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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 569-573
Ahlam Samran ◽  
Adnan Habib ◽  
Mazen Doumani ◽  
Abdulaziz Samran

<sec> <title>Objective:</title> This laboratory study aimed to evaluate the effect of self-adhesive root canal sealers on the fracture strength of root canals filled with Resilon or EndoREZ. </sec> <sec> <title>Materials and Methods:</title> A total of eighty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were selected in this in-vitro study. All teeth were instrumented using a crown-down technique by FlexMaster rotary NiTi files. Specimens were divided into 4 test groups (n = 20) according to the sealer material: RS; RealSeal, RSS; RealSeal SE, MS; MetaSeal, and CG; (control group) zinc oxide eugenol-based sealer. Each main group was distributed into two subgroups (n = 10) according to the filling material either Resilon or EndoREZ and gutta-percha (n = 20) in the control group. Each root was mounted in acrylic resin blocks and subjected to fracture in a universal testing machine. The load values at root specimens fractured were registered in Newton’s and the data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> The two-way analysis of variance analysis indicated that the filling material had a significant effect on the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth (p < 0.05) but not the sealer materials (p≥.05). Higher mean fracture strength was recorded in MetaSeal and Resilon group (1281.90±200.34 N) and lower mean fracture strength was shown in RealSeal and EndoREZ group (847.55±191.04 N). </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion:</title> Self-adhesive (fourth-generation) resin sealers increased the fracture strength of root teeth more than self-etching (third-generation) root canal sealers when used with EndoREZ points. </sec>

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 891
Roberto De Santis ◽  
Flavia Iaculli ◽  
Vincenzo Lodato ◽  
Vito Gallicchio ◽  
Michele Simeone ◽  

Background: Enhancement of the temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution would increase its cleaning potential and decontamination of the root canal system. Therefore, the aim of the present in vitro investigation was to compare the efficacy of different methods of NaOCl heating by evaluating the temperature profiles developed at different levels of the root canal system. Methods: Five thermocouples were applied at different levels of the root canal system of extracted human premolars. NaOCl solution was heated according to two methods: extraoral heating (50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C) using a magnetic hotplate heater and intracanal heating by F-06, XF-30/04, and ML-12 pluggers at 100 °C, 150 °C, and 180 °C. Results: The extraoral heating method was ineffective to produce a significant temperature increase at the root apex. Comparable results were obtained using the intracanal heating method through the ML-12 plugger that showed slightly better results only when set at 180 °C. On the other hand, negligible differences were observed in terms of temperature maintenance at several levels of the root between the F-06 and XF-30/04 pluggers, even though the time intervals were higher in case of XF-30/04. Conclusions: The intracanal heating method provided a better temperature persistence in the middle third of the root canal system. Conversely, extraoral heating was ineffective to produce a significant temperature increase at the apex of the root. Comparable results were obtained even using the ML-12 plugger.

Harshal V Basatwar ◽  
Balaji S Kapse ◽  
Pradnya S Nagmode ◽  
Sharmika B Chechare ◽  
Aniruddha G Mundhe ◽  

Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth into its own alveolus. In this article, intentional replantation is described and discussed as a treatment approach for failed root canal treatment with broken instrument periapically in mandibular second molar.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Mohammed Mashyakhy ◽  
Mohammed Awawdeh ◽  
Abdulaziz Abu-Melha ◽  
Bushra Alotaibi ◽  
Nada AlTuwaijri ◽  

Aim. This study is aimed at combining the sample sizes of all studies on permanent maxillary teeth conducted in different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to obtain a large sample size that represents the population of the KSA. The outcome of these combined studies is compared with international studies in terms of the number of roots, number of canals, and canal configurations on the basis of Vertucci’s classification. Methodology. The studies were systematically reviewed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis chart. Studies were included in the analysis if they were conducted in the KSA, involved permanent human maxillary teeth, and had a sample of more than 10 teeth (power). By contrast, studies were excluded if they involved deciduous teeth in the sample size, investigated nonhuman teeth, were not conducted in the KSA, and were case reports, case series, review studies, and anomalies. Relevant literature was searched from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, and Direct Science by two calibrated teams, starting in August 2020, without time limits or language restrictions. Results. The database searches and cross-referencing identified a total of 19 relevant studies. All maxillary canines ( N = 1,018 ) had one root, whereas 98.4% had one canal and 98.3% had Vertucci type I. Moreover, 63.2% of the maxillary first premolars had two roots, and 91.4% had two canals. The most common Vertucci root canal configuration was type IV (64.6%). The maxillary second premolars mostly had one root (84.4%) and one canal (50.4%). The most common canal configuration was Vertucci type I (47.1%). The majority of maxillary first molars had three roots (98.9%), 48.7% of which had three canals, and 46.4% had four canals. The most prevalent feature of the canal morphology of mesiobuccal roots was Vertucci type II (35.3%). The investigated maxillary second molars had three roots, 88.0% of which had three canals. Conclusion. This systematic review represents the Saudi population since samples were combined from different studies from different regions of the country. Variations in findings were observed in the same group of teeth from different regions and the same region, while the overall combined samples results fell within the range of other international studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 873
Sawsan T. Abu Abu Zeid ◽  
Ruaa A. Alamoudi ◽  
Abeer A. Mokeem Mokeem Saleh

Aimed to evaluate the effect of water solubility on chemical properties and surface structure of bioceramic-based (BC-HiFlow and BC-EndoSeqence) compared with resin-based (Adseal) root canal sealers. Fresh mix was inserted into polyethylene mold (n = 10) and subjected to Vicat needle to evaluate the setting time. The set discs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy then immersed in deionized water for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. The solubility%, pH changes, released calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (PO43−) and silicon (Si4+) ions were evaluated after each immersion period. The discs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/Energy dispersed X-ray (SEM/EDX) before and after solubility test. Although FTIR detected similar composition of both bioceramic-sealers, BC-EndoSequence determined the prolonged setting times. At the end of solubility test, both bioceramic-sealers exhibited significant greater solubility (>3%), alkaline pH (>11) at p < 0.001. Adseal displayed the significant greatest Ca2+ and PO43− released, while BC-HiFlow displayed the significant greatest Si4+ release (p < 0.001). SEM revealed voids and pores on the surface of all tested sealers with the greatest value on Adseal surface. In conclusion, although both bioceramic-sealers had high solubility, BC-Hiflow complied the ISO standard regarding setting time and least surface micropores better than that of BC-EndoSequence.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 248
Svetlana Razumova ◽  
Anzhela Brago ◽  
Dimitriy Serebrov ◽  
Haydar Barakat ◽  
Yuliya Kozlova ◽  

Background: Endodontic treatment of various forms of pulpitis with variations of root canal system anatomy should be performed with high quality. The use of various antibacterial agents is aimed at maintaining the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration and fixation of the nano-silver solution on the dentinal surface during endodontic treatment. Materials and methods: the study was carried out on 70 extracted single-rooted teeth, randomly divided into two groups. In the teeth of the first group, the smear layer was removed after canal preparation with 17% EDTA solution; in the second group, the smear layer was not removed. In both groups, for the final treatment of the canal, a colloidal 1% solution of нанo серебра nanosilver was used. Samples were cut and prepared for analysis using micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis and energy dispersive spectrometry (elemental mapping). Results: in 100% of cases in groups of teeth with a preserved smear layer, the ability of a 1% colloidal solution of nanosilver with particles of 1–2 nm to be fixed on dentin with a removed and preserved smear layer and to leave a film on the dentinal surface was established. In the samples with removed smear layer, silver was found in 73.5% of cases. Conclusion: The nano-silver solution with a particle size of 1–2 nm proved its ability to penetrate the dentinal surfaces and create a final film covering the dentinal surface of the root canal before applying the sealer.

Vivian Ronquete ◽  
Alexandre Sigrist de Martin ◽  
Karin Zuim ◽  
Thais Machado de Carvalho Coutinho ◽  
Eduardo Fagury Videira Marceliano ◽  

Abstract Objective This study compared the ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States) and HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent AG, Alstätten, Switzerland) systems using micro–computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods Twenty-one mesial roots classified as Vertucci's type IV from extracted mandibular first molars with curvatures between 20 and 40 degrees were selected. The teeth were scanned using a micro-CT before and after root canal preparation by both systems, applied to the same root, in alternating canals. The following parameters were analyzed: canal centering, apical transportation, root canal diameter/root diameter. Results No statistically significant differences between both systems were observed for any of the assessed morphological parameters (p > 0.05). All canals presented diameter enlargement of more than 40% in relation to root diameter in the cervical and middle segments. No statistically significant difference was noted between the HEDM and PTN groups. The wear percentage for the HEDM group in the cervical and middle thirds were 49.66 ± 8.65 and 46.48 ± 14.29, respectively, and 51.02 ± 11.81 and 45.48 ± 10.79 for the PTN group, respectively. Conclusion Both systems displayed similar mandibular molar mesial canals preparation, with no differences noted for any of the assessed parameters. Both groups showed increased canal diameter in the cervical and middle thirds by more than 40%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 338
Vicente Faus-Llácer ◽  
Dalia Pulido Ouardi ◽  
Ignacio Faus-Matoses ◽  
Celia Ruiz-Sánchez ◽  
Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho ◽  

The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the dentin removal capacity of Endogal Kids and Reciproc Blue NiTi alloy endodontic reciprocating systems for root canal treatments in primary second molar teeth via a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan. Materials and Methods: Sixty root canal systems in fifteen primary second molar teeth were chosen and classified into one of the following study groups: A: EK3 Endogal Kids (n = 30) (EDG) and B. R25 Reciproc Blue (n = 30) (RB). Preoperative and postoperative micro-CT scans were uploaded into image processing software to analyze the changes in the volume of root canal dentin using a mathematical algorithm that enabled progressive differentiation between neighboring pixels after defining and segmenting the root canal systems in both micro-CT scans. Volumetric variations in the root canal system and the root canal third were calculated using a t-test for independent samples or a nonparametric Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Statistically significant differences (p = 0.0066) in dentin removal capacity were found between the EDG (2.89 ± 1.26 mm3) and RB (1.22 ± 0.58 mm3) study groups for the coronal root canal third; however, no statistically significant differences were found for the middle (p = 0.4864) and apical (p = 0.6276) root canal thirds. Conclusions: Endogal and Reciproc Blue NiTi endodontic reciprocating systems showed similar capacity for the removal of root canal dentin, except for the coronal root canal third, in which the Reciproc Blue NiTi endodontic reciprocating system preserved more root canal dentin tissue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Apoorva Sharma ◽  
Kavitha Sanjeev ◽  
Vinola M. J. Selvanathan ◽  
Mahalaxmi Sekar ◽  
Nikhil Harikrishnan

Abstract Background Freshly mixed root canal sealers when proximate the periapical tissues, trigger varying degrees of cytotoxicity/inflammatory reactions. Simvastatin, a class of the drug statin, is a widely used cholesterol-lowering agent with additional anti-inflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of simvastatin on cytotoxicity and the release of IL-6 (Interleukin-6) production when incorporated in zinc oxide eugenol and methacrylate resin-based sealers. Methods Experimental groups consisted of conventional zinc oxide eugenol and methacrylate based-EndoREZ sealers (ZE & ER respectively) and 0.5 mg/mL simvastatin incorporated sealers (ZES & ERS). L929 mouse fibroblast cells were exposed to freshly mixed experimental sealers and evaluated for cytotoxicity (MTT assay) and inflammation levels (inflammatory marker IL-6 for ELISA) at various time intervals (0h, 24h and 7th day). The values were compared to the cell control (CC; L929 cells alone) and solvent control (SC; L929 cells + DMSO) groups. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates and subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Non parametric tests were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests for inter-group and intra-group comparisons respectively. Pairwise comparison was conducted by post hoc Dunn test followed by Bonferroni correction. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results All the experimental groups (ZE, ER, ZES, ERS) exhibited varying degree of cytotoxicity and IL-6 expression compared to the control groups CC and SC. The cell viability for ZE and ER decreased on day 7 as compared to 24 h. ZES and ERS had higher viable cells (75.93% & 79.90%) compared to ZE and ER (54.39% & 57.84%) at all time periods. Increased expression of IL-6 was observed in ZE & ER (25.49 pg/mL & 23.14 pg/mL) when compared to simvastatin incorporated ZE & ER (ZES-12.70 pg/mL & ERS-14.68 pg/mL) at all time periods. Highest level of cytotoxicity and inflammation was observed in ZE compared to all the other groups on day 7. Conclusions Addition of 0.5 mg/mL of simvastatin to the sealers (ZES and ERS) decreased the cytotoxicity in the freshly mixed state and reduces their inflammatory effect.

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