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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 240-251
Author(s):  
Kairat Ospanov ◽  
Erzhan Kuldeyev ◽  
Bagdaulet Kenzhaliyev ◽  
Anatoly Korotunov

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Meng Gao ◽  
Chengjie Mei ◽  
Yonghua Guo ◽  
Peng Xia ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
...  

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, and the second most common primary liver tumor. The lack of effective diagnostic and treatment methods results in poor patient prognosis and high mortality rate. Atypical protein kinase C-ι (aPKC-ι) is highly expressed in primary and metastatic ICC tissues, and regulates epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the aPKC-ι/P-Sp1/Snail signaling pathway. Recent studies have correlated aberrant glucose metabolism with EMT. Given the vital role of FBP1 in regulating glucose metabolism in cancer cells, we hypothesized that aPKC-ι downregulates FBP1 in ICC cells through the Snai1 pathway, and enhances glycolysis and metastasis. We confirmed the ability of aPKC-ι promotes glycolysis, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and further demonstrated that FBP1 inhibits the malignant properties of ICC cells by antagonizing aPKC-ι. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of ICC progression and metastasis, as well as a theoretical basis for exploring new treatment strategies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yaping Chen ◽  
Xiao Zheng ◽  
Changping Wu

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest mortality rate among all cancers worldwide. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, molecular targeting and other treatment methods have significantly prolonged the survival of patients with CRC. Recently, the emergence of tumor immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has brought new immunotherapy options for the treatment of advanced CRC. As the efficacy of ICIs is closely related to the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the immune microenvironment of CRC and the efficacy of immunotherapy to ensure that the appropriate drugs are selected. We herein review the latest research progress in the immune microenvironment and strategies related to immunotherapy for CRC. We hope that this review helps in the selection of appropriate treatment strategies for CRC patients.


2021 ◽  
pp. 202-211
Author(s):  
V. V. Dvorianchikov ◽  
Yu. K. Yanov ◽  
Ya. A. Nakatis ◽  
V. S. Isachenko ◽  
D. M. Ilyasov ◽  
...  

Introduction. In recent years, injuries ranked fourth among the main causes of death of the population after diseases of the cardiovascular system, malignant neoplasms and infectious diseases. The clinical course of associated injuries, as a rule, is characterized by a high number of complications, much more than in isolated injuries.Objective. Explore approaches to improving otorynolaryngological tactics from the standpoint of normalizing the functional state of the nasal mucosa, as well as increasing the effectiveness of treatment of patients with severe concomitant trauma on prolonged mechanical ventilation.Materials and methods. In the process of studying the problem of impaired mucociliary clearance of the nasal mucosa, the functional state of the mucous membrane in patients with severe concomitant head trauma undergoing prolonged artificial lung ventilation was analyzed. We studied the state of one of the most important mechanisms of sanitation and local protection of the respiratory tract - mucociliary clearance, which provides the necessary potential for barrier, cleansing and immune functions. A study was made of the thermal effect of the nasal cavity, pH + of the mucous membrane, the study of the frequency of beating of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium and the rate of mucociliary transportResults and discussion. The results of the study showed that the problem of post-traumatic and nosocomial sinusitis in patients with severe concomitant head trauma must be resolved as soon as possible, with the involvement of modern diagnostic and treatment methods, including the proposed method of artificial ventilation of the nose. The severity of the patient's condition, the severity of the injuries received excludes the use of advanced methods of surgical, otorhinolaryngological treatment.Conclusion. 12:30 PMThe use of minimally invasive methods of treatment, precision technical execution, including under endovideo control, polysinusotomy made it possible not to burden the condition of the victims and exclude iatrogenic damage that could entail irreversible changes in the body and condition of the victim.


2021 ◽  
pp. 178-183
Author(s):  
A. A. Krivopalov ◽  
P. A. Shamkina ◽  
Ju. E. Stepanova ◽  
E. E. Koren ◽  
T. V. Gotovyakhina

Introduction. Today the high prevalence of benign vocal fold lesions is shown (up to 55-70%). The possibilities of surgical management of this pathology are very extensive. Laser technologies are becoming more and more popular among high-tech treatment methods. However the comprehensive postoperative management of these patients is equally important.The aim of the study was to assess the features of the postoperative period in patients undergoing the endolaryngeal surgery using a semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 445 nm.Material and methods. On the basis of Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Ear, Throat, Nose and Speech from February to June 2021 20 patients with benign vocal fold lesions 6 women and 14 men from 24 to 67 years old were examined and treated. All the patients underwent endolaryngeal surgery with direct microlaryngoscopy using a new semiconductor 445 nm laser in an inert gas atmosphere (intraoperative helium supply). After surgical treatment, the patients observed vocal rest, received antiinflammatory, antibacterial therapy, inhalations, as well as the drug Homeovox® according to the standard scheme.Conclusion. Endolaryngeal surgery with the removing of benign vocal fold lesions using a semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 445 nm has been proven to be safe and effective. According to the results of video laryngostroboscopy, acoustic analysis of the voice (the questionnaire “Voice handicap index-30”) it was noted that the laryngeal functions were restored in a short time. The inclusion of Homeovox® in the complex postoperative treatment had a favorable effect on the restoration of the phonatory function.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Min Wang ◽  
Shujuan Wang ◽  
Qiang Su ◽  
Tian Ma

Objective. To explore the clinical efficacy of combining early chemotherapy with Zhipu Liujunzi decoction under the concept of strengthening and consolidating body resistance for gastric cancer patients and nursing strategy. Methods. The clinical data of 100 patients undergoing radical gastrectomy in our hospital from July 2019 to July 2020 were selected for the retrospective analysis, and the patients were divided into the control group and experimental group according to different treatment methods, with 50 cases in each group. Early chemotherapy after surgery was given to patients in the control group, and on the basis of the aforesaid treatment and under the concept of strengthening and consolidating body resistance, patients in the experimental group took Zhipu Liujunzi decoction and received the nursing strategy, so as to compare their effective rate, adverse reaction rate (ARR), immune function indicators, KPS scores, and nursing satisfaction scores. Results. After treatment, the experimental group obtained significantly higher objective remission rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) ( P < 0.05 ), lower carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels ( P < 0.001 ), higher immune parameters levels ( P < 0.001 ), higher KPS scores and lower TCM symptom scores ( P < 0.001 ), lower PSQI scores, SAS scores, and SDS scores ( P < 0.001 ) and higher nursing satisfaction scores ( P < 0.001 ), and lower total accidence rate of toxic side effects ( P < 0.05 ) than the control group. Conclusion. Under the concept of strengthening and consolidating body resistance, combining early chemotherapy with Zhipu Liujunzi decoction is a reliable method for improving the immune function and quality of life for gastric cancer patients with higher safety. Such a strategy greatly reduces the tumor marker levels in patients. Further research will be conducive to establishing a better solution for gastric cancer patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 122-124
Author(s):  
Hao Peng ◽  
Yuhong Duan

Objective: Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were treated with integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine, and the final results were observed. Methods: 70 patients with such symptoms were randomly divided into two groups. The number of people is the same, and the treatment methods are different. The control group uses western medicine, while the observation group uses traditional Chinese medicine to evaluate the treatment effect. Results: After treatment, the effective rate of the observation group was (P < 0.05), indicating that the treatment effect was significantly better. Conclusion: Patients with clinical diabetic peripheral neuropathy treated with routine nutrition and nerve repair, and with Chinese medicine, the effect is more satisfactory, and the effect is positive, so as to promote the optimization of their health.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qixiao Guan ◽  
Hongjing Dou

Due to the high morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, there is an urgent need for research on antithrombotic strategies. In view of the short half-life, insufficient drug penetration, poor targeting capabilities, and hemorrhagic side-effects of traditional thrombus treatment methods, the combination of thrombolytic therapy and nanocarriers brought by the development of nanotechnology in recent years may provide effective solutions for these undesirable side-effects caused by insufficient targeting. Polymeric nanocarriers, based on macromolecules and various functional groups, can connect specific targeting molecules together through chemical modification to achieve the protection and targeted delivery of thrombolytic drugs. However, simple chemical molecular modifications may be easily affected by the physiological environment encountered in the circulatory system. Therefore, the modification of nanocarriers with cell membranes can provide camouflage to these platforms and help to extend their circulation time while also imparting them with the biological functions of cell membranes, thus providing them with precise targeting capabilities, among which the most important is the biological modification of platelet membranes. In addition, some nanoparticles with their own therapeutic functions have also been developed, such as polypyrrole, which can exhibit a photothermal effect to induce thrombolysis. Herein, combined with the mechanism of thrombosis and thrombolysis, we outline the recent advances achieved with thrombus-targeting nanocarriers with regard to thrombosis treatment. On this basis, the design considerations, advantages, and challenges of these thrombolytic therapies in clinical transformation are discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 236-248
Author(s):  
Per Lindh ◽  
Polina Lemenkova

Abstract The seabed in the ports needs to be regularly cleaned from the marine sediments for safe navigation. Sediments contaminated by tributyltin (TBT) are environmentally harmful and require treatment before recycling. Treatment methods include leaching, stabilisation and solidification to remove toxic chemicals from the sediments and improve their strength for reuse in the construction works. This study evaluated the effects of adding three different binder components (cement, cement kiln dust (CKD) and slag) to treat sediment samples collected in the port of Gothenburg. The goal of this study is to assess the leaching of TBT from the dredged marine sediments contaminated by TBT. The various methods employed for the treatment of sediments include the application of varied ratios of binders. The project has been performed by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) on behalf of the Cementa (HeidelbergCement Group) and Cowi Consulting Group, within the framework of the Arendal project. An experiment has been designed to evaluate the effects of adding CKD while reducing cement and slag for sediment treatment. Methods that have been adopted include laboratory processing of samples for leaching using different binder combinations, followed by statistical data processing and graphical plotting. The results of the experiment on leaching of TBT for all samples are tested with a varied ratio of cement, slag, CKD and water. Specimens with added binders ‘cement/CKD’ have demonstrated higher leaching compared to the ratio ‘cement/slag/CKD’ and ‘cement/slag’. The ‘CKD/slag’ ratio has presented the best results followed by the ‘cement/slag/CKD’, and can be used as an effective method of s/s treatment of the sediments. The results have shown that the replacement of cement and slag by CKD is effective at TBT leaching for the treatment of toxic marine sediments contaminated by TBT.


Author(s):  
Timothy M. Ghaly ◽  
Michael R. Gillings

Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are primary facilitators in the global spread of antibiotic resistance. Here, we present novel ecological and evolutionary perspectives to understand and manage these elements: as selfish entities that exhibit biological individuality, as pollutants that replicate and as invasive species that thrive under human impact. Importantly, each viewpoint suggests new means to control their activity and spread. When seen as biological individuals, MGEs can be regarded as therapeutic targets in their own right. We highlight promising conjugation-inhibiting compounds that could be administered alongside antibiotic treatment. Viewed as pollutants, sewage treatment methods could be modified to efficiently remove antimicrobials and the resistance genes that they select. Finally, by recognizing the invasive characteristics of MGEs, we might apply strategies developed for the management of invasive species. These include environmental restoration to reduce antimicrobial selection, early detection to help inform appropriate antibiotic usage, and biocontrol strategies that target MGEs, constituting precision antimicrobials. These actions, which embody the One Health approach, target different characteristics of MGEs that are pertinent at the cellular, community, landscape and global levels. The strategies could act on multiple fronts and, together, might provide a more fruitful means to combat the global resistance crisis. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The secret lives of microbial mobile genetic elements’.


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