size exclusion
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 923
Giulia Pesce ◽  
Frank Gondelaud ◽  
Denis Ptchelkine ◽  
Juliet F. Nilsson ◽  
Christophe Bignon ◽  

Henipaviruses are severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Beyond the P protein, the Henipavirus P gene also encodes the V and W proteins which share with P their N-terminal, intrinsically disordered domain (NTD) and possess a unique C-terminal domain. Henipavirus W proteins antagonize interferon (IFN) signaling through NTD-mediated binding to STAT1 and STAT4, and prevent type I IFN expression and production of chemokines. Structural and molecular information on Henipavirus W proteins is lacking. By combining various bioinformatic approaches, we herein show that the Henipaviruses W proteins are predicted to be prevalently disordered and yet to contain short order-prone segments. Using limited proteolysis, differential scanning fluorimetry, analytical size exclusion chromatography, far-UV circular dichroism and small-angle X-ray scattering, we experimentally confirmed their overall disordered nature. In addition, using Congo red and Thioflavin T binding assays and negative-staining transmission electron microscopy, we show that the W proteins phase separate to form amyloid-like fibrils. The present study provides an additional example, among the few reported so far, of a viral protein forming amyloid-like fibrils, therefore significantly contributing to enlarge our currently limited knowledge of viral amyloids. In light of the critical role of the Henipavirus W proteins in evading the host innate immune response and of the functional role of phase separation in biology, these studies provide a conceptual asset to further investigate the functional impact of the phase separation abilities of the W proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Fatemeh Yadavar Nikravesh ◽  
Samira Shirkhani ◽  
Elham Bayat ◽  
Yeganeh Talebkhan ◽  
Esmat Mirabzadeh ◽  

AbstractGranulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) can decrease mortality of patients undergo chemotherapy through increasing neutrophil counts. Many strategies have been developed to improve its blood circulating time. Albumin binding domain (ABD) was genetically fused to N-terminal end of GCSF encoding sequence and expressed as cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within Escherichia coli. Biological activity of ABD-GCSF protein was assessed by proliferation assay on NFS-60 cells. Physicochemical properties were analyzed through size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties were also investigated in a neutropenic rat model. CD and IFS spectra revealed that ABD fusion to GCSF did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the molecule. DLS and SEC results indicated the absence of aggregation formation. EC50 value of the ABD-GCSF in proliferation of NFS-60 cells was 75.76 pg/ml after 72 h in comparison with control GCSF molecules (Filgrastim: 73.1 pg/ml and PEG-Filgrastim: 44.6 pg/ml). Animal studies of ABD-GCSF represented improved serum half-life (9.3 ± 0.7 h) and consequently reduced renal clearance (16.1 ± 1.4 ml/ in comparison with Filgrastim (1.7 ± 0.1 h). Enhanced neutrophils count following administration of ABD-GCSF was comparable with Filgrastim and weaker than PEG-Filgrastim treated rats. In vitro and in vivo results suggested the ABD fusion as a potential approach for improving GCSF properties.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262160
Sophia Sarpong-Kumankomah ◽  
Katherine B. Knox ◽  
Michael E. Kelly ◽  
Gary Hunter ◽  
Bogdan Popescu ◽  

Advanced analytical methods play an important role in quantifying serum disease biomarkers. The problem of separating thousands of proteins can be reduced by analyzing for a ‘sub-proteome’, such as the ‘metalloproteome’, defined as all proteins that contain bound metals. We employed size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) to analyze plasma from multiple sclerosis (MS) participants (n = 21), acute ischemic stroke (AIS) participants (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 21) for Fe, Cu and Zn-metalloproteins. Using ANOVA analysis to compare the mean peak areas among the groups revealed no statistically significant differences for ceruloplasmin (p = 0.31), α2macroglobulin (p = 0.51) and transferrin (p = 0.31). However, a statistically significant difference was observed for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complex (p = 0.04), being driven by the difference between the control group and AIS (p = 0.012), but not with the MS group (p = 0.13), based on Dunnes test. A linear regression model for Hp-Hb complex with the groups now adjusted for age found no statistically significant differences between the groups (p = 0.95), but was suggestive for age (p = 0.057). To measure the strength of association between the Hp-Hb complex and age without possible modifications due to disease, we calculated the Spearman rank correlation in the healthy controls. The latter revealed a positive association (r = 0.39, 95% Confidence Interval = (-0.05, 0.83), which suggests that either the removal of Hp-Hb complexes from the blood circulation slows with age or that the release of Hb from red blood cells increases with age. We also observed that the Fe-peak corresponding to the Hp-Hb complex eluted ~100 s later in ~14% of all study samples, which was not correlated with age or disease diagnosis, but is consistent with the presence of the smaller Hp (1–1) isoform in 15% of the population.

2022 ◽  
Olga V Volpert ◽  
Eve Gershun ◽  
Katia Elgart ◽  
Vrinda Kalia ◽  
Haotian Wu ◽  

Most approaches to extracellular vesicle (EV) characterization focus on EV size or density. However, such approaches provide few clues regarding EV origin, molecular composition, and function. New methods to characterize the EV surface proteins may aid our understanding of their origin, physiological roles, and biomarker potential. Recently developed immunoassays for intact EVs based on ELISA, NanoView, SIMOA and MesoScale platforms are highly sensitive, but have limited multiplexing capabilities, whereas MACSPlex FACS enables the detection of multiple EV surface proteins, but requires significant quantities of purified EVs, which limits its adoption. Here, we describe a novel Luminex-based immunoassay, which combines multiplexing capabilities with high sensitivity and, importantly, bypasses the enrichment and purification steps that require larger sample volumes. We demonstrate the method specificity for detecting EV surface proteins using multiple EV depletion techniques, EVs of specific cellular origin isolated from culture media, and by co-localization with established EV surface markers. Using this novel approach, we elucidate differences in the tetraspanin profiles of the EVs carrying erythrocyte and neuron markers. Using size exclusion chromatography, we show that plasma EVs of putative neuronal and tissue macrophage origin are eluted in fractions distinct from those derived from erythrocytes, or from their respective cultured cells. In conclusion, our novel multiplexed assay differentiates between EVs from erythrocytes, macrophages, and neurons, and offers a new means for capture, classification, and profiling of EVs from diverse sources.

Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice ◽  
Alisa Potter ◽  
Felix Evers ◽  
Johannes F. Hevler ◽  
Sergio Guerrero-Castillo

Complexome profiling (CP) is a state-of-the-art approach that combines separation of native proteins by electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography or density gradient centrifugation with tandem mass spectrometry identification and quantification. Resulting data are computationally clustered to visualize the inventory, abundance and arrangement of multiprotein complexes in a biological sample. Since its formal introduction a decade ago, this method has been mostly applied to explore not only the composition and abundance of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in several species but also to identify novel protein interactors involved in their assembly, maintenance and functions. Besides, complexome profiling has been utilized to study the dynamics of OXPHOS complexes, as well as the impact of an increasing number of mutations leading to mitochondrial disorders or rearrangements of the whole mitochondrial complexome. Here, we summarize the major findings obtained by this approach; emphasize its advantages and current limitations; discuss multiple examples on how this tool could be applied to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and comment on the latest advances and opportunity areas to keep developing this methodology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
T. V. Divya ◽  
Celin Acharya

Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich, metal-sequestering cytosolic proteins that play a key role in maintaining metal homeostasis and detoxification. We had previously characterized NmtA, a MT from the heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and demonstrated its role in providing protection against cadmium toxicity. In this study, we illustrate the regulation of Anabaena NmtA by AzuR (Alr0831) belonging to the SmtB/ArsR family of transcriptional repressors. There is currently no experimental evidence for any functional role of AzuR. It is observed that azuR is located within the znuABC operon but in the opposite orientation and remotely away from the nmtA locus. Sequence analysis of AzuR revealed a high degree of sequence identity with Synechococcus SmtB and a distinct α5 metal binding site similar to that of SmtB. In order to characterize AzuR, we overexpressed it in Escherichia coli and purified it by chitin affinity chromatography. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the recombinant AzuR protein possessed a properly folded structure. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking and size-exclusion chromatography revealed that AzuR exists as a dimer of ∼28 kDa in solution. Analysis of its putative promoter region [100 bp upstream of nmtA open reading frame (ORF)] identified the presence of a 12–2–12 imperfect inverted repeat as the cis-acting element important for repressor binding. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed concentration-dependent binding of recombinant dimeric AzuR with the promoter indicating that NmtA is indeed a regulatory target of AzuR. Binding of AzuR to DNA was disrupted in the presence of metal ions like Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Mn2+. The metal-dependent dissociation of protein–DNA complexes suggested the negative regulation of metal-inducible nmtA expression by AzuR. Overexpression of azuR in its native strain Anabaena 7120 enhanced the susceptibility to cadmium stress significantly. Overall, we propose a negative regulation of Anabaena MT by an α5 SmtB/ArsR metalloregulator AzuR.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Karin Ekström ◽  
Rossella Crescitelli ◽  
Hafsteinn Ingi Pétursson ◽  
Junko Johansson ◽  
Cecilia Lässer ◽  

Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among females world-wide. Recent research suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a major role in the development of breast cancer metastasis. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is a procedure in patients with known lymph node metastases, and after surgery large amounts of serous fluid are produced from the axilla. The overall aim was to isolate and characterize EVs from axillary serous fluid, and more specifically to determine if potential breast cancer biomarkers could be identified. Methods Lymphatic drain fluid was collected from 7 patients with breast cancer the day after ALND. EVs were isolated using size exclusion chromatography, quantified and detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, nano flow cytometry and western blot. The expression of 37 EV surface proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry using the MACSPlex Exosome kit. Results Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved after surgery from all 7 patients contained EVs. The isolated EVs were positive for the typical EV markers CD9, CD63, CD81 and Flotillin-1 while albumin was absent, indicating low contamination from blood proteins. In total, 24 different EV surface proteins were detected. Eleven of those proteins were detected in all patients, including the common EV markers CD9, CD63 and CD81, cancer-related markers CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, platelet markers CD41b, CD42a and CD62p as well as HLA-DR/DP/DQ. Furthermore, CD29 and CD146 were enriched in Her2+ patients compared to patients with Her2- tumors. Conclusions Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved from breast cancer patients after surgery contains EVs that can be isolated using SEC isolation. The EVs have several cancer-related markers including CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, proteins of potential interest as biomarkers as well as to increase the understanding of the mechanisms of cancer biology.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1102
Vladyslav Yadrykhins'ky ◽  
Charis Georgiou ◽  
Ruth Brenk

Background: FabB (3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 1) is part of the fatty acid synthesis II pathway found in bacteria and a potential target for antibiotics. The enzyme catalyses the Claisen condensation of malonyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) with acyl-ACP via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. Here, we report the crystal structure of the intermediate-mimicking Pseudomonas aeruginosa FabB (PaFabB) C161A variant. Methods: His-tagged PaFabB C161A was expressed in E. coli Rosetta DE3 pLysS cells, cleaved by TEV protease and purified using affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Commercial screens were used to identify suitable crystallization conditions which were subsequently improved to obtain well diffracting crystals. Results: We developed a robust and efficient system for recombinant expression of PaFabB C161A. Conditions to obtain well diffracting crystals were established. The crystal structure of PaFabB C161A was solved by molecular replacement at 1.3 Å resolution. Binding site comparison between PaFabB and PaFabF revealed a conserved malonyl binding site but differences in the fatty acid binding channel. Conclusions: The PaFabB C161A crystal structure can be used as a template to facilitate the design of FabB inhibitors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Genevieve E. Melling ◽  
Ross Conlon ◽  
Paschalia Pantazi ◽  
Elizabeth R. Dellar ◽  
Priya Samuel ◽  

AbstractAssessing genuine extracellular vesicle (EV) uptake is crucial for understanding the functional roles of EVs. This study measured the bona fide labelling of EVs utilising two commonly used fluorescent dyes, PKH26 and C5-maleimide-Alexa633. MCF7 EVs tagged with mEmerald-CD81 were isolated from conditioned media by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterised using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), MACsPlex immunocapture assay and immunoblots. These fluorescently tagged EVs were subsequently stained with C5-maleimide-Alexa633 or PKH26, according to published protocols. Colocalisation of dual-labelled EVs was assessed by confocal microscopy and quantified using the Rank-Weighted Colocalisation (RWC) algorithm. We observed strikingly poor colocalisation between mEmerald-CD81-tagged EVs and C5-Maleimide-Alexa633 (5.4% ± 1.8) or PKH26 (4.6% ± 1.6), that remained low even when serum was removed from preparations. Our data confirms previous work showing that some dyes form contaminating aggregates. Furthermore, uptake studies showed that maleimide and mEmerald-CD81-tagged EVs can be often located into non-overlapping subcellular locations. By using common methods to isolate and stain EVs we observed that most EVs remained unstained and most dye signal does not appear to be EV associated. Our work shows that there is an urgent need for optimisation and standardisation in how EV researchers use these tools to assess genuine EV signals.

2022 ◽  
Shavron Hada ◽  
Jae Chul Lee ◽  
Eun Chae Lee ◽  
Sunkyong Ji ◽  
Jeong Sun Nam ◽  

Abstract Biophysical characterization of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A) complex along with its thermodynamic stability was assessed through a combination of various methods. BoNT/A exists as large complexes in association with neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs). To evaluate its biophysical behavior, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), multi-angled light scattering (MALS), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were utilized. Initially, a single peak (peak 1) of SEC was observed at pH 6.0, and an additional peak (peak 2) appeared at pH 7.4 with a decrement of peak 1. Through MALS and ELISA, the peak 2 was determined to be BoNT/A dissociated from its complex. The dissociation was accelerated by time and temperature. At 37°C, dissociated BoNT/A self-associated at pH 7.4 in the presence of polysorbate 20. On the other hand, the dissociation was partly reversible when titrated back to pH 6.0. Overall, BoNT/A was more stable when associated with NAPs at pH 6.0 compared to its dissociated state at pH 7.4. The conventional analytical methods could be utilized to relatively quantify its amount in different formulations.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document