatment under both saline and tap water conditions. This treatment increased the silymarin concentration by 15.9% compared to the T8. The highest plant silymarin yield (180 mg per plant) was recorded for the T7 under tap water (control) condition, and 130.3 mg/plant for T6 under salinity stress, respectively. The Transmission Electron Microscope technology indicated that GO at low concentration (0.01%) could be safely used to enhance milk thistle germination and growth under severe salinity stress conditions

2021 ◽  
L. Munjonji ◽  
K. K. Ayisi ◽  
T. P. Mafeo ◽  
T. Maphanga ◽  
K. E. Mabitsela

Abstract Purpose To investigate whether soil clay content, cultivar and seasonal variation have any effect on soil CO2 emission rates and leaf CO2 assimilation rates in a drip-irrigated commercial Citrus sinensis orchard. Methods The study was carried out in the field as a randomised complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial consisting of two soil types and two citrus cultivars on a drip-irrigated commercial Citrus sinensis orchards with 2-week interval measurements of soil CO2 emission and leaf gas exchanges for a year. Results Soil clay content did not influence plant CO2 assimilation rates and soil CO2 emission rates in irrigated citrus. However, seasonal variation significantly influenced both processes. Soil CO2 emission rates were highest in summer and were more than double the rates observed in winter while leaf CO2 assimilation rates were highest in autumn and four times higher than the winter season rates. Mean seasonal soil CO2 emission rates were strongly influenced by mean minimum seasonal temperatures while leaf CO2 assimilation rates only showed a relatively weak relationship with mean maximum seasonal temperatures. Conclusions Soil clay content did not influence soil CO2 emission and assimilation rates in drip irrigated citrus suggesting a non-significant effect of clay content for soils subjected to similar management practices. Citrus CO2 assimilation rate peaks in the autumn while soil CO2 emission rates peak in summer. A snapshot analysis of CO2 sequestration rates suggests that irrigated citrus orchards are net sinks of CO2 in summer, autumn and winter season.

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