wheat bread
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Marcello Alinovi ◽  
Massimiliano Rinaldi ◽  
Maria Paciulli ◽  
Paola Littardi ◽  
Emma Chiavaro

AbstractIn breadmaking, dietary fibres are used to improve the nutritional quality of the final products; on the other hand, they may affect the physical and sensory properties. This work aimed to the evaluate, on pan breads, the effect of substituting 3 g of wheat flour with an equivalent amount of fibre rich ingredients: chestnut peels (CP) or wheat bran (WB), in comparison to a traditional wheat bread formulation (C). The effect of four levels of added water (54, 60, 66, 71 g/100 of flour) was also tested. The fibre content of CP (33%) and WB (42%) affected their water binding capacity and, consequently, the quality of the final loaves, according to the different water addition levels. In bread crumb, water content and water activity increased proportionally to the water addition levels, being instead in the crust also affected by the presence of fibres: lower water retention capacity was observed for CP, in comparison to WB and C. The loaf volume resulted higher for C in comparison to WB and CP, in relation to the larger dimensions of the crumb pores, probably due to the interfering effect of fibres during the development of the gluten network. Crumb hardness resulted higher for C at low water addition levels, being instead higher for CP at high water addition levels. CP showed a darker and redder colour, than both WB and C bread, for the presence of the brown pigments carried by chestnut peels. PCA analysis confirmed that more water is required for both the fibre-enriched breads to show characteristics similar to the control loaves.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 700-709
Malika MEZIANE ◽  
Abdelkader DILMI BOURAS ◽  

Wheat bread is a widely consumed commodity around the world. It is poor and imbalanced in some essential amino acids. The aim of this study is to fortify wheat bread with whey proteins (WP), in order to inhence its nutri-tional value and to improve the balance of its essential amino acids. The composition of the different flours and breads enriched with WP was deter-mined by standard methods. The alveograph’s results show that the tenacity increases and the deformation energy decreases with increasing incorpora-tion of WP. The addition of WP leads to a dough that is resistant to defor-mation, extensible for incorporation rates of 2.5% and 3% and less extensible for 10% and 20%. The results on the composition of the different breads show that the addition of WP contributes to the improvement of the amino acid profiles of the breads, especially for P10 and P20. It corrects, especially, the deficit and imbalance of the bread in essential amino acids. The assess-ments of the organoleptic characteristics show that the majority of the tast-ers find the P2.5 and P3 breads are very close to the commercial breads and sometimes better. These loaves have a nice external appearance, regular shape, crispy golden crust, light texture, good taste and smell. The develop-ment of the breads during vacuum storage is very satisfactory. They keep their crispness and a good crumbliness after 7 days.

Natalia Rosa‐Sibakov ◽  
Lotta Sorsamäki ◽  
Mikko Immonen ◽  
Hanna Nihtilä ◽  
Ndegwa H. Maina ◽  

Elok Waziiroh ◽  
Regine Schoenlechner ◽  
Henry Jaeger ◽  
Gloria Brusadelli ◽  
Denisse Bender

AbstractDue to the absence of gluten, several challenges arise during gluten-free (GF) bread baking, affecting the mid-and-end-product quality. The main approach to overcome this issue is to combine certain functional ingredients and additives, to partially simulate wheat bread properties. In addition, the optimization of the baking process may contribute to improved product quality. A recent and very promising alternative to conventional baking is the use of ohmic heating (OH). Due to its volumetric and uniform heating principle, crumb development during baking and consequently bread volume is improved, which enhances the overall GF bread quality. Depending on the GF formulation, critical factors such as the electrical conductivity and viscosity of the batter may vary, which have a significant effect on the OH process performance. Therefore, this review attempts to provide a deeper understanding of the functionality of GF bread ingredients and how these may affect critical parameters during the OH processing.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Ionica Coţovanu ◽  
Silvia Mironeasa

The study was conducted to determine the influence of buckwheat fractions (BF) on the physicochemical characteristics of wheat flour (WF), dough rheology, and bread quality parameters. Buckwheat seeds’ fractionation influenced the microstructure and molecular conformation depending on the particle size (PS). The protein content of the WF–BF improved when the medium PS was added and decreased for large and small PS. Lipids and ash increased with the increase in BF amount in all samples in comparison with the control. Dough tenacity increased with BF addition, being higher than in WF dough only when large PS were added, while samples with medium and small PS presented a lower tenacity in comparison with the control. Dough extensibility decreased significantly in all samples when BF increased, as follows: M ˃ S ˃ L. Dough viscoelastic moduli increased proportionally when adding large PS, while the addition of medium PS (5–15%) and small PS decreased it. Bread firmness, springiness, and gumminess rose proportionally with the addition level. Bread volume decreased when BF increased, and medium PS had a good influence on this parameter. Bread porosity and elasticity presented higher values than for the control bread, but these decreased when the BF amount increased. Flour and bread crust and crumb color parameters were also influenced by different fractions of BF addition.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Paula Llorens ◽  
Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko ◽  
Juan Carlos Moltó ◽  
Jordi Mañes ◽  
Cristina Juan

Validated extraction methods from in vitro digestion phases are necessary to obtain a suitable bioaccessibility study of mycotoxins in bakery products. The bakery industry produces bread with different ingredients to enrich the nutritional properties of this product and protect it from fungal growth. This bread can be contaminated by AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and OTA, so an extraction method was developed to analyse these five legislated mycotoxins in digested phases of two types of bread, one with wheat and the other with wheat and also enriched with Cucurbita Maxima Pepo at 20%. The studied “in vitro” digestion model consists of oral, gastric and duodenal phases, each one with different salt solutions and enzymes, that can affect the extraction and most probably the stability of the mycotoxins. The proposed method is a liquid–liquid extraction using ethyl acetate by extract concentration. These analytes and components have an important effect on the matrix effect (MEs) in the analytical equipment, therefore, validating the method and obtaining high sensitivity will be suitable. In the proposed method, the highest MEs were observed in the oral phase of digested pumpkin bread (29 to 15.9 %). Regarding the accuracy, the recoveries were above 83% in the digested duodenal wheat bread and above 76 % in the digested duodenal pumpkin wheat bread. The developed method is a rapid, easy and optimal option to apply to oral, gastric and duodenal phases of digested bread contaminated at a level of established maximum levels by European legislation (RC. 1881/2006) for food.

LWT ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 113079
Maryam Ebrahimi ◽  
Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori ◽  
Alireza Sadeghi ◽  
Ozlem emir Coban ◽  
Javad Zanganeh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 88 ◽  
pp. 104877
Carla Graça ◽  
Minnamari Edelmann ◽  
Anabela Raymundo ◽  
Isabel Sousa ◽  
Rossana Coda ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 67-72
E. N. Shabolkina ◽  
N. V. Anisimkina

The development of bakery industry is possible due to the use of such non-traditional raw materials as durum wheat. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the effect of varietal traits of durum wheat when mixed with bread wheat according to the results of rheological parameters of dough, technological and bakery estimation of flour. There have been studied technological indicators of grain, rheological and physical parameters of dough, general bakery estimation. There has been established that the high gas-forming ability of durum wheat allows it to be used (30%) as bread wheat improver during baking. However, the positive effect was present not in all years of the study. There has been estimated an improvement effect due to mutual compensation of the missing components and complementarity of the bread and durum wheat varieties. There was found that in 2008, 2010 there was practically no improvement effect when durum wheat flour was added to the mixture in a ratio of 30:70%. There was established that in 2015 the maximum bread volume of 930 cm3 and a good bakery estimation (flat surface, oval shape, golden brown crust, as well as fine thin-walled porosity with elastic light crumb) were obtained by adding bread wheat varieties to durum wheat varieties, which during the year of the study there was formed weak grain (dilute of dough was 110 u.f.; valorigraphic number was 46 u.v.). In 2020, the varieties used in the mixtures of both spring bread and durum wheat were of high quality, and bakery estimation gave excellent indicators both in the control (the variety ‘Tulaykovskaya 108’ with 1300 cm3) and in the mixtures with 1140–1255 cm3; the appearance of bread and crumb in almost all variants had an excellent mark. The largest volume of bread, 1255 cm3, was obtained when the durum wheat variety ‘Bezenchukskaya Niva’ was added to the mixture. Adding durum wheat flour to the mixture in an amount of 30:70% when baking bread reduced its staleness by 6.5% relative to the control (bread wheat); bread remains fresh for a long time with an elastic, quickly regenerated crumb.

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