Plasma Activated Water
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Eleni Asimakopoulou ◽  
Sotiriοs Ι. Εkonomou ◽  
Pagona Papakonstantinou ◽  
Olena Doran ◽  
Alexandros Ch. Stratakos

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12773
Geon Joon Lee ◽  
Pradeep Lamichhane ◽  
Seong Jae Ahn ◽  
Seong Hwan Kim ◽  
Manesh Ashok Yewale ◽  

This research investigated the capture of nitrate by magnesium ions in plasma-activated water (PAW) and its antifungal effect on the cell viability of the newly emerged mushroom pathogen Cryptococcus pseudolongus. Optical emission spectra of the plasma jet exhibited several emission bands attributable to plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The plasma was injected directly into deionized water (DW) with and without an immersed magnesium block. Plasma treatment of DW produced acidic PAW. However, plasma-activated magnesium water (PA-Mg-W) tended to be neutralized due to the reduction in plasma-generated hydrogen ions by electrons released from the zero-valent magnesium. Optical absorption and Raman spectra confirmed that nitrate ions were the dominant reactive species in the PAW and PA-Mg-W. Nitrate had a concentration-dependent antifungal effect on the tested fungal cells. We observed that the free nitrate content could be controlled to be lower in the PA-Mg-W than in the PAW due to the formation of nitrate salts by the magnesium ions. Although both the PAW and PA-Mg-W had antifungal effects on C. pseudolongus, their effectiveness differed, with cell viability higher in the PA-Mg-W than in the PAW. This study demonstrates that the antifungal effect of PAW could be manipulated using nitrate capture. The wide use of plasma therapy for problematic fungus control is challenging because fungi have rigid cell wall structures in different fungal groups.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2516
Enrico Cortese ◽  
Alessio G. Settimi ◽  
Silvia Pettenuzzo ◽  
Luca Cappellin ◽  
Alessandro Galenda ◽  

Increasing evidence indicates that water activated by plasma discharge, termed as plasma-activated water (PAW), can promote plant growth and enhance plant defence responses. Nevertheless, the signalling pathways activated in plants in response to PAW are still largely unknown. In this work, we analysed the potential involvement of calcium as an intracellular messenger in the transduction of PAW by plants. To this aim, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings stably expressing the bioluminescent Ca2+ reporter aequorin in the cytosol were challenged with PAW generated by a plasma torch. Ca2+ measurement assays demonstrated the induction by PAW of rapid and sustained cytosolic Ca2+ elevations in Arabidopsis seedlings. The dynamics of the recorded Ca2+ signals were found to depend upon different parameters, such as the operational conditions of the torch, PAW storage, and dilution. The separate administration of nitrate, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide at the same doses as those measured in the PAW did not trigger any detectable Ca2+ changes, suggesting that the unique mixture of different reactive chemical species contained in the PAW is responsible for the specific Ca2+ signatures. Unveiling the signalling mechanisms underlying plant perception of PAW may allow to finely tune its generation for applications in agriculture, with potential advantages in the perspective of a more sustainable agriculture.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1398
Assunta Bertaccini

Phytoplasmas are plant-pathogenic bacteria that infect many important crops and environmentally relevant plant species, causing serious economic and environmental losses worldwide. These bacteria, lacking a cell wall, are sensitive to antibiotics such as tetracyclines that affect protein synthesis mechanisms. Phytoplasma cultivation in axenic media has not been achieved for many strains; thus, the screening of antimicrobials must be performed using mainly in vivo materials. Some studies have investigated using in vitro phytoplasma-infected shoots, and several antimicrobials, including tetracyclines, have been tested. The screening of phytoplasma antimicrobials is important for the sustainable control of phytoplasma-associated diseases. The use of molecules with different modes of action such as ribosome inactivating proteins, plant hormones, and resistance inducers such as plasma-activated water, is advised, to avoid the use of antibiotics in agriculture and the possible emergence of resistant microbial strains.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10527
Dehui Xu ◽  
Xinying Zhang ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Rui Feng ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  

With increasing drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a new sterilization method is needed. Plasma has been shown to be an effective method of sterilization, but no researchers have studied the effect of plasma on bacterial metabolism. In this paper, we studied the emission spectrum, liquid phase active particles, and other physical and chemical properties of a portable plasma device. Pseudomonas aeruginosa were then treated with activated water generated by surface plasma discharge. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, we obtained the differential metabolite pathways. The results showed that, after plasma activated water treatment, the carbohydrate metabolism of the bacteria was inhibited and the metabolic processes of protein and amino acid decomposition were enhanced. Therefore, water activated by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma can significantly change bacterial metabolites, thus promoting bacterial death.

Food Control ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 108683
Jian Guo ◽  
Jiaoyu Wang ◽  
Hui Xie ◽  
Junlong Jiang ◽  
Chunyuan Li ◽  

LWT ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 112794
Javiera Barrales Astorga ◽  
Koentadi Hadinoto ◽  
Patrick Cullen ◽  
Stuart Prescott ◽  
Francisco J. Trujillo

LWT ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 112838
Joo Hyun Kang ◽  
Jin-Young Han ◽  
Ho Seon Lee ◽  
Seungmin Ryu ◽  
Seong Bong Kim ◽  

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