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Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1183
Author(s):  
Vidya Anderson ◽  
William A. Gough

Nature-based solutions such as green infrastructure present an opportunity to reduce air pollutant concentrations and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents new findings from a controlled field study in Ontario, Canada, evaluating the impact of productive applications of green infrastructure on air pollution and carbon dioxide concentrations across different agricultural morphologies compared to other non-productive applications. This study demonstrates that productive green infrastructure applications are as beneficial as non-productive applications in reducing ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon dioxide concentrations. Nature-based solutions present an opportunity to build climate resilience into agricultural systems through supply-side mitigation and adaptation. The implementation of productive green infrastructure could be a viable agricultural practice to address multiple climate change impacts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Anders Pape Møller ◽  
Dorota Czeszczewik ◽  
Einar Flensted-Jensen ◽  
Johannes Erritzøe ◽  
Indrikis Krams ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The abundance of insects has decreased considerably during recent decades, resulting in current abundance showing 70–80% reductions in more than 15 studies across temperate climate zones. Dramatic reductions in the abundance of insects are likely to have consequences for other taxa at higher trophic levels such as predators and parasites. Pesticides, fertilizers and agricultural land use are likely candidates accounting for such reductions in the abundance of insects. Methods Here we surveyed the abundance of flying insects, and the reduction in the abundance of insects as a consequence of intensive reduction in agricultural practice linked to fertilizer use and pesticide use. Finally we demonstrated consistency in abundance of birds among study sites. Results We demonstrated that the use of fertilizers and pesticides had reduced the abundance of insects, with consequences for the abundance of insectivorous bird species such as Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), House Martins (Delichon urbicum) and Swifts (Apus apus). Juvenile Barn Swallows were negatively affected by the reduced abundance of insects and hence the reproductive success of insectivorous bird species. These effects imply that the abundance of insects could be reduced by the availability of insect food. Conclusions These effects of intensive agriculture on insect food abundance are likely to have negative impacts on populations of insects and their avian predators. This hypothesis was validated by a reduction in the abundance of insects, linked to an increase in the abundance of fertilizers and a general change in farming practice.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1753
Author(s):  
Giulia Maesano ◽  
Gaetano Chinnici ◽  
Giacomo Falcone ◽  
Claudio Bellia ◽  
Maria Raimondo ◽  
...  

This paper aims to achieve an economic feasibility and life cycle assessment of three different olive cultivation systems in the Mediterranean area through the joint use of economic and environmental indicators, in order to identify the key elements to optimize their economic performance and a lower environmental impact. Three different management systems of olive cultivation were analysed by distinguishing Treatment 1—Fully Irrigated, Treatment 2—Partially Irrigated, and Treatment 3—Non-Irrigated, which were conducted through different levels of irrigation strategies. The three scenarios were examined using a Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess the environmental impacts, and the impact in terms of water footprint was investigated using the Water Scarcity Index approach. The economic sustainability evaluation of olive cultivation was carried out through economic indicators, taking into account all of the cost and revenue factors of the olive cultivation in each management system. The results showed, overall, a suitable level of profitability of different scenarios, except for the Partially Irrigated treatment, as the investment costs of the irrigation system are not economically sustainable with regard to the revenue obtained. Furthermore, the findings highlighted the importance of irrigation management strategies to decrease agricultural practice costs and the negative environmental impact of olive production.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1737
Author(s):  
Wacław Jarecki

Inoculated or coated soybean seeds are often sown in agricultural practice. These treatments play a different role depending on the chemical composition of the preparation. The aim of the field experiment was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed coating (chitosan + alginate/PEG) and commercial inoculant (HiStick® Soy) applied alone or in combination to soybean seeds. Uncoated (control) seeds were sown for comparison. The research was carried out in 2018–2020 using the cultivar ‘Mavka’. The experiment was located in Makowisko, Podkarpackie Province, Poland. Coating composition was developed in a laboratory belonging to the Łukasiewicz Research Network—Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibers in Łódź, Poland. The main role of the coating is to protect soybean seeds from low temperatures. HiStick® Soy inoculant contains Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteria which increase nodulation on the roots. The conducted research demonstrated that sowing only coated seeds was not very effective, because the suitable number of nodules had not developed on soybean roots. The application of the inoculant alone positively affected the assessed traits compared to control, however, plant population was lower than expected. The highest seed yield was obtained after sowing coated seeds in combination with the inoculant (4.32 t·ha−1) and only inoculated seeds (4.23 t·ha−1) compared to control (3.64 t·ha−1). The test of the novel seed-coating agent showed that it had an good effect and efficacy, but only in combination with the inoculation procedure.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (16) ◽  
pp. 9036
Author(s):  
Nur Sabrina Natasha Abdul Abdul Rahman ◽  
Nur Wahida Abdul Abdul Hamid ◽  
Kalaivani Nadarajah

Rhizospheric organisms have a unique manner of existence since many factors can influence the shape of the microbiome. As we all know, harnessing the interaction between soil microbes and plants is critical for sustainable agriculture and ecosystems. We can achieve sustainable agricultural practice by incorporating plant-microbiome interaction as a positive technology. The contribution of this interaction has piqued the interest of experts, who plan to do more research using beneficial microorganism in order to accomplish this vision. Plants engage in a wide range of interrelationship with soil microorganism, spanning the entire spectrum of ecological potential which can be mutualistic, commensal, neutral, exploitative, or competitive. Mutualistic microorganism found in plant-associated microbial communities assist their host in a number of ways. Many studies have demonstrated that the soil microbiome may provide significant advantages to the host plant. However, various soil conditions (pH, temperature, oxygen, physics-chemistry and moisture), soil environments (drought, submergence, metal toxicity and salinity), plant types/genotype, and agricultural practices may result in distinct microbial composition and characteristics, as well as its mechanism to promote plant development and defence against all these stressors. In this paper, we provide an in-depth overview of how the above factors are able to affect the soil microbial structure and communities and change above and below ground interactions. Future prospects will also be discussed.


Author(s):  
Asish Panigrahi ◽  
Satarupa Modak ◽  
Chitrasena Padhy

Turmeric Cultivation is one of livelihood for the Kondh tribes of Kandhamal District of Odisha. These farmers were cultivating this crop with their traditional knowledge of crop practices without any intervention of chemical inputs. From the studies, it is found that farmers of the district were economically and educationally backward. Turmeric of Kandhamal is well known for its healing property, color, aroma etc. and received GI tag for its unique features. From the secondary data it was found that there were few public and private extension actors trying to promote organic recommended package of practices for Turmeric.  And, to boost willingness among farmers towards recommended organic Turmeric various socio-economic variables might be responsible. In this view the present study was carried out (2020-21) in Kandhamal district of Odisha to understand attitude towards recommended organic Turmeric and socio-economic variables effecting willingness to adopt organic package of practices of Turmeric. It was found that turmeric growers had medium to high level of willingness to adopt the recommended agricultural practice. And among selected socio-economic variables respondent’s total family member, Members help in family farming and adult male had negative and significantly relationship with willingness to adopt the recommended agricultural practices of organic turmeric. Private extension actors and State Horticulture Department training were continually motivating them to adopt recommended agricultural practices of organic turmeric. 


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1567
Author(s):  
Susett González-González ◽  
Marcia Astorga-Eló ◽  
Marco Campos ◽  
Lukas Y. Wick ◽  
Jacquelinne J. Acuña ◽  
...  

Use of compost is a common agricultural practice. It improves soil fertility by adding nutrients and plant growth promoting (PGP) microorganisms. The role of bacterial-fungal interactions for compost-driven fertilization, however, is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether putative PGP bacteria associate to and disperse along mycelia of fungal isolates. A ‘Fungal highway column system’ was used to isolate and characterize fungal—bacterial couples derived from commercial compost (C), non-composted bulk soil (BS) and rhizosphere soil with compost application (RSC). Bacterial-fungal couples were identified by 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing and isolated bacteria were tested for representative PGP traits. Couples of fungi and associated migrator bacteria were isolated from C and RSC only. They included the fungal genera Aspergillus, Mucor, Ulocladium, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum, and the bacterial genera Rhodococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Glutamicibacter and Microbacterium. Many of migrator bacteria in RSC and C showed PGP traits (e.g., tryptophane—induced auxin synthesis or phytate mineralizing activity) suggesting that fungi contained in C and RSC allow for dispersal of putative PGP bacteria. Next to being provider of nutrients, compost may therefore be source for PGP bacteria and fungal mycelia serving as networks for their efficient dispersal.


Author(s):  
Wacław Jarecki ◽  
Justyna Wietecha

Enhanced seeds, e.g. dressed, encrusted or pelleted seeds, are often sown in agricultural practice. These treatments play a different role depending on the type and chemical composition of the preparation. The aim of the experiment was to compare the effectiveness of three coatings (B – chitosan, C – chitosan + alginate/jojoba oil/E and D – chitosan + alginate/PEG) applied to soybean seeds in comparison to control (A). The study was carried out in three cultivars: Annushka, Mavka and Smuglyanka. The coatings did not differentiate seed yield in 2018 due to favourable weather conditions. The use of coating D in the following years increased seed yield by 0.46 t/ha in 2019 and by 0.51 t/ha in 2020 compared to control. The obtained results allow concluding that coating D was the most effective in soybean cultivation. The field emergence capacity, plant density as well as the SPAD (soil plant analysis development) and LAI (leaf area index) indices were significantly increased compared to control as a result of this coating application. The g<sub>s</sub> index (stomatal leaf conductance) was significantly reduced. The cv. Smuglyanka yields were significantly higher compared to cvs. Mavka and Annushka, by 0.32 t/ha and 0.85 t/ha, respectively. The difference in seed yield between 2018 and 2019 was 0.81 t/ha.  


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1549
Author(s):  
Zdenko Lončarić ◽  
Vladimir Ivezić ◽  
Darko Kerovec ◽  
Andrijana Rebekić

The grain yield and concentrations of Fe, Zn, Se, Cd, and P in two winter wheat genotypes and in vitro bioaccessibility of Fe and Zn under the effect of different nitrogen fertilization and Zn-Se foliar application were evaluated. The total grain Fe, Zn, and Se concentrations, as well as Fe and Zn concentrations, after in vitro digestion were under the strongest effect of foliar Zn-Se application. On the other hand, Fe and Zn bioaccessibility (%) were under the most substantial effect of genotype. Regarding the need to increase concentrations of essential micronutrients in wheat grain, foliar Zn-Se application is a reliable and accepted agricultural practice, but to improve mineral bioaccessibility in human nutrition, foliar Zn-Se application should be combined with the most responsive genotypes. For this reason, further research on the genotype specificity of wheat regarding micronutrient bioaccessibility should be carried out.


Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1103
Author(s):  
Francesco Cristofano ◽  
Christophe El-Nakhel ◽  
Youssef Rouphael

Climate change is a pressing matter of anthropogenic nature to which agriculture contributes by abusing production inputs such as inorganic fertilizers and fertigation water, thus degrading land and water sources. Moreover, as the increase in the demand of food in 2050 is estimated to be 25 to 70% more than what is currently produced today, a sustainable intensification of agriculture is needed. Biostimulant substances are products that the EU states work by promoting growth, resistance to plant abiotic stress, and increasing produce quality, and may be a valid strategy to enhance sustainable agricultural practice. Presented in this review is a comprehensive look at the scientific literature regarding the widely used and EU-sanctioned biostimulant substances categories of silicon, seaweed extracts, protein hydrolysates, and humic substances. Starting from their origin, the modulation of plants’ hormonal networks, physiology, and stress defense systems, their in vivo effects are discussed on some of the most prominent vegetable species of the popular plant groupings of cucurbits, leafy greens, and nightshades. The review concludes by identifying several research areas relevant to biostimulant substances to exploit and enhance the biostimulant action of these substances and signaling molecules in horticulture.


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