net co2 assimilation
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
L. R. Silva ◽  
A. P. C. Moura ◽  
B. V. Gil ◽  
A. Rohr ◽  
S. M. Z. Almeida ◽  

Abstract Understanding morphological and physiological changes under different light conditions in native fruit species in juveniles’ stage is important, as it indicate the appropriate environment to achieve vigorous saplings. We aimed to verify growth and morphophysiological changes under shade gradient in feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) to achieve good quality saplings adequate to improve cultivation in orchards. The saplings were grown for twenty-one-month under four shading treatments (0%, 30%, 50%, and 80%). Growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf anatomy parameters were evaluated. Saplings under full sun and 30% shade had higher height and diameter growth and dry mass accumulation due to higher photosynthesis rate. As main acclimatization mechanisms in feijoa saplings under 80% shade were developed larger leaf area, reduced leaf blade thickness, and enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II. Even so, the net CO2 assimilation and the electron transport rate was lower and, consequently, there was a restriction on the growth and dry mass in saplings under deep shade. Therefore, to obtain higher quality feijoa saplings, we recommend that it be carried out in full sun or up to 30% shade, to maximize the sapling vigor in nurseries and, later, this light environment can also be used in orchards for favor growth and fruit production.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 751-774
Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra ◽  
Marlene Alexandrina Ferreira Bezerra ◽  
Raiff Ramos Almeida Nascimento ◽  
Walter Esfrain Pereira ◽  

Salinity interferes in the physiology of seedlings from germination and seedling emergence, so it is necessary to adopt measures to mitigate its effects. The objectives of this research were to evaluate irrigation frequency, saline water, polymer, and container volume in the emergence and physiology of Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. The treatments were obtained from the combination of polymer doses (0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0; and 1.2 g dm-3), electrical conductivities of the irrigation water (0.3; 1, 1; 2.7; 4.3; and 5.0 dS m-1), and irrigation frequencies (daily and alternate), plus two additional treatments to assess the volume of the container. A randomized block design was used. Emergence and leaf indices of chlorophyll, fluorescence, and gas exchange were analyzed 100 days after sowing. The increase in electrical conductivity reduced and delayed seedling emergence. Decreasing irrigation frequency reduced the chlorophyll b index, stomatal conductance, transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and carboxylation efficiency. The magnitude of the effects of electrical conductivity of water and polymer were associated with the frequency of irrigation. However, both salinity and polymer reduced practically all physiological variables. The reduction in container volume also affected the physiology of the seedlings, with more effects when irrigated on alternate days. The T. esculenta seedlings are considered sensitive to salinity, should be irrigated daily with water with less electrical conductivity than 1.0 dS m-1, as well as higher capacity containers used (0.75 vs 1.30 dm3).

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2077
Moreno-Ortega Guillermo ◽  
Zumaquero Adela ◽  
Matas Antonio ◽  
Nicholas A. Olivier ◽  
van den Berg Noëlani ◽  

Avocado consumption is increasing year by year, and its cultivation has spread to many countries with low water availability, which threatens the sustainability and profitability of avocado orchards. However, to date, there is not much information on the behavior of commercial avocado rootstocks against drought. The aim of this research was to evaluate the physiological and molecular responses of ‘Dusa’ avocado rootstock to different levels of water stress. Plants were deficit irrigated until soil water content reached 50% (mild-WS) and 25% (severe-WS) of field capacity. Leaf water potential (w), net CO2 assimilation rates (AN), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), and plant transpiration rates significantly decreased under both WS treatments, reaching significantly lower values in severe-WS plants. After rewatering, mild- and severe-WS plants showed a fast recovery in most physiological parameters measured. To analyze root response to different levels of drought stress, a cDNA avocado stress microarray was carried out. Plants showed a wide transcriptome response linked to the higher degree of water stress, and functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed abundance of common sequences associated with water stress, as well as specific categories for mild-WS and severe-WS. DEGs previously linked to drought tolerance showed overexpression under both water stress levels, i.e., several transcription factors, genes related to abscisic acid (ABA) response, redox homeostasis, osmoprotection, and cell-wall organization. Taken altogether, physiological and molecular data highlight the good performance of ‘Dusa’ rootstock under low-water-availability conditions, although further water stress experiments must be carried out under field conditions.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 1112
Zhiyin Jiao ◽  
Shuo Han ◽  
Xiao Yu ◽  
Mengbo Huang ◽  
Conglong Lian ◽  

5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a key precursor in the biosynthesis of porphyrins, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, it is unclear whether ALA can improve tolerance in poplar. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA on poplars under drought and salt stresses. ALA pretreatment exhibited less morphological damage, reduced leaf malonaldehyde content (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL), and increased leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (PRO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) content under stresses. Furthermore, exogenous ALA mitigated the decrease in photosynthetic capacity, and restored the chlorophyll content (Chl), net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximal photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), actual quantum yield of photosynthesis (YII), and electron transfer rate (ETR) of poplar under various stresses. qRT-PCR showed that ALA up-regulated the expression of antiporters and aquaporins genes, which are associated with Na+ exclusion in the leaf cells and the transport activity of aquaporins. In summary, ALA pretreatment significantly improved the stress tolerance of poplar, decreasing the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation and promoting the photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity of leaves. In addition, our results showed that ALA might mediate Na+ transporter and aquaporins activity, thereby increasing the salt tolerance of poplar.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 1450
Jhean Torres Leite ◽  
Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Junior ◽  
Samuel Henrique Kamphorst ◽  
Valter Jário de Lima ◽  
Divino Rosa dos Santos Junior ◽  

To ensure genetic gains in popcorn breeding programs carried out under drought conditions knowledge about the response of morphophysiological traits of plants to water stress for the selection of key traits is required. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate popcorn inbred lines with agronomically efficient (P2 and P3) and inefficient (L61 and L63) water use and two hybrids (P2xL61 and P3xL63) derived from these contrasting parents, cultivated under two water regimes (WW watered—WW; and water-stressed—WS) in a greenhouse, replicated five times, where each experimental unit consisted of one plant in a PVC tube. Irrigation was applied until stage V6 and suspended thereafter. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed and the genotypic correlations and relative heteroses estimated. The water use efficient inbred lines were superior in root length (RL), root dry weight (RDW), and net CO2 assimilation rate (A), which were the characteristics that differentiated the studied genotypes most clearly. High heterosis estimates were observed for RL, SDW, leaf width (LW), leaf midrib length (LL), and agronomic water use efficiency (AWUE). The existence of a synergistic association between root angle and length for the characteristics A, stomatal conductance (gs), and chlorophyll concentration (SPAD index) proved most important for the identification and phenotyping of superior genotypes. Based on the study of these characteristics, the higher AWUE of the previously selected inbred lines could be explained. The results reinforced the importance of root physiological and morphological traits to explain AWUE and the possibility of advances by exploiting heterosis, given the morphophysiological superiority of hybrids in relation to parents.

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 432-442

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the water status of maize cultivars through thermal and vegetation indexes generated from multispectral aerial images obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and correlate them with physiological indicators and soil water contents. The application of three water regimes based on the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) (30%, 90%, and 150% ETo) was evaluated for two maize cultivars (AG-1051 and BRS-Caatingueiro). An UAV was used to acquire thermal and multispectral images. The indexes evaluated were CWSI, CI-G, CI-RE, CIV, NDVI and OSAVI, which were correlated with gas exchange and soil moisture measures. The CWSI present correlation with physiological indicators (stomatal conductance, transpiration, and net CO2 assimilation rate) that can be used to evaluate water status of maize plants. The multispectral vegetation indexes NDVI and OSAVI can replace the CWSI thermal index in water status evaluations for maize plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
pp. 4663
Aleksandra Orzechowska ◽  
Martin Trtílek ◽  
Krzysztof Michał Tokarz ◽  
Renata Szymańska ◽  
Ewa Niewiadomska ◽  

A non-destructive thermal imaging method was used to study the stomatal response of salt-treated Arabidopsis thaliana plants to excessive light. The plants were exposed to different levels of salt concentrations (0, 75, 150, and 220 mM NaCl). Time-dependent thermograms showed the changes in the temperature distribution over the lamina and provided new insights into the acute light-induced temporary response of Arabidopsis under short-term salinity. The initial response of plants, which was associated with stomatal aperture, revealed an exponential growth in temperature kinetics. Using a single-exponential function, we estimated the time constants of thermal courses of plants exposed to acute high light. The saline-induced impairment in stomatal movement caused the reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Limited transpiration of NaCl-treated plants resulted in an increased rosette temperature and decreased thermal time constants as compared to the controls. The net CO2 assimilation rate decreased for plants exposed to 220 mM NaCl; in the case of 75 mM NaCl treatment, an increase was observed. A significant decline in the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II under excessive light was noticeable for the control and NaCl-treated plants. This study provides evidence that thermal imaging as a highly sensitive technique may be useful for analyzing the stomatal aperture and movement under dynamic environmental conditions.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 702
Anastasios I. Darras ◽  
Panagiotis J. Skouras ◽  
Panagiotis Assimomitis ◽  
Chara Labropoulou ◽  
George J. Stathas

UV-C irradiation is known to enhance plant resistance against insect pests. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of low doses of UV-C on Macrosiphum rosae infesting greenhouse rose (Rosa x hybrida) plants. The application of 2.5-kJ/m2 UV-C irradiation on rose leaves before infestation induced anti-herbivore resistance and negatively affected the aphid fecundity. No eggs and first instar nymphs were recorded on irradiated leaves, whereas an average of 4.3 and 2.7 eggs and 6.7 and 14 first instars were recorded on vars. “Etoile Brilante” and “Arlen Francis” untreated leaves, respectively. UV-C irradiation reduced the aphid population from naturally infested rose plants by up to 58%. In a greenhouse pot trial (GPT) in 2019, UV-C irradiation minimised the initial aphid population six hours after treatment. UV-C elicited host resistance and, also, helped in aphid repulsion without killing the adult individuals. UV-C did not affect the physiological responses of rose plants. The net CO2 assimilation of the UV-C irradiated plants ranged between 10.55 and 15.21 μmol/m2. sec for “Arlen Francis” and between 10.51 and 13.75 μmol/m2. sec for “Etoile Brilante” plants. These values, with only a few exceptions, were similar to those recorded to the untreated plants.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 560
Luigi Formisano ◽  
Michele Ciriello ◽  
Christophe El-Nakhel ◽  
Marios C. Kyriacou ◽  
Youssef Rouphael

In the Italian culinary tradition, young and tender leaves of Genovese basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) are used to prepare pesto sauce, a tasty condiment that attracts the interest of the food processing industry. Like other leafy or aromatic vegetables, basil is harvested more than once during the crop cycle to maximize yield. However, the mechanical stress induced by successive cuts can affect crucial parameters associated with pesto processing (leaf/stem ratio, stem diameter, and dry matter). Our research accordingly aimed to evaluate the impact of successive harvests on three field-grown Genovese basil cultivars (“Aroma 2”, “Eleonora” and “Italiano Classico”) in terms of production, physiological behavior, and technological parameters. Between the first and second harvest, marketable fresh yield and shoot dry biomass increased by 148.4% and 172.9%, respectively; by contrast, the leaf-to-stem ratio decreased by 22.5%, while the dry matter content was unchanged. The increased fresh yield and shoot dry biomass at the second harvest derived from improved photosynthetic efficiency, which enabled higher net CO2 assimilation, Fv/Fm and transpiration as well as reduced stomatal resistance. Our findings suggest that, under the Mediterranean environment, “Italiano Classico” carries superior productive performance and optimal technological characteristics in line with industrial requirements. These promising results warrant further investigation of the impact successive harvests may have on the qualitative components of high-yielding basil genotypes with respect to consumer expectations of the final product.

Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1761
Riu Furutani ◽  
Amane Makino ◽  
Yuij Suzuki ◽  
Shinya Wada ◽  
Ginga Shimakawa ◽  

Upon exposure to environmental stress, the primary electron donor in photosystem I (PSI), P700, is oxidized to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species that could oxidatively inactivate the function of PSI. The illumination of rice leaves with actinic light induces intrinsic fluctuations in the opening and closing of stomata, causing the net CO2 assimilation rate to fluctuate. We examined the effects of these intrinsic fluctuations on electron transport reactions. Under atmospheric O2 conditions (21 kPa), the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (Y(II)) remained relatively high while the net CO2 assimilation rate fluctuated, which indicates the function of alternative electron flow. By contrast, under low O2 conditions (2 kPa), Y(II) fluctuated. These results suggest that photorespiration primarily drove the alternative electron flow. Photorespiration maintained the oxidation level of ferredoxin (Fd) throughout the fluctuation of the net CO2 assimilation rate. Moreover, the relative activity of photorespiration was correlated with both the oxidation level of P700 and the magnitude of the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane in 21 kPa O2 conditions. These results show that photorespiration oxidized P700 by stimulating the proton gradient formation when CO2 assimilation was suppressed by stomatal closure.

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