European Part Of Russia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ksenia Popova ◽  
Anna Razumovskaya

The Rybachy and the Sredny Peninsulas are the northernmost part of Murmansk Region in the European part of Russia. While the most part of the Region is covered by boreal forest, the Peninsulas are covered by tundra. The vegetation and flora of Murmansk Region are well studied at present. The Peninsulas were first studied in 1829 by a Finnish botanist Jacob Fellman. The most comprehensive research was conducted in the late 19th - early 20th century. Nevertheless, the species composition of the Peninsulas' flora has changed significantly over the past 100 years due to land use and climate change. The aim of this dataset is to make the data on species occurrences for this territory digitally available via GBIF. To date, more or less complete digital floristic data were provided only by the project for digitising the book "Flora of Murmansk Region" (1953–1966). The present dataset is a part of the project studying the vegetation of the territory. We recorded the information about species frequency and distribution using the relevé method. We present a dataset based on 991 relevés from all vegetation types, which includes 16,289 records of georeferenced plant occurrences that belong to 568 species. There are 23 species of lichens (Ascomycota), 142 species of mosses (Bryophyta), three species of liverworts (Marchantiophyta) and 400 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) in the present dataset. The taxonomic diversity and unevenness result from the vegetation sampling. The data were collected in 2008, 2009, 2011, 2014 and 2015. The dataset cannot be considered as a complete vegetation database or a flora checklist, but it contains the occurrences and frequencies of the species from all the vegetation types.


Author(s):  
A. Sazhnev ◽  
A. Prokin ◽  
Ya. Urbanus

Six species of aquatic Coleoptera are recorded from the Lipetsk Oblast for the first time: Haliplus flavicollis Sturm, 1834 (Haliplidae); Agabus paludosus (Fabricius, 1801), Ilybius neglectus (Erichson, 1837), I. wasastjernae (C.R. Sahlberg, 1824), Hydroporus incognitus Sharp, 1869, Hygrotus versicolor (Schaller, 1783) (Dytiscidae), Hydrobius rottenbergii Gerhardt, 1872 (Hydrophilidae). Two species (Ilybius wasastjernae, Hydroporus incognitus), are recorded at the southernmost limits of the known range in the European part of Russia. The record of Contacyphon laevipennis (Tournier, 1868) is confirmed by provided material. For three species, original photographs of the habitus and male genitalia are provided, and for two ones – of the habitat.


Author(s):  
V.V. Guryanov ◽  
A.K. Sungatullin

The spatio-temporal variability of the average values of temperature indices of climate extremity in the territory of the European part of Russia (ER) in 1980-2019 is presented. To calculate the extremeness indices, we used hourly data on the maximum and minimum temperatures obtained using the ERA5 reanalysis on a 1°´1° spatial grid. Statistical processing of the index values revealed an increase in the temperature indices TNX, TNN, TXN, TXX, associated with the minimum and maximum temperatures, with the exception of the north and southeast of the region. An increase in the number of sunny days and a decrease in the number of frosty days were also revealed.


Author(s):  
В.А. Волков ◽  
Г.В. Калько

Процессы генезиса хвойных лесов интенсивно изучаются с использованием методов молекулярного маркирования. Микросателлитные локусы рассматриваются в качестве наиболее полиморфной и воспроизводимой системы кодоминантных молекулярных маркеров. В цели исследования входило установить возможность использования микросателлитных маркеров для определения видовых различий между елью европейской и сибирской (Picea abies и Picea obovatа), а также оценить степень генетической обособленности региональных популяций ели на территории Европейской части РФ. Исследование показало, что использование набора из двенадцати микросателлитных маркеров позволяет разделить выборку елей, собранных с европейской и азиатской частей страны, на два генетических кластера, соответствующих видам Picea abies и Picea obovatа. Проанализированные в исследовании микросателлитные локусы могут быть использованы для оценки генетического разнообразия и географического происхождения ели европейской и сибирской. The processes of genesis of coniferous forests are widely investigating using molecular markers. Many studies are based on the analysis of microsatellite loci, which are acknowledged as the most reproducible and polymorphic co-dominant molecular markers. This study is aimed to establish the possibility of using microsatellite markers to determine differentiation between Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies and Picea obovata). Another task of this research was to assess the degree of genetic isolation of regional spruce population in the territory of European part of the Russian Federation. This study shows that using a large number of microsatellite markers allows to divide the sample of spruce collected from European part of Russia and Siberia in two genetic clusters, corresponding to Picea abies and Picea obovata. The microsatellite loci analyzed in the study can be used to assess genetic diversity and geographic origin of spruce trees and determine the origin of wood and planting material of Norway and Siberian spruce.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 90-99
Author(s):  
L. S. Karpova ◽  
N. M. Popovtseva ◽  
T. P. Stolyarova ◽  
D. M. Danilenko

Aims. Show the ways of spreading influenza epidemics across the territory of Russia over a long period (1968–2019) and their influence on the incidence of influenza and ARVI in total and separately influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B in the Federal Districts in the period from 2009 to 2019.Materials and methods. The analysis of influenza epidemics was carried out according to the computer database of the National center for influenza.Results. A retrospective analysis of influenza epidemics shows the absence of inter-epidemic seasons after 1986, the increase in epidemics of mixed etiology and different routes of entry and spread of influenza viruses in Russia. During the circulation of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus, influenza epidemics were mainly of mixed etiology. The main causative agents of epidemics entered the territory of Russia more often from the west and in both ways, and from the west and from the east. In the next season, the main pathogen changed, and the path of the virus circulating in the previous season also changed. Influenza viruses of different types A and B usually diverged in time. Influenza viruses of the same type A, but of different subtypes, usually spread in different directions, with one of them having a limited distribution in the districts. The tendency of greater intensity of the epidemic process in the districts involved in the epidemic first is shown.Conclusions. 2009 to 2019 the incidence was higher in the Northwestern and Ural districts of the European part of Russia. One of the reasons for the high morbidity in these districts is the predominance of the western route of influenza viruses entering the territory of Russia and the high intensity of the epidemic process in the districts that were the first to be involved in the epidemic. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (11) ◽  
pp. 43-60
Author(s):  
Tatyana Sokolova ◽  
◽  
Olga Ermolaeva ◽  

The article describes a new association of meso-xerophylous forests in the South of the European part of Russia Poo nemoralis–Quercetum roboris ass. nov. hoc loco, its differentiation from analogous syntaxa is discussed, and new data on the distribution of communities of the alliance Scutellario altissimae–Quercion roboris Goncharenko et al. 2020 on the Russian Plain are done. Vegetation classification was carried out by J. Braun-Blanquet approach based on 470 relevés of forest vegetation, collected by the author in 2007–2021 in the northern and central parts of Rostov, Voronezh and Volgograd Regions. In addition, the analysis included 777 relevés from the phytocenary made by G. M. Zozulin in the same regions in 1960–1980s. Based on the studies carried out, the current area of the alliance can be expanded to the lower reaches of the Don River. For a more adequate reflection of the floristic, ecological and geographical features of its communities, it was proposed to change the composition of the diagnostic species of the alliance and it was recommended to amend the current definition of the order Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae, expanding its area to Eastern Europe.


Author(s):  
V.V. Krivosheev ◽  
◽  
A.I. Stoliarov ◽  

Hydrometeorological Research and Forecasting, 2021, no. 4 (382), pp. 112-133. The results of analytical studies are presented, which show that restrictive measures for reduction of SARS-CoV-2 propagation speed and the incidence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the territory of Western Europe and the Russian Federation have led to a significant reduction of anthropogenic load on the natural environment and a considerable improvement of environmental conditions for the main types of contaminants. At the same time there is a dramatic growth of total ozone in the troposphere during the period of restrictions almost for all studied territories. It is revealed that after finishing the restrictive measures the level of air contamination reached its initial point: by September in Western Europe and by October in the European part of Russia. The calculations demonstrated that poor air quality aggravates the consequences of COVID-19, and a significant contribution is made by the PM2.5 concentration of fine solid particles, which can penetrate deeper into the human lungs and exacerbate the course of respiratory diseases. Keywords: COVID-19, ecology, tropospheric conditions, satellite information, morbidity level and air quality


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 112-133
Author(s):  
V.V. Krivosheev ◽  
◽  
A.I. Stoliarov ◽  

The results of analytical studies are presented, which show that restrictive measures for reduction of SARS-CoV-2 propagation speed and the incidence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the territory of Western Europe and the Russian Federation have led to a significant reduction of anthropogenic load on the natural environment and a considerable improvement of environmental conditions for the main types of contaminants. At the same time there is a dramatic growth of total ozone in the troposphere during the period of restrictions almost for all studied territories. It is revealed that after finishing the restrictive measures the level of air contamination reached its initial point: by September in Western Europe and by October in the European part of Russia. The calculations demonstrated that poor air quality aggravates the consequences of COVID-19, and a significant contribution is made by the PM2.5 concentration of fine solid particles, which can penetrate deeper into the human lungs and exacerbate the course of respiratory diseases. Keywords: COVID-19, ecology, tropospheric conditions, satellite information, morbidity level and air quality


Author(s):  
М. Г. Жилин ◽  
Е. Л. Костылева

Волосовская культура была распространена в центре европейской части России в позднем неолите - энеолите. Среди артефактов этой культуры на ряде стоянок представлены роговые стержни и изогнутые предметы неясного назначения. В результате проведенного авторами трасологического анализа установлено, что они являются составными частями ретушеров для обработки кремневых орудий. При этом изогнутые предметы были рукоятками, в паз которых вставлялись стержни, служившие рабочими частями этих орудий. Такая конструкция ретушера была оптимальной с функциональной точки зрения. Почти без изменений она дожила до этнографической современности. The Volosovo culture was spread in the center of the European part of Russia in the Late Neolithic-Eneolithic. The artifacts of this culture retrieved from a number of sites include antler rods and curved items of unknown functions. The tracewear analysis conducted by the authors established that these items are parts of composite retouchers used to treat flint tools. The curved items were handles with a slot into which rods used as working parts of the tools were inserted. This design of a retoucher was optimal from the functional point of view. It has survived into ethnographic modernity with almost no changes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (3) ◽  
pp. 032096
Author(s):  
A Ilinskiy ◽  
A Matveev ◽  
K Evsenkin

Abstract Experimental studies on the effectiveness of the use of new organo-mineral amendments obtained on the basis of biocompost to restore fertility and increase the productivity of degraded alluvial meadow medium loamy and sod-podzolic sandy loamy soils of reclaimed agricultural lands were carried out by the authors of the paper as part of the implementation of the state assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation “To develop a scientific and methodological approach and new agro-meliorative methods for restoring the fertility of degraded reclaimed lands, reclaiming contaminated soils and disturbed pasture areas in the European part of Russia”. The studies included a series of long-term greenhouse and field experiments performed on the reclaimed lands of JSC “Moskovskoye” and the stationary site of the Meshchersky branch of the A.N. Kostyakov All-Russian Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation, which resulted in new ways of restoring the fertility of degraded reclaimed agricultural land and low-productivity lands involved in agricultural circulation using multifunctional amendments for the conditions of the southern part of the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia. At the end of the experimental studies, the authors developed a database, and then an information and reference Web-system that allows entering, storing, finding and analyzing information on ways to increase the soil fertility of degraded reclaimed agricultural land and low-productivity lands involved in agricultural circulation using biocompost based on the processing of organic waste. This software allows making scientifically based and timely decisions to restore fertility and increase soil productivity.


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