joint power
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Tomohisa Miyanishi ◽  
Yifan Chen ◽  
Kazuhito Shibayama ◽  
Ryu Nagahara

There are two techniques for a lateral sprint start: crossover (CS) and jab step (JS) starts. This study aimed to elucidate the difference in the CS and JS starts in terms of sprint performance and leg kinetics in athletes from ball-and-goal type sports (e.g. soccer and handball). Nineteen male athletes performed CS and JS starts, during which their motion and the force they applied to the ground were simultaneously recorded using a motion-capture system and two force platforms. The results showed that, although 5-m time via video analysis did not differ between CS and JS starts, forward velocity of centre of gravity (CG) and normalised average horizontal external power were greater for the JS start than the CS start. From waveform analysis, greater positive joint power in the sagittal plane leading to greater positive work in the JS start were found in the first three quarters of the push-off phase for rear hip extension and in the subsequent push-off phase for rear ankle plantar flexion. In conclusion, the results suggest that the JS start is superior to the CS start for start quickness, though the gains in the start did not appear to transfer to the 5-m performance. Moreover, greater positive joint power in the first three quarters of the push-off phase for the rear hip extension and in the subsequent push-off phase for the rear ankle plantar flexion were considered to be important contributing factors to the better performance of the JS start.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 8059
Fengxia Han ◽  
Hao Deng ◽  
Jianfeng Shi ◽  
Hao Jiang

Wireless distributed storage is beneficial in the provision of reliable content storage and offloading of cellular traffic. In this paper, we consider a cellular device-to-device (D2D) underlay-based wireless distributed storage system, in which the minimum storage regenerating (MSR) coding combined with the partial downloading scheme is employed. To alleviate burdens on insufficient cellular resources and improve spectral efficiency in densely deployed networks, multiple storage devices can simultaneously use the same uplink cellular subchannel under the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) protocol. Our objective is to minimize the total transmission power for content reconstruction, while guaranteeing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraints for cellular users by jointly optimizing power and subchannel allocation. To tackle the non-convex combinational program, we decouple the original problem into two subproblems and propose two low-complexity algorithms to efficiently solve them, followed by a joint optimization, implemented by alternately updating the solutions to each subproblem. The numerical results illustrate that our proposed algorithms are capable of performing an exhaustive search with lower computation complexity, and the NOMA-enhanced scheme provides more transmission opportunities for neighbor storage devices, thus significantly reducing the total power consumption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
pp. 155014772110574
Bilal Ur Rehman ◽  
Mohammad Inayatullah Babar ◽  
Arbab Waheed Ahmad ◽  
Hesham Alhumyani ◽  
Gamil Abdel Azim ◽  

Orthogonal multiple access schemes based on assignment of communication resource blocks among multiple contenders, although widely available, still necessitate an upper limit on the number of concurrent users for minimization of multiple-user interference. The feature thwarts efforts to cater for pressing connectivity demands posed by modern-day cellular communication networks. Non-orthogonal multiple access, regarded as a key advancement towards realization of high-speed 5G wireless communication networks, enables multiple users to access the same set of resource blocks non-orthogonally in terms of power with controllable interference, thereby allowing for overall performance enhancement. Owing to the combinatorial nature of the underlying optimization problem involving user pairing/grouping scheme, power control and decoding order, the computational complexity in determining optimal and sub-optimal solutions remains considerably high. This work proposes three novel alternative approaches (Randomly, 2-Opt and Hybrid) for arriving at a near-optimal solution for the problem of user pairing/grouping. The algorithms not only offer reduced computational complexity but also outperform orthogonal multiple access and existing schemes reported in the literature for uplink non-orthogonal multiple access systems.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259817
Bernard X. W. Liew ◽  
David Rugamer ◽  
Kim Duffy ◽  
Matthew Taylor ◽  
Jo Jackson

Purpose Understanding what constitutes normal walking mechanics across the adult lifespan is crucial to the identification and intervention of early decline in walking function. Existing research has assumed a simple linear alteration in peak joint powers between young and older adults. The aim of the present study was to quantify the potential (non)linear relationship between age and the joint power waveforms of the lower limb during walking. Methods This was a pooled secondary analysis of the authors’ (MT, KD, JJ) and three publicly available datasets, resulting in a dataset of 278 adults between the ages of 19 to 86 years old. Three-dimensional motion capture with synchronised force plate assessment was performed during self-paced walking. Inverse dynamics were used to quantity joint power of the ankle, knee, and hip, which were time-normalized to 100 stride cycle points. Generalized Additive Models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) was used to model the effect of cycle points, age, walking speed, stride length, height, and their interaction on the outcome of each joint’s power. Results At both 1m/s and 1.5 m/s, A2 peaked at the age of 60 years old with a value of 3.09 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.95 to 3.23) W/kg and 3.05 (95%CI 2.94 to 3.16), respectively. For H1, joint power peaked with a value of 0.40 (95%CI 0.31 to 0.49) W/kg at 1m/s, and with a value of 0.78 (95%CI 0.72 to 0.84) W/kg at 1.5m/s, at the age of 20 years old. For H3, joint power peaked with a value of 0.69 (95%CI 0.62 to 0.76) W/kg at 1m/s, and with a value of 1.38 (95%CI 1.32 to 1.44) W/kg at 1.5m/s, at the age of 70 years old. Conclusions Findings from this study do not support a simple linear relationship between joint power and ageing. A more in-depth understanding of walking mechanics across the lifespan may provide more opportunities to develop early clinical diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for impaired walking function. We anticipate that the present methodology of pooling data across multiple studies, is a novel and useful research method to understand motor development across the lifespan.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 172988142110606
Zhenquan Fan ◽  
Xiaoyu Wang ◽  
Zijin Wang ◽  
Sijia Gao ◽  
Sheng Lin

Exoskeleton technology is more and more widely used in military, human rehabilitation, and other fields, but exoskeleton assisting mechanisms have problems such as high quality, concentrated driving sources, and poor flexibility. This article proposes a distributed variable stiffness joint power-assisted mechanism based on a laminated structure, which uses a giant magnetostrictive material as the driving source and the variable stiffness source of the structure. The distributed driving is realized by multiple driving units connected in series and parallel. Firstly, the drive unit stiffness matrix is deduced, and the expression equations of the cascaded total stiffness matrix of the drive module are obtained. After the simulation study, the curve of the stiffness of a single drive unit with a magnetic field and the stiffness of multiple drive units connected in series and parallel are in the absence of the magnetic field. The change curve of the stiffness of the booster module with the number of drive units under the excitation and saturation magnetic field excitation conditions is to achieve the effect of dynamically controlling the structural stiffness of the drive unit by controlling the size of the magnetic field and to obtain a general formula through data fitting. The number of drive units required under a fixed magnetic field excitation can ensure that the error is within 5%. The research results lay the foundation for further analysis of the distributed variable stiffness joint assist technology.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (11) ◽  
pp. 1454
Huanyu Li ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Youling Zhou

This paper investigates resource optimization schemes in a marine communication scenario based on non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). According to the offshore environment of the South China Sea, we first establish a Longley–Rice-based channel model. Then, the weighted achievable rate (WAR) is considered as the optimization objective to weigh the information rate and user fairness effectively. Our work introduces an improved joint power and user allocation scheme (RBPUA) based on a single resource block. Taking RBPUA as a basic module, we propose three joint multi-subchannel power and marine user allocation algorithms. The gradient descent algorithm (GRAD) is used as the reference standard for WAR optimization. The multi-choice knapsack algorithm combined with dynamic programming (MCKP-DP) obtains a WAR optimization result almost equal to that of GRAD. These two NOMA-based solutions are able to improve WAR performance by 7.47% compared with OMA. Due to the high computational complexity of the MCKP-DP, we further propose a DP-based fully polynomial-time approximation algorithm (DP-FPTA). The simulation results show that DP-FPTA can reduce the complexity by 84.3% while achieving an approximate optimized performance of 99.55%. This advantage of realizing the trade-off between performance optimization and complexity meets the requirements of practical low-latency systems.

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