Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli
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Kaiwen Xue ◽  
Ruijie Tao ◽  
Qi Wu ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Zhongyang Sun ◽  

The human gut microbiota has been proven to have great effects on the regulation of bone health. However, the association between gut microbiota and particle-induced osteolysis, which is the primary cause of aseptic loosening, is still unknown. In this study, we used a combination of wide-spectrum antibiotics to eliminate the majority of gut microbiota and found that reduction of gut commensal bacteria significantly alleviated the progression of osteolysis, in which anaerobe was the biggest culprit in the exacerbation of osteolysis. Furthermore, colonization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a subspecies of anaerobe, could promote the development of particle-induced osteolysis by increasing the secretion of peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from the colon. Elevated 5-HT level decreased the phosphorylation of CREB and inhibited the proliferation of osteoblasts. Collectively, these results indicated EPEC colonization suppressed the bone formation and aggravated particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Thus, clearance of EPEC is expected to become a potential preventive approach to treat debris-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Omid Zarei ◽  
Leili Shokoohizadeh ◽  
Hadi Hossainpour ◽  
Mohammad Yousef Alikhani

Background. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is known as a crucial zoonotic food-borne pathogen. A total of 257 raw chicken meat samples were collected from different markets in Hamadan, west of Iran, from January 2016 to May 2017. Materials and Methods. The samples were cultured in selective and differential culture media, and the virulence genes of E. coli isolates were analyzed by PCR assay. The antibiotic resistance patterns of E. coli isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method. The genetic relatedness of the E. coli O157 isolates was analyzed by ERIC-PCR. Results. In total, 93 (36% ± 3.12) of the isolates were identified as E. coli in this study. Based on serological and microbiological tests, 36 (38.7% ± 9.9), 7 (7.5% ± 5.35), and 12 (12.9% ± 6.81) of the E. coli isolates were characterized as STEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) strains, respectively. A high level of resistance to nalidixic acid (91.4% ± 5.7), tetracycline (89.2% ± 6.31), ampicillin (82.8% ± 7.67), and trimotoprime-sulfametoxazole (71% ± 9.22) was detected among the E. coli isolates. The analysis of the ERIC-PCR results showed five different ERIC types among the E. coli O157 isolates. Conclusions. Based on our findings, control and check-up of poultry meats should be considered as a crucial issue for public health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2363
Lanxin Yuan ◽  
Bingxin Chu ◽  
Shiyan Chen ◽  
Yanan Li ◽  
Ning Liu ◽  

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common zoonotic pathogen that causes acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics like Bifidobacterium are known to help prevent pathogen infections. The protective effects of Bifidobacterium are closely associated with its secretory products exopolysaccharides (EPS). We explored the effects of the EPS from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) on ameliorating the damage of an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) during EPEC infection. Pretreatment with EPS alleviated EPEC-induced apoptosis through the restoration of cell morphology and the downregulation of protein expressions of cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 3, and cleaved-PARP. EPS-mediated remission of apoptosis significantly improved cell viability during EPEC infection. EPEC infection also resulted in impaired autophagy, as demonstrated by decreased expressions of autophagy-related proteins Beclin 1, ATG5, and microtubule-binding protein light chain-3B (LC3B) and the increased expression of p62 through western blot analysis. However, EPS reversed these effects which indicated that EPS promoted autophagosome formation. Furthermore, EPS prevented the lysosome damage induced by EPEC as it enhanced lysosomal acidification and raised lysosome-associated protein levels, thus promoted autophagosome degradation. Our findings suggest that the amelioration of EPEC-induced cell damages by EPS is associated with the limitation of detrimental apoptosis and the promotion of autophagy flux.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (44) ◽  
Sivan Pearl Mizrahi ◽  
Netanel Elbaz ◽  
Liron Argaman ◽  
Yael Altuvia ◽  
Naama Katsowich ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (1) ◽  
pp. 99-102
shima sherif ◽  
Saad Saad ◽  
Fatin Hassanin ◽  
marionette Nassif

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 282-291
OL Okunye ◽  
BM Okanlawon ◽  
PA Idowu ◽  
O Adeleye ◽  
OC Fasuyi

Background: Sorghum is a nutrient-rich grain ground into flour to make different types of delicacies, and it has been reported to possess probiotic potentials. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum obtained from sorghum slurry on strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from cases of diarrhoea. Methods: A total of 36 samples of wet-milled sorghum slurry and liquor pH were obtained and cultured on MRSA and were, after that, biochemically characterized for Lactobacillus plantarum, which was tested by agar well diffusion against 15 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from cases of diarrhoea. Results: Microbiological analysis of the 36 samples of sorghum explored produced 15 isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum. A progressive increase in acidity in relation to an increase in the period of fermentation was observed. Ninety-five per cent of the Escherichia coli strains showed resistance against some standard antibiotics. At the same time, the isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum obtained inhibited isolates of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli tested, showing potential usefulness of the sorghum slurry as a probiotic. Conclusion: The inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from sorghum slurry showed antimicrobial potentials that could be used for therapeutic purposes in treating diarrhoea caused by   Escherichia coli, pending further investigation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Diana Elizabeth Waturangi ◽  
Cecillia Pingkan Kasriady ◽  
Geofany Guntama ◽  
Amelinda Minerva Sahulata ◽  
Diana Lestari ◽  

Abstract Objectives This study was conducted to characterize lytic bacteriophages infecting enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on several types of food and analyze their ability as phage biocontrol to be used as a food preservative. Characterization was done for bacteriophage morphology and stability, along with the determination of minimum multiplicity of infection (miMOI), and application of bacteriophage in the food matrix. Results Out of the five samples, BL EPEC bacteriophage exhibited the highest titer of 2.05  ×  109 PFU/mL, with a wide range of pH tolerance, and high thermal tolerance. BL EPEC also showed the least reduction after 168 h of incubation, with a rate of 0.90  ×  10–3 log10 per hour. Bacteriophages from BL EPEC and CS EPEC showed an ideal value of miMOI of 0.01. As a food preservative, BL EPEC bacteriophage was able to reduce bacteria in food samples with a reduction above 0.24 log10 in lettuce and approximately 1.84 log10 in milk. From this study we found that BL EPEC bacteriophage showed the greatest potential to be used as phage biocontrol to improve food safety

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
András Adorján ◽  
Ákos Thuma ◽  
László Könyves ◽  
István Tóth

Abstract Background Escherichia coli is a bacterial species widely distributed among mammals and avian species, and also a member of the normal intestinal microbiota. However, some E. coli strains of different pathotypes can cause disease in both humans and animals. Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) can infect both animals and humans or influence the severity of other ongoing infections. Results In the present study, a total of 332 samples were collected from ducks, geese, turkeys, chickens, and pigeons from the Hungarian Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate, two slaughterhouses, two pigeon keepers and one backyard chicken farm. E. coli was isolated and verified from 319 samples. The isolates were screened by PCR for diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Altogether seven atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains were identified: two from four-week-old dead turkeys, two from force-fed geese, and three from pigeons. No further pathotypes were identified in the collection. The atypical EPEC strains were classified phylogenetically to B1, B2, and F, and four out of the seven aEPEC isolates proved to be multidrug resistant. Serotypes of aEPEC strains were uniform collected from same farms and showed diversity between their origins with O76, O145, O109 serogroups. Conclusions This is the first report in the literature about aEPEC in goose (Anser anser domestica). Furthermore, this is the first isolation of aEPEC from turkeys and pigeons in Hungary. The uneven distribution of aEPEC in different age groups of poultry suggests that aEPEC disappears with growing up, but stress (e.g.: force-feeding) and concurrent diseases might promote its reappearance in the intestine.

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