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2021 ◽  
pp. 147737082110353
Author(s):  
Alexander Engström ◽  
Karl Kronkvist

Situational data have become more frequently used in research on offending and victimization. However, one outcome that has received less attention is fear of crime. The current study uses situational data collected through a smartphone application (STUNDA) to examine fear of crime as it is experienced in daily life among a sample of university students. Roughly 1200 situations reported by 129 students were analysed using generalized estimating equations. The results indicate that experiential fear of crime, in the form of worrying about victimization, is related to features of the immediate settings. More specifically, the odds ratio for experiencing fear of crime is significantly higher in places away from home and after dark, whereas social activities are associated with a significantly lower odds ratio, net of individual-level controls (gender, age, previous victimization and fear propensity). Yet, fear propensity, measured here using items that refer to an individual’s general worry about victimization, has an independent significant effect on fear of crime. As a result of the study’s convenience sample, the generalizability of the findings is limited, but a more general theoretical conclusion can nonetheless be drawn; features of settings and individual characteristics are both of importance. Further, the use of experience methods via a smartphone application provided detailed and unique situational data, which suggests that future research should further employ these methods to study situational phenomena such as fear of crime.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yafang Huang ◽  
Xiangyu Guo ◽  
Juan Du ◽  
Yanli Liu

Background: Frailty is one of the most important global health challenges. We aimed to examine the associations between frequency of intellectual and social activities and frailty among community-dwelling older adults in China.Methods: This is a prospective analysis of older adults (aged ≥60 years) who had intellectual and social activity data and were free of frailty from the national representative China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). The exposure was frequency of intellectual and social activities. Frailty was measured by the frailty index (FI) and defined as FI ≥ 0.25. Frailty incidents were followed up for 2 years. We estimated the relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using log-linear binominal regression adjusting for potential confounders.Results: We documented 655 frailty cases over the past 2 years. Participants who had frequent intellectual activities had a lower frailty risk compared with participants who did not have intellectual activity (adjusted RR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.47–0.90). The adjusted RRs were 0.51 (95%CI = 0.33–0.77) for participants who did not have a slip or a fall accident and 1.06 (95%CI = 0.65–1.75) for participants who had experienced slip and fall accidents (P = 0.01 for interaction). Having frequent social activities was not associated with a significant decrease in frailty risk compared with participants who did not have social activity (adjusted RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.78–1.12).Conclusions: This observational study showed that having frequent intellectual activities was associated with a decreased frailty risk. The association was likely to be stronger in participants without a slip or a fall accident. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this observational finding.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nesip Demirbilek ◽  
◽  
Fulya Atila ◽  
Celalettin Korkmaz ◽  
◽  
...  

The aim of this study is to reveal how university students conceptualize their perceptions of social justice. 393 university students were included as the sample of the research. An interview form was sent to the students online. The content analysis technique was used in the analysis of the data. As results, it was stated that every student is equal, opportunities are provided equally, there is no discrimination, social activities are equally benefited, every student is given the same rights, interests and needs are cared for, and every student is treated fairly. They expressed as the most unjust incidents are "necessity of distance education due to the Covid-19 pandemic," "getting unworthy points," "discrimination," "lack of justice in scoring," "unfair scholarship distribution" and "no course exemption." In addition, since it is not in the literature, a scale can be developed regarding the social justice perception levels of students studying in higher education.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nesip Demirbilek ◽  
Fulya Atila ◽  
Celalettin Korkmaz

The aim of this study is to reveal how university students conceptualize their perceptions of social justice. 393 university students were included as the sample of the research. An interview form was sent to the students online. The content analysis technique was used in the analysis of the data. As results, it was stated that every student is equal, opportunities are provided equally, there is no discrimination, social activities are equally benefited, every student is given the same rights, interests and needs are cared for, and every student is treated fairly. They expressed as the most unjust incidents are "necessity of distance education due to the Covid-19 pandemic," "getting unworthy points," "discrimination," "lack of justice in scoring," "unfair scholarship distribution" and "no course exemption." In addition, since it is not in the literature, a scale can be developed regarding the social justice perception levels of students studying in higher education.


Author(s):  
Jing Li ◽  
Hong Fang ◽  
Siran Fang ◽  
Zhiming Zhang ◽  
Pengyuan Zhang

Energy transition in the transport sector (TS) is important for the goals of achieving carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060 in China. A number of scholars have conducted studies to identify the potential energy savings of the TS and to improve its energy efficiency. Most of them concentrate on the direct energy use (EU). The indirect EU along the supply chain of the TS is often neglected. In this paper, the direct and indirect energy use, i.e., the embodied EU, of China’s TS is measured by applying a multi-regional input–output (MRIO) model, where they are investigated from both the provincial and sectoral perspectives. Results show that intermediate use is the major driving force for the TS’s embodied EU in China. From the sectoral level, supply from sectors such as petroleum refining and coking and demand from the service sector are the main reasons of the TS’s embodied EU. From the provincial perspective, the TS’s embodied EU is driven by low transportation technologies in most provinces located in central and western China. By contrast, abundant economic and social activities are the primary reason for the TS’s embodied EU in most provinces in eastern China. In the terms of interprovincial transfer, the energy embodied in the TS flows from resource-intensive provinces located in central and western China to resource-deficient provinces in eastern China. In addition, a close geographical connection exists in the transfer. Finally, several strategies from the sectoral and provincial levels are provided for policymakers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (7) ◽  
pp. 1680
Author(s):  
Kusnadewi Kusnadewi ◽  
Dewa Gede Dharma Suputra

Nowadays, society and companies are increasing aware of the importance of environmental conservation of  activities, improvement of economic standards and social harmony. CSR is away to show the company’s concern for the environment and the suroounding community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, or also known as Social Activities or often called Sustainability Development, are not a disclosure of the behavior of an individual in a company but are a disclosure of corporate behavior that can increase social trust in the company. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities for a hotel do not directly increase company profits, but by carrying out these activities in the environment and in the surrounding community, it will improve the company's image in the eyes of the public. There are various kinds of activities that can be categorized as part of CSR, from the promotion and marketing of social activities, philanthropic activities (charity), voluntary social/ community work. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR); Disclosure of Corporate Behavior; Improve The Company's Image In The Eyes of The Public; Various Kinds Of  CSR.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2163
Author(s):  
Ashley Ward ◽  
Kate Stephen ◽  
Caroline Argo ◽  
Christine Watson ◽  
Patricia Harris ◽  
...  

During the lockdown phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, equestrian stakeholders faced a dilemma whereby they were required to balance caring for the welfare of horses with adapting to the restrictions imposed to protect public health. The present study investigated the impact of the pandemic on the wellbeing of a sample of industry stakeholders, including horse owners, equine veterinarians, farriers and welfare centre managers (n = 26) using a qualitative methodology. Findings from the interviews indicated that the mental health and wellbeing of veterinarians and horse owners was negatively affected by pandemic-related obstacles to communication and limitations to horse–owner interactions. However, this study also identified several positive outcomes for wellbeing during lockdown resulting from pro-social activities that were engaged with by horse owners to overcome social isolation, the separation of the community and loneliness. These findings provide accounts of ways in which those caring for horses might be challenged during national emergency scenarios, pointing to areas that would benefit from future mental health and wellbeing interventions.


Al-Qalam ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Author(s):  
Abdul Rahman ◽  
Anwar Sadat

<div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>The enactment of Law No. 35 of 2014 concerning Child Protection is intended to protect children and guarantee their rights to live, grow, develop, and participate optimally following human dignity and get protection from violence and discrimination. It could be achieved through increasing awareness of the rights and obligations and the responsibility of the involved parties, especially parents because they are the first and foremost in contact with children. In the context of the Law socialization, research is needed to find an appropriate and effective socialization model especially for women (mothers) through religious-social activities. One of them is majelis ta'lim program. This research used a normative-empirical research type. Normative research was used through the interpretation of grammatical and authentic legal methods. Empirical research was conducted by a teleological interpretation method to know the extent of the legal norm according to the community’s attitudes, behaviors, and compliance. Data were collected through the study of literature and empirical studies using interview guidelines and questionnaires. The research results showed that the developed socialization model could solve the most fundamental and urgent literature and the wider community’s interests. In protecting the community-based program, the issue is not merely children in conflict with the law. It includes a larger unit of interaction, such as parents, family, peers, environment, and wider social institutions</span></p></div></div></div>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chris Crandall ◽  
Angela Bahns

We test the effect of mask-wearing on normal social interactino. College students (N=250) were assigned to find and interact with a previously unknown student in a lecture hall, converse and then evaluate the interaction. Half were randomly assigned to wear a blue surgical mask, sunglasses, and hat; half wore no extra gear. Run in 2012 before masks carried political meaning, mask wearing had almost no effect on the ease, authenticity, or friendliness of the conversation, mood, discomfort or interestingness of the interaction. Those without masks were more likely to find people on the basis of preference for shared social activities (e.g., going to the gym in groups); those wearing masks were more likely to find people by shared preference for more individual activities (e.g., going to the gym alone). Mask-wearing did not fundamentally disable normal social interaction in this setting.


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