intracranial hypertension
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Breno Douglas Dantas Oliveira ◽  
Fabrício Oliveira Lima ◽  
Hellen do Carm Homem ◽  
Alice Albuquerque Figueirêdo ◽  
Vitoria Maria Batista Freire ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 96 ◽  
pp. 56-60
Michael T.M. Wang ◽  
Zak J. Prime ◽  
William Xu ◽  
James McKelvie ◽  
Taras Papchenko ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 119-127
Grace A. McCabe ◽  
Todd Goodwin ◽  
Douglas F. Johnson ◽  
Anthony Fok ◽  

AIM: To report 4 cases of Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii) species complex infection with diverse ophthalmic manifestations, and to review the literature to examine pathobiology of disease, classical ophthalmic presentations and outcomes, and treatment modalities for this emerging pathogen. METHODS: Cases of C. gattii meningoencephalitis with ophthalmic manifestations were identified via chart review at two institutions in Australia and one institution in the mid-west region of the United States and are reported as a case series. Additionally, a MEDLINE literature review was conducted to identify all reported cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations from 1990-2020. Cases were reviewed and tabulated, together with our series of patients, in this report. RESULTS: Four cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations are presented; three from Australia and one from the USA. A literature review identified a total of 331 cases of C. gattii with visual sequelae. The majority of cases occurred in immunocompetent individuals. Blurred vision and diplopia were the most common presenting symptoms, with papilloedema the most common sign, reported in 10%-50% of cases. Visual loss was reported in 10%-53% of cases, as compared to rates of visual loss of 1%-9% in C. neoformans infection. Elevated intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden, and abnormal neurological exam at presentation correlated with poor visual outcomes. The mainstays of treatment are anti-fungal agents and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension with serial lumbar punctures. CSF diversion procedures should be considered for refractory cases. Acetazolamide and mannitol are associated with high complication rates, and adjuvant corticosteroids have demonstrated higher mortality rates; these treatments should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Permanent visual loss represents a devastating yet potentially preventable sequelae of C. gattii infection. Intracranial hypertension needs to be recognised early and aggressively managed. Referral to an ophthalmologist/neuro-ophthalmologist in all cases of cryptococcal infection independent of visual symptoms at time of diagnosis is recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Naiqian Zhao ◽  
Weixia Yang ◽  
Xiaoyan Li ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Ying Feng

Abstract Background There is only one documented case of intracranial hypertension (IH) and empty sella from cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma so far. And IH and empty sella caused by long-term exogenous hypercortisolism has never been reported before. The purpose of this case report is to alert clinicians to glucocorticoid-induced IH. Case presentation We present retrospectively a 50-year-old woman with cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma, who progressed to intractable intracranial hypertension and a markedly expanded empty sella due to improper treatment. In 2011, the patient presented with hypertension, lack of cortisol circadian rhythm, low ACTH, a left adrenal adenoma and a partial empty sella, but did not receive low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and 24-h urinary cortisol. In 2014, she exhibited truncal obesity, raised cortisol, LDDST non-suppression, high urinary free cortisol and low ACTH, proving her cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. She was simultaneously diagnosed with unexplained IH because of papilledema and elevated intracranial pressure, and her partial empty sella changed to a complete empty sella. In 2015, she underwent adrenal adenoma resection. From 2015 to 2018, she kept taking dexamethasone at least 2 mg daily without her doctors’ consent. During this period, she developed transient cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, and her empty sella further worsened. After switching to low dose hydrocortisone, her papilledema disappeared completely, but optic atrophy has become irreversible. Conclusions The patient seems to be just an extreme case, but it may reveal and illustrate a general phenomenon: Both cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma and long-term exogenous hypercortisolism could cause varying degrees of elevated intracranial pressure and empty sella. Clinicians should remain vigilant for this phenomenon in patients with cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma or excessive and prolonged steroid usage and give them corresponding examinations to identify this complication.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 333-340
Md. RashidoonNabi Khan

Background: Among the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension is one of the major reason. Intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a pressure buildup around the brain. It can happen unexpectedly, as a result of a severe head injury, stroke, or brain abscess could be occurred. It could also be a chronic, long-term condition, known as IIH. It results in the signs and symptoms of a brain tumor. Which is also known as benign intracranial hypertension. Cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, is the fluid that surrounds the spinal cord and brain. CSF can accumulate if too much fluid is produced or not enough is reabsorbed. This can induce symptoms similar to a brain tumor. Intracranial Hypertension can be classified into three categories, they are Acute, Chronic and Idiopathic. IIH is recognized when the increased intracranial pressure cannot be explained by any other underlying cause.Aim: The aim of the study was to observe idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients in a select tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh.Methods:This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery, Sylhet M. A. G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The study duration was from January 2012 to December 2020. A total number of 47 participants had been recruited as study population.Results:Male: female ratio was 1:10.75, and 91% of the total participants were female. 40.43% of the participants were aged between 21-30 years. 46.81% were overweight and 34.04% were obese. Most common symptom was nausea, followed by visual impairment and double vision.Conclusion:The prevalence of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension is much higher among the female. Female and high BMI are significant risk factors of IIH. It is more prevalent among young adults, and results on various vision related symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Giorgia Sforza ◽  
Annalisa Deodati ◽  
Romina Moavero ◽  
Laura Papetti ◽  
Ilaria Frattale ◽  

Objective: The objective of this study is to present the rare case of a young girl with idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to hypoparathyroidism.Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a neurological syndrome characterized by elevated intracranial pressure (> 25 cmH2O) in the absence of intracerebral abnormalities or hydrocephalus. The pathophysiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension is unknown, and rare cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to hypoparathyroidism have been described. It is supposed that hypocalcemia causes decrease in the absorption of cerebrospinal fluid in arachnoidal granulations.Methods: The workup of the girl with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and hypoparathyroidism included physical examination, blood tests, diagnostic imaging, and lumbar puncture.Results: We present a 9-year-old female patient who was hospitalized for headache associated with nausea and vomiting for 3 weeks. She underwent an ophthalmologic examination that revealed papilledema. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 65 cm H2O; cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain computed tomography scan were normal. The patient started taking acetazolamide. Blood tests revealed hypocalcemia associated with high phosphorus level and undetectable PTH hormone, which led us to suspect hypoparathyroidism. She had never had cramps, paraesthesias, or tetany. Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs were positive. In the neck ultrasonography, parathyroids were not visible. Oral supplementation with calcitriol and calcium was started. Headache, nausea, and vomiting immediately disappeared after the lumbar puncture, and the papilledema improved gradually.Conclusions: Several anecdotal cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to hypoparathyroidism have been described. However, our case report is of particular interest, since the child did not present with typical neurological hypoparathyroidism symptoms. Therefore, we recommend that hypoparathyroidism should be included in diagnostic investigations on children with clinical findings of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, because clinical manifestations of hypoparathyroidism are variable and may involve almost all organ systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Francesco Del Monte ◽  
Laura Bucchino ◽  
Antonia Versace ◽  
Irene Tardivo ◽  
Emanuele Castagno ◽  

Abstract Background Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is an infrequent condition of childhood, and is extremely rare in infants, with only 26 cases described. The etiology is still unknown. Typical clinical manifestations change with age, and symptoms are atypical in infants, thus the diagnosis could be late. This is based on increased opening pressure at lumbar puncture, papilloedema and normal cerebral MRI. The measurement of cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure in infants is an issue because many factors may affect it, and data about normal values are scanty. The mainstay of treatment is acetazolamide, which allows to relieve symptoms and to avoid permanent visual loss if promptly administered. Case presentation We report the case of an 8-month-old infant admitted because of vomit, loss of appetite and irritability; later, also bulging anterior fontanel was observed. Cerebral MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analysis resulted negative and after two lumbar punctures he experienced initial symptom relief. Once the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension was made, he received oral acetazolamide, and corticosteroids, with progressive symptom resolution. Conclusions Infantile idiopathic intracranial hypertension is extremely rare, and not well described yet. Bulging anterior fontanel in otherwise healthy infants with normal neuroimaging should be always considered suggestive, but can be a late sign, while irritability and anorexia, especially if associated with vomiting, may represent an early sign. In such cases, lumbar puncture should be always done, hopefully with cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure measurement, which is among coded diagnostic criteria, but whose threshold is controversial in infants. Early diagnosis, timely treatment and strict follow-up help to prevent vision loss or death of affected infants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Livio Vitiello ◽  
Maddalena De Bernardo ◽  
Luigi Capasso ◽  
Palmiro Cornetta ◽  
Nicola Rosa

In recent years, ultrasonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) has been widely used to identify the presence of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Intracranial hypertension is a life-threatening condition that can be caused by various neurological and non-neurological disorders, and it is associated to poor clinical results. Ultrasonography could be used to qualitatively and efficiently detect ICP increases, but to reach this purpose, clear cut-off values are mandatory. The aim of this review is to provide a wide overview of the most important scientific publications on optic nerve ultrasound normal values assessment published in the last 30 years. A total of 42 articles selected from PubMed medical database was included in this review. Our analysis showed that ocular ultrasonography is considered to be a valuable diagnostic tool, especially when intracranial hypertension is suspected, but unfortunately this research provided conflicting results that could be due to the different ultrasound protocols. This is mainly caused by the use of B scan alone, which presents several limitations. The use of B-scan coupled with the standardized A-scan approach could give more accurate, and reliable ultrasound evaluation, assuring higher data objectivity.

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