thermal tolerance
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2022 ◽  
Hanny Rivera ◽  
Anne Cohen ◽  
Janelle Thompson ◽  
Iliana Baums ◽  
Michael Fox ◽  

Abstract Ocean warming is killing corals, but heat-tolerant populations exist; if protected, they could replenish affected reefs naturally or through restoration. Palau’s Rock Islands experience chronically higher temperatures and extreme heatwaves, yet their diverse coral communities bleach less than those on Palau’s cooler outer reefs. Here, we combined genetic analyses, bleaching histories and growth rates of Porites cf. lobata colonies to identify thermally tolerant genotypes, map their distribution, and investigate potential growth trade-offs. We identified four P cf. lobata genetic lineages. On Palau’s outer reefs, a thermally sensitive lineage dominates. The Rock Islands harbor two lineages with enhanced thermal tolerance and no consistent growth trade-off. One of these lineages also occurs on several outer reefs. This suggests that the Rock Islands provide naturally tolerant larvae to neighboring areas. Finding and protecting such sources of thermally-tolerant corals is key to reef survival under 21st century climate change.

Li Wu ◽  
Yilin Lyu ◽  
Pingping Wu ◽  
Tongyu Luo ◽  
Junyuan Zeng ◽  

Kluyveromyces marxianus is the fastest-growing eukaryote and a promising host for producing bioethanol and heterologous proteins. To perform a laboratory evolution of thermal tolerance in K. marxianus, diploid, triploid and tetraploid strains were constructed, respectively. Considering the genetic diversity caused by genetic recombination in meiosis, we established an iterative cycle of “diploid/polyploid - meiosis - selection of spores at high temperature” to screen thermotolerant strains. Results showed that the evolution of thermal tolerance in diploid strain was more efficient than that in triploid and tetraploid strains. The thermal tolerance of the progenies of diploid and triploid strains after a two-round screen was significantly improved than that after a one-round screen, while the thermal tolerance of the progenies after the one-round screen was better than that of the initial strain. After a two-round screen, the maximum tolerable temperature of Dip2-8, a progeny of diploid strain, was 3°C higher than that of the original strain. Whole-genome sequencing revealed nonsense mutations of PSR1 and PDE2 in the thermotolerant progenies. Deletion of either PSR1 or PDE2 in the original strain improved thermotolerance and two deletions displayed additive effects, suggesting PSR1 and PDE2 negatively regulated the thermotolerance of K. marxianus in parallel pathways. Therefore, the iterative cycle of “meiosis - spore screening” developed in this study provides an efficient way to perform the laboratory evolution of heat resistance in yeast.

Ecology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Raquel Colado ◽  
Susana Pallarés ◽  
Javier Fresneda ◽  
Stefano Mammola ◽  
Valeria Rizzo ◽  

José M. Alruiz ◽  
Ignacio Peralta‐Maraver ◽  
Francisco Bozinovic ◽  
Mauro Santos ◽  
Enrico L. Rezende

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
C. Li ◽  
N.F. Addeo ◽  
T.W. Rusch ◽  
A.J. Dickerson ◽  
A.M. Tarone ◽  

Thermal stresses from both environmental conditions and organismal crowding are common in mass production of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). In this study, upper and lower critical thermal (CT) limits (i.e. knockdown CTmax and CTmin) for the adult black soldier fly were determined. Impacts of size, age, and sex on these critical temperatures were also assessed. The CTmax ranged from 45.0-51.0 °C with larger and older adults having a ~1 °C higher CTmax than smaller and younger adults. However, no differences in the CTmax were found between sexes, regardless of age or size. The CTmin ranged from 8.0 to 13.0 °C with larger and older females having a ~1 °C higher CTmin than males and smaller or younger females. While reporting the upper and lower critical temperatures, this study also revealed the thermal breadth (i.e. the range of body temperatures over which organisms can locomote) for adult black soldier flies across age, sex, and size. Based on these data, and when recognising not all fly populations are the same, mass-rearing facilities should determine the CTmax and CTmin for their fly population in order to optimise mating and fertile egg production, and ultimately maximise profits and sales. One degree of temperature can be the difference between success and failure in industrialised facilities.

2021 ◽  
Perry G Beasley-Hall ◽  
Terry Bertozzi ◽  
Tessa M Bradford ◽  
Charles S P Foster ◽  
Karl Jones ◽  

Subterranean habitats are environmentally stable with respect to temperature, humidity, and the absence of light. The transition to a subterranean lifestyle might therefore be expected to cause considerable shifts in an organism's physiology; here, we investigate how subterranean colonisation affects thermal tolerance. Subterranean organisms might be at an increased risk of decline in the face of global temperature rises, but robust data on the fauna is lacking, particularly at the molecular level. In this study we compare the heat shock response of two species of diving beetle in the genus Paroster: one surface-dwelling (P. nigroadumbratus), the other restricted to a single aquifer (P. macrosturtensis). P. macrosturtensis has been previously established as having a lower thermal tolerance compared to surface-dwelling relatives, but the genomic basis of this difference is unknown. By sequencing transcriptomes of experimentally heat-shocked individuals and performing differential expression analysis, we demonstrate both species can mount a heat shock response at high temperatures (35C), in agreement with past survival experiments. However, the genes involved in these responses differ between species, and far greater genes are differentially expressed in the surface species, which may explain its more robust response to heat stress. In contrast, the subterranean species significantly upregulated the heat shock protein gene Hsp68 in the experimental setup under conditions it would likely encounter in nature (25C), suggesting it may be more sensitive to ambient stressors, e.g. handling. The results presented here contribute to an emerging narrative concerning weakened thermal tolerances in obligate subterranean organisms at the molecular level.

Michael A McCartney ◽  
Benjamin Auch ◽  
Thomas Kono ◽  
Sophie Mallez ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  

Abstract The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, continues to spread from its native range in Eurasia to Europe and North America, causing billions of dollars in damage and dramatically altering invaded aquatic ecosystems. Despite these impacts, there are few genomic resources for Dreissena or related bivalves. Although the D. polymorpha genome is highly repetitive, we have used a combination of long-read sequencing and Hi-C-based scaffolding to generate a high-quality chromosome-scale genome assembly. Through comparative analysis and transcriptomics experiments we have gained insights into processes that likely control the invasive success of zebra mussels, including shell formation, synthesis of byssal threads, and thermal tolerance. We identified multiple intact Steamer-Like Elements, a retrotransposon that has been linked to transmissible cancer in marine clams. We also found that D. polymorpha have an unusual 67 kb mitochondrial genome containing numerous tandem repeats, making it the largest observed in Eumetazoa. Together these findings create a rich resource for invasive species research and control efforts.

2021 ◽  
Petra Hafker ◽  
Lily M Thompson ◽  
Dylan Parry ◽  
Jonathan A Walter ◽  
Kristine L Grayson

As the global climate changes, high and low temperature extremes can drive changes in species distributions. Across the range of a species, thermal tolerance can experience plasticity and may undergo selection, shaping resilience to temperature stress. In this study, we measured variation in the lower thermal tolerance of early instar larvae of an invasive forest insect, Lymantria dispar dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), using populations sourced from the climatically diverse invasion of the Eastern United States. In two chill coma recovery experiments, we recorded recovery time following a period of exposure to a non-lethal cold temperature. A third experiment quantified growth responses after chill coma recovery to evaluate sublethal effects. Our results indicate that cold tolerance is linked to regional climate, with individuals from cold climate populations recovering faster from chill coma. While this geographic gradient is seen in many species, detecting this pattern is notable for an introduced species founded from a single point-source introduction. We demonstrate that the cold temperatures used in our experiments occur in nature from cold snaps after spring hatching, but negative impacts to growth and survival appear low. We expect that population differences in cold temperature performance manifest more from differences in temperature-dependent growth than acute exposure. Evaluating intraspecific variation in cold tolerance increases our understanding of the role of climatic gradients on the physiology of an invasive species, and contributes to tools for predicting further expansion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 288 (1964) ◽  
Erica O'Neill ◽  
Hannah E. Davis ◽  
Heath A. MacMillan

The thermotolerance–plasticity trade-off hypothesis predicts that ectotherms with greater basal thermal tolerance have a lower acclimation capacity. This hypothesis has been tested at both high and low temperatures but the results often conflict. If basal tolerance constrains plasticity (e.g. through shared mechanisms that create physiological constraints), it should be evident at the level of the individual, provided the trait measured is repeatable. Here, we used chill-coma onset temperature and chill-coma recovery time (CCO and CCRT; non-lethal thermal limits) to quantify cold tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster across two trials (pre- and post-acclimation). Cold acclimation improved cold tolerance, as expected, but individual measurements of CCO and CCRT in non-acclimated flies were not (or only slightly) repeatable. Surprisingly, however, there was still a strong correlation between basal tolerance and plasticity in cold-acclimated flies. We argue that this relationship is a statistical artefact (specifically, a manifestation of regression to the mean; RTM) and does not reflect a true trade-off or physiological constraint. Thermal tolerance trade-off patterns in previous studies that used similar methodology are thus likely to be impacted by RTM. Moving forward, controlling and/or correcting for RTM effects is critical to determining whether such a trade-off or physiological constraint exists.

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