Ionic Strength
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 750
Author(s):  
Junyu Wang ◽  
Gordon Forbes ◽  
Elizaveta Forbes

Bubble size measurement is a vital part of flotation system analysis and diagnostics. This work evaluates a commercial camera probe as a novel method for in situ bubble size measurement. This device is compared to the conventional Anglo Platinum Bubble Sizer (Stone Three TM). It was found that, in laboratory applications, the in situ bubble size analysis technology appears to be a more user-friendly and reliable option for determining bubble size in flotation, whereas the Anglo Platinum Bubble Sizer is more applicable for full scale industrial work. This probe was then used to conduct a rigorous comparison of the behavior of different frother chemistries at a variety of background solution ionic strength conditions. The critical coalescence concentrations and the minimum Sauter mean bubble diameters were determined. Five frothers were compared in terms of their ability to reduce bubble size and sensitivity to salinity. In order to adjust plant recipe and control strategy accordingly, it is recommended that the plant would need to use less frother during periods of the high salinity of process water to achieve the minimum Sauter mean bubble size.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 200
Author(s):  
Christian Scheurer ◽  
Rafael E. Hincapie ◽  
Elisabeth Neubauer ◽  
Astrid Metz ◽  
Daniel Ness

We investigated the interaction of silica nanostructured particles and sandstone rock using various experimental approaches, such as fluid compatibility, batch sorption and single-phase core-floods. Diol and polyethylenglycol (PEG) surface-modified nanostructured silica materials were tested using two brines differing in ionic strength and with the addition of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Berea and Keuper outcrop materials (core plug and crushed samples) were used. Core-flood effluents were analysed to define changes in concentration and a rock’s retention compared to a tracer. Field Flow Fractionation (FFF) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) were performed to investigate changes in the effluent’s size distribution. Adsorption was evaluated using UV–visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest adsorption was observed in brine with high ionic strength, whereas the use of alkali reduced the adsorption. The crushed material from Berea rock showed slightly higher adsorption compared to Keuper rock, whereas temperature had a minor effect on adsorption behaviour. In core-flood experiments, no effects on permeability have been observed. The used particles showed a delayed breakthrough compared to the tracer, and bigger particles passed the rock core faster. Nanoparticle recovery was significantly lower for PEG-modified nanomaterials in Berea compared to diol-modified nanomaterials, suggesting high adsorption. SEM images indicate that adsorption spots are defined via surface roughness rather than mineral type. Despite an excess of nanomaterials in the porous medium, monolayer adsorption was the prevailing type observed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yufeng Chen ◽  
Xiaojing Gao ◽  
Shucheng Liu ◽  
Qiuxing Cai ◽  
Lijun Wu ◽  
...  

In this work, the lactoferrin (LF) was glycosylated by dextran (molecular weight 10, 40, and 70 kDa, LF 10K, LF 40K, and LF 70K) via Maillard reaction as a stabilizer to establish zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles and encapsulate 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF). Three zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles (79.27–87.24 nm) with low turbidity (<0.220) and polydispersity index (PDI) (<0.230) were successfully established by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Compared with zein/LF nanoparticles, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles further increased stability to ionic strength (0–500 mM NaCl) at low pH conditions. Zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had nanoscale spherical shape and glycosylated LF changed surface morphology of zein nanoparticles. Besides, encapsulated 7,8-DHF exhibited an amorphous state inside zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles. Most importantly, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had good water redispersibility, high encapsulation efficiency (above 98.50%), favorable storage stability, and bioaccessibility for 7,8-DHF, particularly LF 40K. Collectively, the above research provides a theoretical reference for the application of zein-based delivery systems.


2022 ◽  
pp. 134694
Author(s):  
Xueru Deng ◽  
Yufeng Jiang ◽  
Min'an Zhang ◽  
Zhijiang Nan ◽  
Xinru Liang ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (6) ◽  
pp. 201-207
Author(s):  
Seok Gu Gang ◽  
Jongwon Jung

An experiment to evaluate the swelling characteristics during saturation of representative clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite, according to the ionic strength of the pore water, was conducted. The results showed that in distilled water (DW), the average swelling ratios of kaolinite, illite, and bentonite were 10.95%, 12.51%, and 26.60%, respectively. However, montmorillonite exhibited a relatively large swelling ratio of approximately 152.6%. In 1 M brine, kaolinite, illite, and bentonite exhibited swelling ratios of 12.42%, 16.23%, and 21.91%, respectively, while that of montmorillonite was relatively small (0.83%). In the case of the ground containing montmorillonite, a high swelling ratio is expected with an increase in saturation and conductivity.


Author(s):  
Михаил Игоревич Скобин ◽  
Мариана Александровна Феофанова ◽  
Тимофей Владимирович Крюков

Исследование синтетических и природных материалов пригодных для создания наноносителей и их модификация обеспечит прорыв в лечении многих заболеваний. Хорошим выбором для создания наноносителей являются гликозаминогликаны (гепарин и его производные), благодаря их уникальным биологическим и физико-химическим особенностям. Формирование композиций было исследовано методом pH -метрического титрования при 37 °С на фоне 0,15 М NaCl. С использованием программы NewDALSFEK определены значимые формы и химические равновесия. В диапазоне pH от 2,7 до 5 образуется комплекс вида {[LnHep]}, где Hep - мономерное звено макромолекулы гепарина. Получены данные об устойчивости нанокомпозиций: lgβ[PrHep] = 4,27 ± 0,04, lgβ[SmHep] = 4,28 ± 0,03 , lgβ[EuHep] = 4,28 ± 0,03. Методом M06-HF в сочетании с базисным набором CSDZ+* выполнено квантово-химическое моделирование комплексов. Study of synthetic and natural materials suitable for the creation of nanocarriers and their modification will provide a breakthrough in the treatment of many diseases. Glycosaminoglycans (heparin and its derivatives) are a good choice for creating nanocarriers due to their unique biological and physicochemical properties. The complexation of Pr (III), Sm (III), Eu (III) with heparin anions was studied by potentiometric titration at 37 °C and an ionic strength of 0,15 M NaCl. Significant forms and chemical equilibria were determined using the NewDALSFEK program. In the pH range from 2,7 to 5 , a complex of the type {[LnHep]} is formed, where Hep is a monomeric unit of the heparin macromolecule. Data on the stability of nanocompositions were obtained: lgβ[PrHep] = 4,27 ±0,04, lgβ[SmHep] = 4,28±0,03, lgβ[EuHep] = 4,28±0,03. The M06-HF method in combination with the CSDZ+* basic set was used to perform quantum chemical modeling of the complexes.


Author(s):  
Gamze Dalgıç Bozyiğit ◽  
Merve Fırat Ayyıldız ◽  
Dotse Selali Chormey ◽  
Nouha Bakaraki Turan ◽  
Fatih Kapukıran ◽  
...  

Abstract In this study, seven compounds of environmental and health concern were treated by electrooxidation to determine their removal efficiencies from domestic wastewater. A batch type lab-scale reactor was used for the treatment process, and the analytes studied included two obsolete pesticides, two alkylphenols, two hormones, and bisphenol A. Titanium oxide and graphite electrodes were used as anode and cathode, respectively. Parameters of the electrooxidation process including pH of wastewater, ionic strength, applied current and treatment period were optimized by the univariate approach to maximize the removal efficiency of the analytes from wastewater. The optimum conditions were determined as nonadjusted pH of wastewater, 1.5 A current, 15 min treatment period and 5.0 g/L sodium chloride. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used to preconcentrate analytes before and after treatment in order to calculate the removal efficiency of analytes. The removal efficiency obtained under the optimum conditions was satisfactory for all seven analytes at different influent concentrations.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andreas Fall ◽  
Marielle Henriksson ◽  
Anni Karppinen ◽  
Anne Opstad ◽  
Ellinor Bævre Heggset ◽  
...  

Abstract Cellulose nanofibrils, CNFs, show a great potential in many application areas. One main aspect limiting the use of the material is the slow and energy demanding dewatering of CNF suspensions. Here we investigate the dewatering with a piston press process. Three different CNF qualities, two laboratory grades (high and low charge) and one industrial grade (low charge) were tested. The chemical conditions were varied by changing salt concentration (NaCl) and pH. For the original suspensions, the dewatering rate is substantially slower for the high charge CNFs. However, by changing the conditions it dewatered as fast as the two low charge CNFs, even though salt/acid additions also improved dewatering rate for these two CNFs. Finally, by tuning the conditions fast dewatering could be obtained with only minor effect on strength and barrier performance of films prepared from the CNFs.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7679
Author(s):  
Antonio Gigliuto ◽  
Rosalia Maria Cigala ◽  
Anna Irto ◽  
Maria Rosa Felice ◽  
Alberto Pettignano ◽  
...  

The interactions of dopamine [2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine, (Dop−)] with cadmium(II), copper(II) and uranyl(VI) were studied in NaCl(aq) at different ionic strengths (0 ≤ I/mol dm−3 ≤ 1.0) and temperatures (288.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 318.15). From the elaboration of the experimental data, it was found that the speciation models are featured by species of different stoichiometry and stability. In particular for cadmium, the formation of only MLH, ML and ML2 (M = Cd2+; L = dopamine) species was obtained. For uranyl(VI) (UO22+), the speciation scheme is influenced by the use of UO2(acetate)2 salt as a chemical; in this case, the formation of ML2, MLOH and the ternary MLAc (Ac = acetate) species in a wide pH range was observed. The most complex speciation model was obtained for the interaction of Cu2+ with dopamine; in this case we observed the formation of the following species: ML2, M2L, M2L2, M2L2(OH)2, M2LOH and ML2OH. These speciation models were determined at each ionic strength and temperature investigated. As a further contribution to this kind of investigation, the ternary interactions of dopamine with UO22+/Cd2+ and UO22+/Cu2+ were investigated at I = 0.15 mol dm−3 and T = 298.15K. These systems have different speciation models, with the MM’L and M2M’L2OH [M = UO22+; M’ = Cd2+ or Cu2+, L = dopamine] common species; the species of the mixed Cd2+ containing system have a higher stability with respect the Cu2+ containing one. The dependence on the ionic strength of complex formation constants was modelled by using both an extended Debye–Hückel equation that included the Van’t Hoff term for the calculation of the formation enthalpy change values and the Specific Ion Interaction Theory (SIT). The results highlighted that, in general, the entropy is the driving force of the process. The quantification of the effective sequestering ability of dopamine towards the studied cations was evaluated by using a Boltzmann-type equation and the calculation of pL0.5 parameter. The sequestering ability was quantified at different ionic strengths, temperatures and pHs, and this resulted, in general, that the pL0.5 trend was always: UO22+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+.


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