in vitro digestion
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2022 ◽  
Vol 372 ◽  
pp. 131308
Wen-mei Chen ◽  
Yan-hong Shao ◽  
Zhi Wang ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Zong-cai Tu

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ao Li ◽  
Aixia Zhu ◽  
Di Kong ◽  
Chunwei Wang ◽  
Shiping Liu ◽  

For improving solubility and bioaccessibility of phytosterols (PS), phytosterol nanoparticles (PNPs) were prepared by emulsification–evaporation combined high-pressure homogenization method. The organic phase was formed with the dissolved PS and soybean lecithin (SL) in anhydrous ethanol, then mixed with soy protein isolate (SPI) solution, and homogenized into nanoparticles, followed by the evaporation of ethanol. The optimum fabrication conditions were determined as PS (1%, w/v): SL of 1:4, SPI content of 0.75% (w/v), and ethanol volume of 16 ml. PNPs were characterized to have average particle size 93.35 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) 0.179, zeta potential −29.3 mV, and encapsulation efficiency (EE) 97.3%. The impact of temperature, pH, and ionic strength on the stability of fabricated PNPs was determined. After 3-h in vitro digestion, the bioaccessibility of PS in nanoparticles reached 70.8%, significantly higher than the 18.2% of raw PS. Upon freeze-drying, the particle size of PNPs increased to 199.1 nm, resulting in a bimodal distribution. The solubility of PS in water could reach up to 2.122 mg/ml, ~155 times higher than that of raw PS. Therefore, this study contributes to the development of functional PS-food ingredients.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 206
Katharina Pälchen ◽  
Ben Van den Wouwer ◽  
Dorine Duijsens ◽  
Marc E. Hendrickx ◽  
Ann Van Loey ◽  

Processing results in the transformation of pulses’ structural architecture. Consequently, digestion is anticipated to emerge from the combined effect of intrinsic (matrix-dependent) and extrinsic (processed-induced) factors. In this work, we aimed to investigate the interrelated effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on pulses’ structural architecture and resulting digestive consequences. Three commercially relevant pulses (chickpea, pea, black bean) were selected based on reported differences in macronutrient and cell wall composition. Starch and protein digestion kinetics of hydrothermally processed whole pulses were assessed along with microstructural and physicochemical characteristics and compared to the digestion behavior of individual cotyledon cells isolated thereof. Despite different rates of hardness decay upon hydrothermal processing, the pulses reached similar residual hardness values (40 N). Aligning the pulses at the level of this macrostructural property translated into similar microstructural characteristics after mechanical disintegration (isolated cotyledon cells) with comparable yields of cotyledon cells for all pulses (41–62%). We observed that processing to equivalent microstructural properties resulted in similar starch and protein digestion kinetics, regardless of the pulse type and (prolonged) processing times. This demonstrated the capacity of (residual) hardness as a food structuring parameter in pulses. Furthermore, we illustrated that the digestive behavior of isolated cotyledon cells was representative of the digestion behavior of corresponding whole pulses, opening up perspectives for the incorporation of complete hydrothermally processed pulses as food ingredients.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 194
Xin Fan ◽  
Huimin Guo ◽  
Cong Teng ◽  
Biao Zhang ◽  
Christophe Blecker ◽  

Quinoa peptides are the bioactive components obtained from quinoa protein digestion, which have been proved to possess various biological activities. However, there are few studies on the anticancer activity of quinoa peptides, and the mechanism has not been clarified. In this study, the novel quinoa peptides were obtained from quinoa protein hydrolysate and identified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The anticancer activity of these peptides was predicted by PeptideRanker and evaluated using an antiproliferative assay in colon cancer Caco-2 cells. Combined with the result of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) inhibitory activity assay, the highly anticancer activity peptides FHPFPR, NWFPLPR, and HYNPYFPG were screened and further investigated. Molecular docking was used to analyze the binding site between peptides and HDAC1, and results showed that three peptides were bound in the active pocket of HDAC1. Moreover, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and Western blot showed that the expression of HDAC1, NFκB, IL-6, IL-8, Bcl-2 was significantly decreased, whereas caspase3 expression showed a remarkable evaluation. In conclusion, quinoa peptides may have the potential to protect against cancer development by inhibiting HDAC1 activity and regulating the expression of the cancer-related genes, which indicates that these peptides could be explored as functional foods to alleviate colon cancer.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Paula Llorens ◽  
Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko ◽  
Juan Carlos Moltó ◽  
Jordi Mañes ◽  
Cristina Juan

Validated extraction methods from in vitro digestion phases are necessary to obtain a suitable bioaccessibility study of mycotoxins in bakery products. The bakery industry produces bread with different ingredients to enrich the nutritional properties of this product and protect it from fungal growth. This bread can be contaminated by AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and OTA, so an extraction method was developed to analyse these five legislated mycotoxins in digested phases of two types of bread, one with wheat and the other with wheat and also enriched with Cucurbita Maxima Pepo at 20%. The studied “in vitro” digestion model consists of oral, gastric and duodenal phases, each one with different salt solutions and enzymes, that can affect the extraction and most probably the stability of the mycotoxins. The proposed method is a liquid–liquid extraction using ethyl acetate by extract concentration. These analytes and components have an important effect on the matrix effect (MEs) in the analytical equipment, therefore, validating the method and obtaining high sensitivity will be suitable. In the proposed method, the highest MEs were observed in the oral phase of digested pumpkin bread (29 to 15.9 %). Regarding the accuracy, the recoveries were above 83% in the digested duodenal wheat bread and above 76 % in the digested duodenal pumpkin wheat bread. The developed method is a rapid, easy and optimal option to apply to oral, gastric and duodenal phases of digested bread contaminated at a level of established maximum levels by European legislation (RC. 1881/2006) for food.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 300-310
I. M. Chernukha ◽  
A. V. Meliashchenia ◽  
I. V. Kaltovich ◽  
E. R. Vasilevskaya ◽  
M. A. Aryzina ◽  

The inability to reproduce certain digestive processes in vivo, high research costs and ethical aspects have led to the development of a large number of in vitro digestion models. These models allow us to take into account various factors of modeling complex multistage physiological processes occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes them promising and widely used. A significant part of in vitro methods includes assessment by enzymatic digestion and are based on the calculation of nitrogen remaining after digestion in relation to the initial total nitrogen (according to the Dumas, Kjeldahl method, spectrophotometric or chromatographic method). There are also a number of titrometric methods (pH‑stat), which are mainly used to assess the digestibility of feed, most successfully for aquatic animals due to the simplicity of their digestive tract. Methods for assessing the digestibility of food products by enzymatic digestion have undergone various stages of evolution (since 1947) and have been widely modified by including various enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin, erepsin, etc.) in model systems, indices for various products have been determined on their basis (pepsin-digest-residue (PDR) index, 1956; pepsin pancreatin digest (PPD) index, 1964; pepsin digest dialysate (PDD), 1989). As a result, a single protocol was formed to study the digestibility of food — INFOGEST (2014–2019), which includes three stages of digestion (oral, gastric and intestinal). It allows researchers to accurately reproduce the conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract and is widely used by scientists around the world.

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