kingdom of saudi arabia
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Albratty ◽  
H. A. Alhazmi ◽  
A. M. Meraya ◽  
A. Najmi ◽  
M. S. Alam ◽  

Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Majrashi ◽  
M. M. Khandaker

Abstract The presence of weeds in areas of agricultural activities is a hinderance to the development of these activities. It is important to take advantage of the vast open spaces suitable for agriculture and provide food security for humans, and also it is an important indicator for determining the feasibility of growing crops, benefiting from yield and determining the percentage of loss, clearing fields through agricultural practices, that protect crops from weed attack and agricultural practice method must be followed that will reduce weed presence. This study was conducted during the years 2018 to 2020 to evaluate Portulacaceae of Flora in the Taif area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different altitudes (Area 1 =1700 m, Area 2 =1500 m, Area 3 =1500 m, Area 4 =500 m ِ Area 5 = 2200 m, and Area 6 = 2200 m). The results show that there were 2,816 individuals of Portulaca oleracea weed, with the highest density found in A 1, followed by A 2, while in A 5 and A 6, no weeds were recorded. The highest density of weeds were in the Pomegranate fields, followed by Grape fields. The lowest density was found in A man field. The results of this study will help to take the necessary measures to combat weeds and its management in areas of agricultural activity, while more studies are needed to survey the ecology of weeds of Taif in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Mohammed Mashyakhy ◽  
Mohammed Awawdeh ◽  
Abdulaziz Abu-Melha ◽  
Bushra Alotaibi ◽  
Nada AlTuwaijri ◽  

Aim. This study is aimed at combining the sample sizes of all studies on permanent maxillary teeth conducted in different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to obtain a large sample size that represents the population of the KSA. The outcome of these combined studies is compared with international studies in terms of the number of roots, number of canals, and canal configurations on the basis of Vertucci’s classification. Methodology. The studies were systematically reviewed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis chart. Studies were included in the analysis if they were conducted in the KSA, involved permanent human maxillary teeth, and had a sample of more than 10 teeth (power). By contrast, studies were excluded if they involved deciduous teeth in the sample size, investigated nonhuman teeth, were not conducted in the KSA, and were case reports, case series, review studies, and anomalies. Relevant literature was searched from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, and Direct Science by two calibrated teams, starting in August 2020, without time limits or language restrictions. Results. The database searches and cross-referencing identified a total of 19 relevant studies. All maxillary canines ( N = 1,018 ) had one root, whereas 98.4% had one canal and 98.3% had Vertucci type I. Moreover, 63.2% of the maxillary first premolars had two roots, and 91.4% had two canals. The most common Vertucci root canal configuration was type IV (64.6%). The maxillary second premolars mostly had one root (84.4%) and one canal (50.4%). The most common canal configuration was Vertucci type I (47.1%). The majority of maxillary first molars had three roots (98.9%), 48.7% of which had three canals, and 46.4% had four canals. The most prevalent feature of the canal morphology of mesiobuccal roots was Vertucci type II (35.3%). The investigated maxillary second molars had three roots, 88.0% of which had three canals. Conclusion. This systematic review represents the Saudi population since samples were combined from different studies from different regions of the country. Variations in findings were observed in the same group of teeth from different regions and the same region, while the overall combined samples results fell within the range of other international studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 533-544
Anwar Hammad

<p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims at identifying the level of psychological and professional stress in light of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. It adopted descriptive and analytical methodologies. Two scales were prepared: one scale for psychological and professional stress and the other for coping with psychological and professional pressures. The study sample consisted of 608 female teachers at public schools in Al-Kharj province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results show a moderate level of psychological and professional stresses. The findings show statistically significant differences in teaching experience variable. The differences were in favour of female teachers with experience of less than 5 years. However, no statistically significant differences were found on the variable of academic qualification. It was found that female teachers had followed strategies to cope with psychological and professional stresses including resorting to faith, connecting with other teachers and students, planning different strategies, seeking help from others and managing time. The study recommends arranging training courses for female teachers to develop remote teaching skills and using various technologies and applications in this field particularly during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Noura H. Al Sorour ◽  
Mohamed Osman M. El-hussein

The aim of this research is to find a proposed vision for developing distance education programs in border schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to explore the reality of the proposed educational programs for developing distance education programs. In order to achieve the research objectives, the descriptive and analytical approach was used for its suitability for this research, as the questionnaire was used as a research tool. The research sample consisted of (150) female teachers from border schools. The results of the research revealed that the reality of female teachers &rsquo;practice on distance learning programs in border schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is central. And that the use of technology is the most important requirement for developing distance education programs in border schools from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results also showed the achievement of leadership in diversifying and developing teaching and learning methods through the distance education system based on employing modern information and communication technology, equipping schools with all technological equipment, and supporting students with modern equipment and teachers with modern training to achieve the goals of distance education. In light of the results, the research paper presented a proposal for developing distance education programs in border schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Hanan Al Rayes ◽  
Mansour Alazmi ◽  
Khaled Alderaan ◽  
Mushabab Alghamdi ◽  
Nayef Alghanim ◽  

2022 ◽  
Thanaa Abdulrazzaq Alhabuobi

With the beginning of the Corona pandemic at the beginning of 2019 and its rapid spread, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was among the countries that moved very quickly to address this matter. All state institutions played the role related to them. Saudi Ministry of Health launched an intensive package of warning, awareness, and guidance in the form of text messages through multiple electronic platforms to reach the largest segment of society. The study took three sources to collect data, three telecommunications companies, the official account of the Ministry of Health on Twitter and the official website of the Ministry. The current study was based on analyzing these messages in terms of warning levels in various speech acts according to the theories of Austin and Searle, in addition to analyzing the content in terms of its relationship to the actual text and the objective context. The study tried to seek the warning levels in the messages which were classified into three sections: high, moderate, and low and identified the types of actions that represent the levels. The significance of the study lies in revealing how language is used to raise the level of awareness in society. Based on the research methods, this study is analytical and descriptive, based on the theory of speech acts in its foundations, and the development of a reference model for analyzing warning levels that depend on the type of action and its implications, taking into account the indirect speech acts. The results of the study concluded that there is a clear discrepancy in the use of speech verbs to express the three levels of warning.

Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Naif Z Almutairi ◽  
Abdulaziz M Almutairi ◽  
Ibrahim S Alduhayshi ◽  
Jarallah F Alfarraj ◽  
Mohammed A Alrawsaa ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 43-78
Majid H. Alsulami ◽  
Anthony S. Atkins ◽  
Ali S. Sorour ◽  
Russell J. Campion

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