co2 assimilation
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
L. R. Silva ◽  
A. P. C. Moura ◽  
B. V. Gil ◽  
A. Rohr ◽  
S. M. Z. Almeida ◽  

Abstract Understanding morphological and physiological changes under different light conditions in native fruit species in juveniles’ stage is important, as it indicate the appropriate environment to achieve vigorous saplings. We aimed to verify growth and morphophysiological changes under shade gradient in feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) to achieve good quality saplings adequate to improve cultivation in orchards. The saplings were grown for twenty-one-month under four shading treatments (0%, 30%, 50%, and 80%). Growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf anatomy parameters were evaluated. Saplings under full sun and 30% shade had higher height and diameter growth and dry mass accumulation due to higher photosynthesis rate. As main acclimatization mechanisms in feijoa saplings under 80% shade were developed larger leaf area, reduced leaf blade thickness, and enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II. Even so, the net CO2 assimilation and the electron transport rate was lower and, consequently, there was a restriction on the growth and dry mass in saplings under deep shade. Therefore, to obtain higher quality feijoa saplings, we recommend that it be carried out in full sun or up to 30% shade, to maximize the sapling vigor in nurseries and, later, this light environment can also be used in orchards for favor growth and fruit production.

Daniel de A. Carreiro ◽  
Renata A. e Amariz ◽  
Luciana G. Sanches ◽  
Jackson T. Lobo ◽  
Vespasiano B. de Paiva Neto ◽  

ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the application of fenpropimorph and paclobutrazol on gas exchanges and photosynthetic pigments of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango grown in the semi-arid region in different evaluation periods. Two experiments were carried out in ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango orchards in the first production cycle between September and December 2018 (first experiment) and between September and December 2019 (second experiment) in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in split plots in time, 4 × 4 + 1, with four replicates. The plots corresponded to the concentrations of fenpropimorph: 0, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 g per linear meter of plant canopy diameter plus the additional paclobutrazol treatment (1 g per linear meter of plant canopy diameter), and the subplots corresponded to the evaluation dates (0, 30, 60, and 90 days after the first application of treatments). The following traits were evaluated: CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, water use efficiency, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids. The fenpropimorph dose of 1.3 g per linear meter of plant canopy promotes a higher rate of CO2 assimilation; however, paclobutrazol was more effective in the accumulation of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, and the use of fenpropimorph did not interfere in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 751-774
Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra ◽  
Marlene Alexandrina Ferreira Bezerra ◽  
Raiff Ramos Almeida Nascimento ◽  
Walter Esfrain Pereira ◽  

Salinity interferes in the physiology of seedlings from germination and seedling emergence, so it is necessary to adopt measures to mitigate its effects. The objectives of this research were to evaluate irrigation frequency, saline water, polymer, and container volume in the emergence and physiology of Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. The treatments were obtained from the combination of polymer doses (0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0; and 1.2 g dm-3), electrical conductivities of the irrigation water (0.3; 1, 1; 2.7; 4.3; and 5.0 dS m-1), and irrigation frequencies (daily and alternate), plus two additional treatments to assess the volume of the container. A randomized block design was used. Emergence and leaf indices of chlorophyll, fluorescence, and gas exchange were analyzed 100 days after sowing. The increase in electrical conductivity reduced and delayed seedling emergence. Decreasing irrigation frequency reduced the chlorophyll b index, stomatal conductance, transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and carboxylation efficiency. The magnitude of the effects of electrical conductivity of water and polymer were associated with the frequency of irrigation. However, both salinity and polymer reduced practically all physiological variables. The reduction in container volume also affected the physiology of the seedlings, with more effects when irrigated on alternate days. The T. esculenta seedlings are considered sensitive to salinity, should be irrigated daily with water with less electrical conductivity than 1.0 dS m-1, as well as higher capacity containers used (0.75 vs 1.30 dm3).

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 195
Qi Shi ◽  
Hu Sun ◽  
Stefan Timm ◽  
Shibao Zhang ◽  
Wei Huang

Fluctuating light (FL) is a typical natural light stress that can cause photodamage to photosystem I (PSI). However, the effect of growth light on FL-induced PSI photoinhibition remains controversial. Plants grown under high light enhance photorespiration to sustain photosynthesis, but the contribution of photorespiration to PSI photoprotection under FL is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the photosynthetic performance under FL in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown under high light (HL-plants) and moderate light (ML-plants). After an abrupt increase in illumination, the over-reduction of PSI was lowered in HL-plants, resulting in a lower FL-induced PSI photoinhibition. HL-plants displayed higher capacities for CO2 fixation and photorespiration than ML-plants. Within the first 60 s after transition from low to high light, PSII electron transport was much higher in HL-plants, but the gross CO2 assimilation rate showed no significant difference between them. Therefore, upon a sudden increase in illumination, the difference in PSII electron transport between HL- and ML-plants was not attributed to the Calvin–Benson cycle but was caused by the change in photorespiration. These results indicated that the higher photorespiration in HL-plants enhanced the PSI electron sink downstream under FL, which mitigated the over-reduction of PSI and thus alleviated PSI photoinhibition under FL. Taking together, we here for the first time propose that photorespiration acts as a safety valve for PSI photoprotection under FL.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. e37082
Francisco Romário Andrade Figueiredo ◽  
João Everthon da Silva Ribeiro ◽  
Jackson Silva Nóbrega ◽  
Wilma Freitas Celedônio ◽  
Reynaldo Teodoro de Fátima ◽  

Physalis peruviana L. is a solanacea that has been gaining prominence due to its fruits presenting good acceptance in the national and international market. However, several abiotic factors, such as salinity, can cause physiological disturbances in plants, and these changes may be of greater or lesser intent according to species. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the physiological behavior of P. peruviana submitted to different fluxes of photosynthetically active photons (PPFD) and saline stress. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three saline levels (ECw) (0.5, 2.75 and 5.00 dS m-1) with four replications. Gas exchange measurements were performed with a portable infrared gas analyzer. Liquid CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency were measured. Data were subjected to analysis of variance by F test and in cases of significance applied to regression analysis. The increase in PPFD provided reductions in stomatal conductance up to the density of approximately 400 μmol m-2s-1, being more pronounced in ECw of 2.75 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maximum CO2 assimilation rates in the three salinities are different according to the PPFD. The salinity of irrigation water reduced the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in P. peruviana plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Stéven Yvenou ◽  
Maxime Allioux ◽  
Alexander Slobodkin ◽  
Galina Slobodkina ◽  
Mohamed Jebbar ◽  

The biochemical pathways of anaerobic sulfur disproportionation are only partially deciphered, and the mechanisms involved in the first step of S0-disproportionation remain unknown. Here, we present the results of sequencing and analysis of the complete genome of Dissulfurimicrobium hydrothermale strain Sh68T, one of two strains isolated to date known to grow exclusively by anaerobic disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Dissulfurimicrobium hydrothermale Sh68T is a motile, thermophilic, anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic microorganism isolated from a hydrothermal pond at Uzon caldera, Kamchatka, Russia. It is able to produce energy and grow by disproportionation of elemental sulfur, sulfite and thiosulfate. Its genome consists of a circular chromosome of 2,025,450 base pairs, has a G + C content of 49.66% and a completion of 97.6%. Genomic data suggest that CO2 assimilation is carried out by the Wood–Ljungdhal pathway and that central anabolism involves the gluconeogenesis pathway. The genome of strain Sh68T encodes the complete gene set of the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway, some of which are likely to be involved in sulfur disproportionation. A short sequence protein of unknown function present in the genome of strain Sh68T is conserved in the genomes of a large panel of other S0-disproportionating bacteria and was absent from the genomes of microorganisms incapable of elemental sulfur disproportionation. We propose that this protein may be involved in the first step of elemental sulfur disproportionation, as S0 is poorly soluble and unable to cross the cytoplasmic membrane in this form.

Navamallika Gogoi ◽  
Moharana Choudhury ◽  
Anwesha Gohain ◽  
Anu Sharma

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1105
Claudia Aparecida de Lima Toledo ◽  
Franciely da Silva Ponce ◽  
Moisés Daniel Oliveira ◽  
Eduardo Santana Aires ◽  
Santino Seabra Júnior ◽  

Infestation by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes damage to tomatoes with production losses of up to 100%, affecting the physiological and biochemical aspects of host plants. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of infestation of cryptic species of B. tabaci MED and MEAM1 on the physiological and biochemical aspects of tomato. Tomato plants ‘Santa Adélia Super’ infested with B. tabaci (MED and MEAM1), and non-infested plants were evaluated for differences in gas exchange, chlorophyll - a fluorescence of photosystem II (PSII), and biochemical factors (total phenols, total flavonoids, superoxide dismutase—SOD, peroxidase—POD, and polyphenol oxidase—PPO). Plants infested with B. tabaci MED showed low rates of CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance of 55% and 52%, respectively. The instantaneous carboxylation efficiency was reduced by 40% in MED and by 60% in MEAM1 compared to the control. Regarding biochemical aspects, plants infested by MED cryptic species showed high activity of POD and PPO enzymes and total phenol content during the second and third instars when compared to control plants. Our results indicate that B. tabaci MED infestation in tomato plants had a greater influence than B. tabaci MEAM1 infestation on physiological parameters (CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and apparent carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci)) and caused increased activity of POD and PPO enzymes, indicating plant resistance to attack. In contrast, B. tabaci MEAM1 caused a reduction in POD enzyme activity, favoring offspring performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 092-105
Shoichiro Ozaki

Global warming is caused by retardation of CO2 assimilation by scare of nitrogen and phosphorous Developed countries are tried to purify air and water by NOx and NP elimination at around 1980. Then CO2 assimilation is retarded. CO2 fix is retarded. Agriculture and fish industry are retarded DGP increase rates of these countries are low. On the contrary, developing countries like China, India and Indonesia, they do not eliminate NOx and NP.and use as fertilizer. Then CO2 assimilation is activated CO2 fix is activated. Agriculture and fish industries are activated. DGP increase rates of these countries are high. We must promote CO2 assimilation by complete use of NOx and NP in waste water. And addition of fertilizer to the sea will increase CO2 assimilation and fish production. Promotion of CO2 assimilation by sufficient supply of nitrogen and phosphorous is easiest method to fit Paris agreement and to protect global warming and to increase DGP and national wealth.

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