annealing treatment
Recently Published Documents





Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Jiawei Li ◽  
Junren Xiang ◽  
Ge Yi ◽  
Yuanting Tang ◽  
Huachen Shao ◽  

Surface residual lithium compounds of Ni-rich cathodes are tremendous obstacles to electrochemical performance due to blocking ion/electron transfer and arousing surface instability. Herein, ultrathin and uniform Al2O3 coating via atomic layer deposition (ALD) coupled with the post-annealing process is reported to reduce residual lithium compounds on single-crystal LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NCM622). Surface composition characterizations indicate that LiOH is obviously reduced after Al2O3 growth on NCM622. Subsequent post-annealing treatment causes the consumption of Li2CO3 along with the diffusion of Al atoms into the surface layer of NCM622. The NCM622 modified by Al2O3 coating and post-annealing exhibits excellent cycling stability, the capacity retention of which reaches 92.2% after 300 cycles at 1 C, much higher than that of pristine NCM622 (34.8%). Reduced residual lithium compounds on NCM622 can greatly decrease the formation of LiF and the degree of Li+/Ni2+ cation mixing after discharge–charge cycling, which is the key to the improvement of cycling stability.

Daniela O. Parra ◽  
Luis Daniel Daza ◽  
Angélica Sandoval‐Aldana ◽  
Valeria S. Eim ◽  
Henry A. Váquiro

Tan Zhang ◽  
Denggao Guan ◽  
Ningtao Liu ◽  
Jianguo Zhang ◽  
Jinfu Zhang ◽  

Abstract This work fabricates deep-ultraviolet (DUV) photodetectors (PDs) with a metal-semiconductor-metal structure based on radio-frequency sputtered amorphous Ga2O3 films at room temperature. The Ga2O3-based PD exhibits a low dark current of 1.41×10-11 A, good responsivity of 1.77 A/W and a fast-rise response time of 114 ms. A series of annealing treatments with different atmospheres have been found effective to reduce the oxygen vacancy concentration, exhibiting a trade-off effect between the responsivity and response time. These results demonstrate a cost-effective room-temperature approach for fabricating amorphous Ga2O3-based PDs and develop possible post-synthetic methods for tuning the PD performance.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 390
Pragya Singh ◽  
Firman Mangasa Simanjuntak ◽  
Li-Lun Hu ◽  
Tseung-Yuen Tseng ◽  
Hsiao-Wen Zan ◽  

Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic gas, which is dangerous for human health and causes many respiratory infections, poisoning, and lung damage. In this work, we have successfully grown ZnO nanorod film on annealed ZnO seed layer in different ambient temperatures, and the morphology of the nanorods sensing layer that affects the gas sensing response to nitric oxide (NO) gas were investigated. To acknowledge the effect of annealing treatment, the devices were fabricated with annealed seed layers in air and argon ambient at 300 °C and 500 °C for 1 h. To simulate a vertical device structure, a silver nanowire electrode covered in ZnO nanorod film was placed onto the hydrothermal grown ZnO nanorod film. We found that annealing treatment changes the seed layer’s grain size and defect concentration and is responsible for this phenomenon. The I–V and gas sensing characteristics were dependent on the oxygen defects concentration and porosity of nanorods to react with the target gas. The resulting as-deposited ZnO seed layer shows better sensing response than that annealed in an air and argon environment due to the nanorod morphology and variation in oxygen defect concentration. At room temperature, the devices show good sensing response to NO concentration of 10 ppb and up to 100 ppb. Shortly, these results can be beneficial in the NO breath detection for patients with chronic inflammatory airway disease, such as asthma.

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Victoire Lescure ◽  
Morgane Gelin ◽  
Mélanie François ◽  
Mohammad Arab Pour Yazdi ◽  
Pascal Briois ◽  

New advanced fuel cell technologies are moving towards high-temperature proton conductors (HTPCs) to meet environmental issues. Their elaboration remains a challenge and micro-computed tomography (µCT) is an innovative way to control their quality. NiO-BZY anodic supports of a protonic ceramic electrochemical cell (PCEC), elaborated by co-tape casting and co-sintered at 1350 °C, were coated with a BZY20 electrolyte layer by DC magnetron sputtering. The µCT allowed to observe defects inside the volume of these PCEC half-cells and to show their evolution after an annealing treatment at 1000 °C and reduction under hydrogen. This technique consists in obtaining a 3D reconstruction of all the cross-sectional images of the whole sample, slice by slice. This allows seeing inside the sample at any desired depth. The resolution of 0.35 µm is perfectly adapted to this type of problem considering the thickness of the different layers of the sample and the size of the defects. Defects were detected, and their interpretation was possible thanks to the 3D view, such as the phenomenon of NiO grain enlargement explaining defects in the electrolyte, the effect of NiO reduction, and finally, some anomalies due to the shaping process. Ways to anticipate these defects were then proposed.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Jun-Woo Park ◽  
Jeongsuk Seo

The high activity of non-platinum electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media is necessary for applications in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we present the electrocatalytic activity of TaOx/carbon black (CB) nanoparticles for the ORR in an alkaline atmosphere as well as in an acidic electrolyte. Ultrafine TaOx nanoparticles 1–2 nm in size and uniformly dispersed on CB supports were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition in a nonaqueous electrolyte and subsequent annealing treatment in an H2 flow. The TaOx/CB nanoparticles largely catalyzed the ORR with an onset potential of 1.03 VRHE in an O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH solution comparable to that of a commercial Pt/CB catalyst. ORR activity was also observed in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution. According to the rotating ring disk electrode measurement results, the oxide nanoparticles partly produced H2O2 during the ORR in 0.1 M KOH, and the ORR process was dominated by both the two- and four-electron reductions of oxygen in a diffusion-limited potential region. The Tafel slope of −120 mV dec−1 in low and high current densities revealed the surface stability of the oxide nanoparticles during the ORR. Therefore, these results demonstrated that the TaOx/CB nanoparticles were electroactive for the ORR in both acidic and alkaline electrolytes.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Huan Lin ◽  
Jinbo Xu ◽  
Fuhua Shen ◽  
Lijun Zhang ◽  
Shen Xu ◽  

This work documents the annealing effect on the thermal conductivity of nanotube film (CNTB) and carbon nanotube fiber (CNTF). The thermal properties of carbon nanotube samples are measured by using the transient electro-thermal (TET) technique, and the experimental phenomena are analyzed based on numerical simulation. During the current annealing treatment, CNTB1 always maintains the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and its thermal diffusivity increases gradually. When the annealing current is 200 mA, it increases by 33.62%. However, with the increase of annealing current, the TCR of CNTB2 changes from positive to negative. The disparity between CNTB2 and CNTB1 suggests that they have different physical properties and even structures along their lengths. The high-level thermal diffusivity of CNTB2 and CNTF are 2.28–2.46 times and 1.65–3.85 times higher than the lower one. The results show that the decrease of the thermal diffusivity for CNTB2 and CNTF is mainly caused by enhanced Umklapp scattering, the high thermal resistance and torsional sliding during high temperature heating.

Scanning ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Jing Bai ◽  
Yan Xu ◽  
Qizhou Fan ◽  
Ruihua Cao ◽  
Xingxing Zhou ◽  

Zn and Zn-based alloys exhibit biosafety and biodegradation, considered as candidates for biomedical implants. Zn-0.02 wt.% Mg (Zn-0.02 Mg), Zn-0.05 wt.% Mg (Zn-0.05 Mg), and Zn-0.2 wt.% Mg (Zn-0.2 Mg) wires (Φ 0.3 mm) were prepared for precision biomedical devices in this work. With the addition of Mg in Zn-xMg alloys, the grain size decreased along with the occurrence of Mg2Zn11 at the grain boundaries. Hot extrusion, cold drawing, and annealing treatment were introduced to further refining the grain size. Besides, the hot extrusion and cold drawing improved the tensile strength of Zn-xMg alloys to 240-270 MPa while elongation also increased but remained under 10%. Annealing treatment could improve the elongation of Zn alloys to 12% -28%, but decrease the tensile strength. Furthermore, Zn-xMg wires displayed an increase in degradation rate with Mg addition. The findings might provide a potential possibility of Zn-xMg alloy wires for biomedical applications.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document