field excitation
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 532
Qian Su ◽  
Zhixing Deng ◽  
Xun Wang ◽  
Wenyi Jia ◽  
Yunbin Niu

The experience needed to carry out engineering and construction in diatomaceous earth areas is currently lacking. This project studies the new Hang Shaotai high-speed railway passing through a diatomaceous earth area in Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, and analyzes the hydrological and mechanical properties of diatomaceous earth on the basis of a field survey and laboratory. Moreover, a new antidrainage subgrade structure was proposed to address the rainy local environment, and field excitation tests were performed to verify the antidrainage performance and stability of the new subgrade structure. Finally, the dynamic characteristics and deformation of the diatomaceous earth roadbed were examined. The hydrophysical properties of diatomaceous earth in the area are extremely poor, and the disintegration resistance index ranges from 3.1% to 9.0%. The antidrainage subgrade structure has good water resistance and stability under dynamic loading while submerged in water. After 700,000 loading cycles, the dynamic stress and vibration acceleration of the surface of the subgrade bed stabilized at approximately 6.37 kPa and 0.94 m/s2, respectively. When the number of excitations reached 2 million, the settlement of the diatomaceous earth foundation was 0.08 mm, and there was basically negligible postwork settlement of the diatomaceous earth foundation. These results provide new insights for engineering construction in diatomaceous earth areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Moritz B. Heindl ◽  
Nicholas Kirkwood ◽  
Tobias Lauster ◽  
Julia A. Lang ◽  
Markus Retsch ◽  

AbstractMicroscopic electric fields govern the majority of elementary excitations in condensed matter and drive electronics at frequencies approaching the Terahertz (THz) regime. However, only few imaging schemes are able to resolve sub-wavelength fields in the THz range, such as scanning-probe techniques, electro-optic sampling, and ultrafast electron microscopy. Still, intrinsic constraints on sample geometry, acquisition speed and field strength limit their applicability. Here, we harness the quantum-confined Stark-effect to encode ultrafast electric near-fields into colloidal quantum dot luminescence. Our approach, termed Quantum-probe Field Microscopy (QFIM), combines far-field imaging of visible photons with phase-resolved sampling of electric waveforms. By capturing ultrafast movies, we spatio-temporally resolve a Terahertz resonance inside a bowtie antenna and unveil the propagation of a Terahertz waveguide excitation deeply in the sub-wavelength regime. The demonstrated QFIM approach is compatible with strong-field excitation and sub-micrometer resolution—introducing a direct route towards ultrafast field imaging of complex nanodevices in-operando.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 172988142110606
Zhenquan Fan ◽  
Xiaoyu Wang ◽  
Zijin Wang ◽  
Sijia Gao ◽  
Sheng Lin

Exoskeleton technology is more and more widely used in military, human rehabilitation, and other fields, but exoskeleton assisting mechanisms have problems such as high quality, concentrated driving sources, and poor flexibility. This article proposes a distributed variable stiffness joint power-assisted mechanism based on a laminated structure, which uses a giant magnetostrictive material as the driving source and the variable stiffness source of the structure. The distributed driving is realized by multiple driving units connected in series and parallel. Firstly, the drive unit stiffness matrix is deduced, and the expression equations of the cascaded total stiffness matrix of the drive module are obtained. After the simulation study, the curve of the stiffness of a single drive unit with a magnetic field and the stiffness of multiple drive units connected in series and parallel are in the absence of the magnetic field. The change curve of the stiffness of the booster module with the number of drive units under the excitation and saturation magnetic field excitation conditions is to achieve the effect of dynamically controlling the structural stiffness of the drive unit by controlling the size of the magnetic field and to obtain a general formula through data fitting. The number of drive units required under a fixed magnetic field excitation can ensure that the error is within 5%. The research results lay the foundation for further analysis of the distributed variable stiffness joint assist technology.

2021 ◽  
Yusef Shari'ati ◽  
Josh Vura-Weis

Femtosecond M2,3-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is used to probe the excited-state dynamics of the cobalt cubane [CoIII4O4](OAc)4(py)4 (OAc = acetate, py = pyridine), a model for water oxidation catalysts. After ligand-field excitation, intersystem crossing to a metal-centered quintet occurs in 38 fs. 30% of the hot quintet undergoes ballistic back-ISC directly to the singlet ground stat, with the remainder relaxing to a long-lived triplet.

2021 ◽  
Vol 127 (8) ◽  
Muhammad Qasim ◽  
Dmitry A. Zimin ◽  
Vladislav S. Yakovlev

2021 ◽  
pp. 55-59
K.V. Galaydych ◽  
G.V. Sotnikov ◽  
I.N. Onishchenko

A linear theory of wakefield excitation by a ramped electron bunch train in a cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguide is presented. It is shown that during an excitation process the drive bunches are in the focusing field due to the radial electric field excitation of the plasma wave. The possibility of both obtaining a high transformer ratio and focusing the drive and witness bunches is demonstrated.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (15) ◽  
pp. 1721
Syed Sabir Hussain Bukhari ◽  
Fareed Hussain Mangi ◽  
Irfan Sami ◽  
Qasim Ali ◽  
Jong-Suk Ro

This paper discusses the design and analysis of a high-harmonic injection-based field excitation scheme for the brushless operation of wound field synchronous machines (WFSMs) in order to achieve a higher efficiency. The proposed scheme involves two inverters. One of these inverters provides the three-phase fundamental-harmonic current to the armature winding, whereas the second inverter injects the single-phase high-harmonic i.e., 6th harmonic current in this case, to the neutral-point of the Y-connected armature winding. The injection of the high-harmonic current in the armature winding develops the high-harmonic magnetomotive force (MMF) in the air gap of the machine beside the fundamental. The high-harmonic MMF induces the harmonic current in the excitation winding of the rotor, whereas the fundamental MMF develops the main armature field. The harmonic current is rectified to inject the direct current (DC) into the main rotor field winding. The main armature and rotor fields, when interacting with each other, produce torque. Finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out in order to develop a 4-pole 24-slot machine and investigate it using a 6th harmonic current injection for the rotor field excitation to both attain a brushless operation and analyze its electromagnetic performance. Later on, the performance of the proposed topology is compared with the typical brushless WFSM topology employing the 3rd harmonic current injection-based field excitation scheme.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (15) ◽  
pp. 4427
Syed Sabir Hussain Bukhari ◽  
Qasim Ali ◽  
Jesús Doval-Gandoy ◽  
Jong-Suk Ro

This paper presents a new high-efficient three-phase brushless wound rotor synchronous machine (BL-WRSM) based on a sub-harmonic field excitation technique. In the proposed machine topology, the stator is equipped with two different three-phase windings: (1) main armature winding, and (2) additional armature winding. The main armature winding is based on a 4-pole winding configuration, whereas the additional armature winding is based on a 2-pole winding configuration. Both windings are supplied current from two different inverters, i.e., inverter-1, inverter-2, and simultaneously. Inverter-1 provides the regular input current to the main armature winding, whereas inverter-2 provides a three-phase current of low magnitude to the 2-pole additional armature winding. This generates an additional sub-harmonic component of MMF in the airgap beside the fundamental MMF. On the other side, the rotor is equipped with (1) harmonic, and (2) field windings. These windings are electrically coupled via a rectifier. The fundamental component of MMF produces the main rotating magnetic field, whereas the sub-harmonic MMF gets induced in the harmonic winding to produce harmonic current. This current is rectified to give DC to the rotor field winding to attain brushless operation. To authenticate the operation and analyze its performance, the proposed BL-WRSM topology is supported using 2-D finite element analysis (FEA) in JMAG-Designer. Later on, the performance of the proposed brushless topology is compared with the customary BL-WRSM topology to verify its high efficiency, high output torque, low torque ripple, and low unbalanced radial force on the rotor.

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