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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 118-120
Manju George Pynadath

Current Covid -19 pandemic has disrupted life in every corner of the world and will likely affect those children with preexisting disabilities. About 40% of differently-abled students are planning to drop out of schools because of difficulties they are facing in online education. The social distancing measures implemented by many countries have caused social isolation among children and had resulted in increased anxiety; stress and relapse of preexisting issues. This study aimed a) To Review the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on differently-abled children and their parents b) Discuss alternative measures for delivering health services for differently-abled children A literature review through online sources of the database. Studies published from January 2020 up to October 2021 where included The review revealed that lack of socialization due to social distancing creates anxiety, stress, and depression among children and their parents. As schools have been suspended children with disabilities were not able to practice their learned skills which they attained through special education. Tele-medicine and Tele-rehabilitation activities may help to lower the prevalence of mental health issues among children and their parents Everyday life of individuals across the globe has been severely affected due to the covid 19 pandemic. Amidst this, it becomes important to keep children with physical and mental disabilities not only physically safe but also looks after their psychological and emotional well-being.

2022 ◽  
pp. 097491012110677
Debarati Ghosh ◽  
Meghna Dutta

Previous studies have underlined various rationales for production fragmentation from wage differentials, decreased trade costs, access to specialized skills and resources, access to new markets, and benevolent government policies, to technological advancement. However, the idea that a firm’s financing structure can influence its production structure remains less explored, more so empirically. Firms that are financially constrained find it difficult to complete the entire production process in-house and therefore tend to resort to production fragmentation. The current study investigates this link between the extent of credit constraints faced by firms and their outsourcing behavior using data from Indian manufacturing firms over a period of ten years. We also separately study this linkage for firms that tend to export more vis-à-vis firms that export less, to ascertain if increased exporting have relaxed the financial constraint of the firms. The results confirm the positive effect of credit constraints on outsourcing behavior. For a robustness check, subsample regressions and alternative measures of constraints are also analyzed. The study has important policy implications for developing countries such as India, where outsourcing may prove to be a profitable reorganization strategy for firms that are financially constrained.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Gregor Dorfleitner ◽  
Johannes Grebler

PurposeThis paper aims to close gaps in the current literature according to whether there are differences regarding the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP) and systematic risk when diverse regions of the world are considered, and what the respective drivers for this relationship are. Furthermore, it tests the robustness to alternative measures for CSP and systematic risk.Design/methodology/approachThis study focuses on the impact of corporate social responsibility on systematic firm risk in an international sample. The authors measure CSP emerging from a company's social responsibility efforts by utilizing a CSP rating framework that covers a variety of dimensions. The instrumental variable approach is applied to mitigate endogeneity and identify causal relationships.FindingsThe impact of overall CSP on systematic risk is most distinct for North American firms and, in descending order, weaker in Europe, Asia–Pacific and Japan. Risk mitigation applies across all four regions. However, the magnitude of impact differs. While the most critical drivers in North America and Japan include product responsibility, Europe is affected most by the employees category and Asia–Pacific by environmental innovation.Practical implicationsThe findings help firms to control their cost of equity and investors may identify low-risk stocks by considering certain aspects of CSP.Originality/valueThis study distinguishes itself from previous literature addressing the connection between systematic risk and CSP by focusing on regional differences in an international sample, using the very transparent CSP measures of Asset4, identifying underlying impact drivers, and testing for robustness to alternative measures of systematic risk.

Christian Whalen

AbstractArticle 22 guarantees the substantive application of all Convention rights to the particular situation of asylum seeking and refugee children, and also guarantees them protection and assistance in advancing their immigration and residency status claims and in overcoming the hurdles posed by international migration channels, including guarantees of due process. The rights of refugee and asylum-seeking children can be analyzed in relation to four essential attributes. First of all, Article 22 insists upon appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance. Refugee children are not granted a special status under the Convention, but they are not given any lesser status. They are to be treated as children first and foremost and not as migrants per se, in the sense that national immigration policy cannot trump child rights. The basic rights to education, health, and child welfare of these children needs to be protected to the same extent, and as much as possible, as children who are nationals of the host country. The second attribute preserves the rights of refugee children not only under the Convention but under all other international human right treaties and humanitarian instruments binding on the relevant States Party. These may include, for many governments, the 1951 Refugee Convention, the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Convention for the Protection of Minors, 1961, among others. A third attribute of Article 22 insists upon the duty to protect and assist refugee children. This entails a clear duty to provide children with appropriate due process rights throughout their asylum and refugee claims procedures, including the child’s right to be heard and participate in all the processes determining the child’s residence or immigration status, border admission, deportation, repatriation, detention, alternative measures, or placement, including best interest determination processes. The fourth and final attribute of Article 22 asserts that two basic principles should guide each activity with the refugee child: the best interests of the child and the principle of family unity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 89 ◽  
pp. 257-274
Jason Loughrey ◽  
Cathal O'Donoghue ◽  
Ricky Conneely

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 196-201
Nazish Iftikhar ◽  
Nadeem Iqbal ◽  
Hasan Hanif

The determination behind this research paper is to inspect the relation among competition, risk, and financial performance in the Saudi Arabian banking sector for 2011-2019. This paper used Two steps Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) as an estimation technique. This study focused on Lerner Index and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index to gauge bank competition and used three alternative measures for risk, namely credit risk, liquidity risk, and z-score. The coefficients of the Lerner Index and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index are significant and positive with profitability which signifies that higher competition in Saudi Arabian banks led to a decrease in profitability which is explained in the Structural Conduct Performance Hypothesis. Z-score shows a significant positive relationship with profitability. Credit risk has a positive relationship with profitability reveals that risk-adjusted returns are being targeted by risk-averse shareholders trying to gain more profits to compensate for the higher credit risk. The outcome of the study provides a comprehensive framework to the Central bank and other regulatory authorities to introduce micro and macro prudential policies that are aligned to the stability of the financial system.

2021 ◽  
Christian Quaia ◽  
Incheol Kang ◽  
Bruce G Cumming

Direction selective neurons in primary visual cortex (area V1) are affected by the aperture problem, i.e., they are only sensitive to motion orthogonal to their preferred orientation. A solution to this problem first emerges in the middle temporal (MT) area, where a subset of neurons (called pattern cells) combine motion information across multiple orientations and directions, becoming sensitive to pattern motion direction. These cells are expected to play a prominent role in subsequent neural processing, but they are intermixed with cells that behave like V1 cells (component cells), and others that do not clearly fall in either group. The picture is further complicated by the finding that cells that behave like pattern cells with one type of pattern, might behave like component cells for another. We recorded from macaque MT neurons using multi-contact electrodes while presenting both type I and unikinetic plaids, in which the components were 1D noise patterns. We found that the indices that have been used in the past to classify neurons as pattern or component cells work poorly when the properties of the stimulus are not optimized for the cell being recorded, as is always the case with multi-contact arrays. We thus propose alternative measures, which considerably ameliorate the problem, and allow us to gain insights in the signals carried by individual MT neurons. We conclude that arranging cells along a component-to-pattern continuum is an oversimplification, and that the signals carried by individual cells only make sense when embodied in larger populations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 189-217
Johannes Keiler ◽  
André Klip

Abstract The cross-border execution of judgments remains difficult in practice for European Member States. This article seeks to analyze why this may be the case with regard to four different modalities of sentences: (1) prison sentences and other measures involving deprivation of liberty, (2) conditional sentences and alternative measures, (3) financial penalties and (4) confiscation orders. Based on a comparative analysis, this article investigates the problems at stake regarding the cross-border execution of judgements in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands and identifies possible causes and explanations for these. The analysis shows that impediments to cooperation may inter alia stem from differences in national law and diverging national sentencing practices and cultures and may furthermore be related to a lack of possibilities for cooperation in the preliminary phase of a transfer. Moreover, some obstacles to cooperation may be country-specific and self-made, due to specific choices and approaches of national criminal justice systems.

2021 ◽  
Sushil Nyaupane

Nepal is an agrarian country whose population is primarily dependent on agriculture but the contribution to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is low as expected. There are many constraints to agricultural crop production and the farmers are facing those problems in their day-to-day lives. Deployment of insecticides and others to mitigate various insects and pests is one of them. Although abundant with locally available plant resources for pest management, farmers, especially in commercial pocket areas, are primarily dependent on conventional pesticides and those chemicals have detrimental effects on human health, including various flora, fauna, and environment. Although the Nepal government has formulated an act and worked on that basis, there is plenty of room to work on. Since farmer knowledge and behavior have a positive impact on reducing the use of conventional insecticides and work on alternative measures for pest management, these sorts of programs should be prioritized by the Government of Nepal and its allied agricultural organizations.

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