Quantitative Models
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Weihao Zhu ◽  
Hao Hong ◽  
Zhihui Hong ◽  
Xianjie Kang ◽  
Weifeng Du ◽  
...  

In order to identify the quality of crude and processed Corydalis Rhizoma decoction pieces, the research established a simple, fast, reliable, and validated near-infrared qualitative and quantitative model combined with chemometrics. 51 batches of crude and 40 batches of processed Corydalis Rhizoma from the Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces of China were collected and analyzed. Crude and processed Corydalis Rhizoma samples were crushed to obtain NIR spectra. The content of seven alkaloids in crude and processed Corydalis Rhizoma was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pretreatment methods were screened such as normalization methods, offset filtering methods, and smoothing. Combined with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares (PLS), the qualitative and quantitative models of crude and processed Corydalis Rhizoma were established, and the correlation coefficient (R2), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were used as evaluation indexes. Tetrahydropalmatine was used as an example for screening pretreatment methods; the results showed that MSC combined with the second derivative and no smoothing and the model with the wavelength range of 10000–5000 cm−1 had the best predictive ability and applied to all seven alkaloid components. Among them, the correlation coefficients were all higher than 0.99, and RMSEC and RMSEP were all less than 1%. The qualitative and quantitative model of the seven alkaloids in Corydalis Rhizoma can effectively identify the crude and processed Corydalis Rhizoma and determine the content of the seven alkaloids. By studying the NIR qualitative and quantitative models of crude and processed Corydalis Rhizoma, we can achieve rapid discrimination and quantitative prediction of crude and processed Corydalis Rhizoma. These methods can greatly improve the efficiency of traditional Chinese medicine analysis and provide a strong scientific basis for the quality identification and control of traditional Chinese medicine.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sigrid Prehofer ◽  
Hannah Kosow ◽  
Tobias Naegler ◽  
Thomas Pregger ◽  
Stefan Vögele ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Linking qualitative scenarios with quantitative models is a common approach to integrate assumptions on possible future societal contexts into modeling. But reflection on how and to what degree knowledge is effectively integrated during this endeavor does not generally take place. In this paper, we reflect on the performance of a specific hybrid scenario approach (qualitative Cross-Impact Balance analysis, CIB, linked with quantitative energy models) concerning knowledge integration through 11 different process steps. In order to guide the scenario community in applying this approach, we reflect on general methodological features as well as different design options. We conceptualize different forms of interdisciplinary knowledge integration (compiling, combining and synthesizing) and analyze how and to what degree knowledge about society and uncertainty are integrated into scenario process and products. In addition, we discuss trade-offs regarding design choices and forms of knowledge integration. Results On the basis of three case studies, we identify two general designs of linking which build on each other (basic and extended design) and which differ in essence regarding the balance of power between the CIB and the energy modeling. Ex post assessment of the form of interdisciplinary knowledge integration in each step revealed that specific method properties of CIB as well as the interaction with additional quantitative as well as specific qualitative methods foster distinct forms of knowledge integration. The specific roles assigned to CIB in the hybrid scenario process can also influence the form of knowledge integration. Conclusions In this study, we use a joint process scheme linking qualitative context scenarios with energy modeling. By applying our conceptualization of different forms of knowledge integration we analyze the designs’ respective potential for and respective effects on knowledge integration. Consequently, our findings can give guidance to those who are designing their own hybrid scenario processes. As this is an explorative study, it would be useful to further test our hypotheses in different hybrid scenario designs. Finally, we note that at some points in the process a more precise differentiation of three forms of knowledge integration would have been useful and propose to further differentiate and detail them in future research.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 39
Author(s):  
Carl Kirpes ◽  
Dave Sly ◽  
Guiping Hu

Organizations can enhance the value of their assembly planning, assembly design, and assembly shop floor execution through the use of the 3D product model. Once a tool targeted at product design, the 3D product model, enabled by current and emerging manufacturing process management technologies, can create additional value for organizations when used in assembly processes. The research survey conducted and described in this paper demonstrates the value organizations have seen in using the 3D product model in the assembly process. The paper also explores the current state of those organizations who have not yet implemented the use of the 3D product model in their assembly processes and the value that they foresee for possible future implementation. The essential findings of this research are the five qualitative areas in which value is derived from using the 3D product model in complex assembly processes and how those value drivers apply across various industries and organization sizes. These results provide a framework for future research to develop quantitative models of the value of the 3D product model use in assembly processes.


Author(s):  
Sebastian Bauer ◽  
George D. Demetri ◽  
Ensar Halilovic ◽  
Reinhard Dummer ◽  
Christophe Meille ◽  
...  

Abstract Background CGM097 inhibits the p53-HDM2 interaction leading to downstream p53 activation. Preclinical in vivo studies support clinical exploration while providing preliminary evidence for dosing regimens. This first-in-human phase I study aimed at assessing the safety, MTD, PK/PD and preliminary antitumor activity of CGM097 in advanced solid tumour patients (NCT01760525). Methods Fifty-one patients received oral treatment with CGM097 10–400 mg 3qw (n = 31) or 300–700 mg 3qw 2 weeks on/1 week off (n = 20). Choice of dose regimen was guided by PD biomarkers, and quantitative models describing the effect of CGM097 on circulating platelet and PD kinetics. Results No dose-limiting toxicities were reported in any regimens. The most common treatment-related grade 3/4 AEs were haematologic events. PK/PD models well described the time course of platelet and serum GDF-15 changes, providing a tool to predict response to CGM097 for dose-limiting thrombocytopenia and GDF-15 biomarker. The disease control rate was 39%, including one partial response and 19 patients in stable disease. Twenty patients had a cumulative treatment duration of >16 weeks, with eight patients on treatment for >32 weeks. The MTD was not determined. Conclusions Despite delayed-onset thrombocytopenia frequently observed, the tolerability of CGM097 appears manageable. This study provided insights on dosing optimisation for next-generation HDM2 inhibitors. Translational relevance Haematologic toxicity with delayed thrombocytopenia is a well-known on-target effect of HDM2 inhibitors. Here we have developed a PK/PD guided approach to optimise the dose and schedule of CGM097, a novel HDM2 inhibitor, using exposure, platelets and GDF-15, a known p53 downstream target to predict patients at higher risk to develop thrombocytopenia. While CGM097 had shown limited activity, with disease control rate of 39% and only one patient in partial response, the preliminary data from the first-in-human escalation study together with the PK/PD modeling provide important insights on how to optimize dosing of next generation HDM2 inhibitors to mitigate hematologic toxicity.


Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 372 (6547) ◽  
pp. 1209-1214
Author(s):  
Joshua C. Peterson ◽  
David D. Bourgin ◽  
Mayank Agrawal ◽  
Daniel Reichman ◽  
Thomas L. Griffiths

Predicting and understanding how people make decisions has been a long-standing goal in many fields, with quantitative models of human decision-making informing research in both the social sciences and engineering. We show how progress toward this goal can be accelerated by using large datasets to power machine-learning algorithms that are constrained to produce interpretable psychological theories. Conducting the largest experiment on risky choice to date and analyzing the results using gradient-based optimization of differentiable decision theories implemented through artificial neural networks, we were able to recapitulate historical discoveries, establish that there is room to improve on existing theories, and discover a new, more accurate model of human decision-making in a form that preserves the insights from centuries of research.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shyr-Shea Chang ◽  
Zhirong Bao ◽  
Eric Siggia

Geometric models allow us to quantify topography of the Waddington landscape and gain quantitative insights of gene interaction in cell fate differentiation. Often mutant phenotypes show partial penetrance and there is a dearth of quantitative models that can exploit this data and make predictions about new allelic combinations with no additional parameters. C. elegans with its invariant cell lineages has been a key model system for discovering the genes controlling development. Here we focus on the differentiation of the endoderm founder cell named E from its mother, the EMS cell. Mutants that convert E to its sister MS fate have figured prominently in deciphering the Wnt pathway in worm. We construct a bi-valued Waddington landscape model that predicts the effect on POP-1/TCF and SYS-1/beta-catenin levels based on the penetrance of mutant alleles and RNAi, and relates the levels to fate choice decisions. A subset of the available data is used to fit the model and remaining data is then correctly predicted. Simple kinetic arguments show that contrary to current belief the ratio of these two proteins alone is not indicative of fate outcomes. Furthermore, double mutants within a background reduction of POP-1 levels are predicted with no adjustable parameters and their relative penetrance can differ from the same mutants with the wild-type POP-1 level, which calls for further experimental investigations. Our model refines the content of existing gene networks and invites extensions to other manifestations of the Wnt pathway in worm.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. e1009028
Author(s):  
Max F. Burg ◽  
Santiago A. Cadena ◽  
George H. Denfield ◽  
Edgar Y. Walker ◽  
Andreas S. Tolias ◽  
...  

Divisive normalization (DN) is a prominent computational building block in the brain that has been proposed as a canonical cortical operation. Numerous experimental studies have verified its importance for capturing nonlinear neural response properties to simple, artificial stimuli, and computational studies suggest that DN is also an important component for processing natural stimuli. However, we lack quantitative models of DN that are directly informed by measurements of spiking responses in the brain and applicable to arbitrary stimuli. Here, we propose a DN model that is applicable to arbitrary input images. We test its ability to predict how neurons in macaque primary visual cortex (V1) respond to natural images, with a focus on nonlinear response properties within the classical receptive field. Our model consists of one layer of subunits followed by learned orientation-specific DN. It outperforms linear-nonlinear and wavelet-based feature representations and makes a significant step towards the performance of state-of-the-art convolutional neural network (CNN) models. Unlike deep CNNs, our compact DN model offers a direct interpretation of the nature of normalization. By inspecting the learned normalization pool of our model, we gained insights into a long-standing question about the tuning properties of DN that update the current textbook description: we found that within the receptive field oriented features were normalized preferentially by features with similar orientation rather than non-specifically as currently assumed.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guillaume Le Treut ◽  
Fangwei Si ◽  
Dongyang Li ◽  
Suckjoon Jun

We examine five quantitative models of the cell-cycle and cell-size control in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis that have been proposed over the last decade to explain single-cell experimental data generated with high-throughput methods. After presenting the statistical properties of these models, we test their predictions against experimental data. Based on simple calculations of the defining correlations in each model, we first dismiss the stochastic Helmstetter-Cooper model and the Initiation Adder model, and show that both the Replication Double Adder and the Independent Double Adder model are more consistent with the data than the other models. We then apply a recently proposed statistical analysis method and obtain that the Independent Double Adder model is the most likely model of the cell cycle. By showing that the Replication Double Adder model is fundamentally inconsistent with size convergence by the adder principle, we conclude that the Independent Double Adder model is most consistent with the data and the biology of bacterial cell-cycle and cell-size control. Mechanistically, the Independent Adder Model is equivalent to two biological principles: (i) balanced biosynthesis of the cell-cycle proteins, and (ii) their accumulation to a respective threshold number to trigger initiation and division.


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