metal species
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2022 ◽  
Takeshi Tsuji ◽  
Shota Yamamoto ◽  
Shun Ikemoto ◽  
Hiromasa Hara ◽  
Motoki Ohta ◽  

Abstract Laser drilling of amorphous alloy foils was conducted using low-energy long-pulses (LP) generated using a Nd:YAG laser. Results showed that LP can drill an amorphous alloy foil more efficiently than a nanosecond pulse (NSP) can: an LP at 1 mJ can open a through-hole on an amorphous alloy foil with 25 mm thickness although single shot NSP at 20 mJ formed a crater with ca. 3 mm depth. From these findings, we infer that the markedly higher drilling efficiency of a low-energy LP than that of NSP is attributable to 1) lower plasma generation by LP than by NSP, and 2) repeated irradiation of the target material by multiple sub-pulses in an LP. Results also demonstrate that low-energy LP drilling is applicable to various metal foils and that the drilling efficiency depends on the metal species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Ming-Qiang Ren ◽  
Shu-Ze Wang ◽  
Sha Han ◽  
Can-Li Song ◽  
Xu-Cun Ma ◽  

AbstractThe successful preparation of superconducting alkali fulleride (AxC60, A = K, Rb, Cs) films using state-of-the-art molecular beam epitaxy overcomes the disadvantages of the air-sensitivity and phase separation in bulk AxC60, enabling for the first time a direct investigation of the superconductivity in alkali fullerides on the molecular scale. In this paper, we briefly review recent cryogenic scanning tunneling microscopy results of the structural, electronic, and superconducting properties of the fcc AxC60 films grown on graphitized SiC substrates. Robust s-wave superconductivity is revealed against the pseudogap, electronic correlation, non-magnetic impurities, and merohedral disorder. By controlling the alkali-metal species, film thickness, and electron doping, we systematically tune the C60x− orientational orderings and superconductivity in AxC60 films and then complete a unified phase diagram of superconducting gap size vs electronic correlation and doping. These investigations are conclusive and elucidated that the s-wave superconductivity retains in alkali fullerides despite of the electronic correlation and presence of pseudogap.

Ziliang Li ◽  
Shangkun Deng ◽  
Zhuangzhuang Yin ◽  
Shihan Qi ◽  
Hai Yu ◽  

By mixing Fe, Co, and Ni metal species (FCN) in equimolar ratios, multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with unique chrysanthemum nanoflower structures were successfully fabricated on a nickel foam (NF) via...

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaoxin Han ◽  
Shiyu Wang ◽  
Xue Yu ◽  
Rolf D. Vogt ◽  
Jianfeng Feng ◽  

Due to its small size, large specific surface area and hydrophobicity, microplastics, and the adsorbed contaminants may together cause potential negative effects on ecosystems and human beings. In this study, kinetics and size effects on adsorption of Cu(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) onto PE, PP and PET microplastic particles were explored. Results indicated that the PE and PET microplastics have the higher adsorption capacity for Cu(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) than that for PP microplastic. The adsorption capacity was affected by microplastic types and metal species. Among the three metals, Pb(II) had the largest adsorption amount on microplastic particles, especially on PET particles. Moreover, the adsorption capacities of microplastics increase with the decrease of particle size. The metal adsorption capacity of <0.9 mm microplastics is greater than that of 0.9–2 mm and 2–5 mm microplastics. The size effect on metal adsorption was largest for PE microplastic. More attention should be paid in case of the coexistence of heavy metals and tiny PE and PET microplastics in the environment.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Gabriela Mota ◽  
José Vitor C. do Carmo ◽  
Camila B. Paz ◽  
Gilberto D. Saraiva ◽  
Adriana Campos ◽  

The effects of the metal incorporation into hydroxyapatites on the deactivation behavior of the solids were examined in the esterification of glycerol (EG) reaction. The introduction of Cu, Co, or Ni ions by ion exchange in calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites resulted in active catalysts for the EG reaction. The metal contents were varied from 2.0 to 17.0%, providing better performances at rather high metal contents. Part of metal species existed in the hydroxyapatite lattice structure and also as isolated Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+ entities on the surface, as shown by XPS and EPR. The effects of the reaction temperature, reaction time, and glycerol to acetic acid molar ratios were deeply investigated. The spent solids used in this study were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS, chemical analyses, EPR, and XPS. The Cu2+–OH acid pairs could promote a superior catalytic performance of Cu-containing hydroxyapatites due to the resistance of these solids against leaching of the active species, which is even better than those of Co and Ni-containing counterparts with high metal contents. Cu into hydroxyapatite had a good reusability and long-term utilization for five consecutive cycles of 24 h under a glycerol to acetic acid molar ratio of 0.25 at 80 °C, and longer reaction times provide triacetin formation. This was due to the fact that Cu was stabilized by interacting with Ca, PO4, and OH sites into the hydroxyapatite lattice, being highly active for the EG reaction. The results also revealed that isolated Cu2+ sites played an important role in enhancing the glycerol conversion, intrinsically due to the Cu-containing hydroxyapatites ability to avoid strong adsorption of glycerol oligomers on the catalytic sites.

Nano Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Xinyao Wang ◽  
Runping Ye ◽  
Melis S. Duyar ◽  
Cameron Alexander Hurd Price ◽  
Hao Tian ◽  

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1529
Marcello Ferrara ◽  
Michele Melchionna ◽  
Paolo Fornasiero ◽  
Manuela Bevilacqua

Electrocatalytic Nitrogen Reduction Reaction (NRR) to ammonia is one of the most recent trends of research in heterogeneous catalysis for sustainability. The stark challenges posed by the NRR arise from many factors, beyond the strongly unfavored thermodynamics. The design of efficient heterogeneous electrocatalysts must rely on a suitable interplay of different components, so that the majority of research is focusing on development of nanohybrids or nanocomposites that synergistically harness the NRR sequence. Nanostructured carbon is one of the most versatile and powerful conductive supports that can be combined with metal species in an opportune manner, so as to guide the correct proceeding of the reaction and boost the catalytic activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Bastian Blume ◽  
Michael Witting ◽  
Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin ◽  
Bernhard Michalke

Parkinson´s disease progression is linked to iron redox status homeostasis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and lipids are the primary targets of ROS. The determination of iron redox status in vivo is challenging and requires specific extraction methods, which are so far tedious and very time-consuming. We demonstrated a novel, faster, and less laborious extraction method using the chelator ethylene glycol l-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetra acetic acid (EGTA) as a stabilizing agent and synthetic quartz beads for homogenization under an argon atmosphere. Additionally, we combined the metal extraction with a well-established lipid extraction protocol using methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to avoid the problems of lipid precipitation in frozen samples and to determine lipid profiles and metal species from the same batch. The nonextractable matrix, such as the debris, is removed by centrifugation and digested to determine the total metal content of the sample as well. Lipid profiling using RP-LC–MS demonstrated high accordance of the modified extraction method to the reference method, and the organic solvent does not affect the iron redox status equilibrium. Furthermore, rigorous testing demonstrated the stability of the iron redox status equilibrium during the extraction process, secured by complexation, inert atmosphere, fast preparation, and immediately deep frozen extracts.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1419
Shuting Liang ◽  
Chaowei Wang ◽  
Fengjiao Li ◽  
Gang Song

Room-temperature liquid metal is a very ideal material for the design of catalytic materials. At low temperatures, the liquid metal enters the liquid state. It provides an opportunity to utilize the liquid phase in the catalysis, which is far superior to the traditional solid-phase catalyst. Aiming at the low performance and narrow application scope of the existing single-phase liquid metal catalyst, this paper proposed a type of liquid metal/metal oxide core-shell composite multi-metal catalyst. The Ga2O3 core-shell heterostructure was formed by chemical modification of liquid metals with different nano metals Cu/W/Mo/Ni, and it was applied to photocatalytic degrading organic contaminated raw liquor. The effects of different metal species on the rate of catalytic degradation were explored. The selectivity and stability of the LM/MO core-shell composite catalytic material were clarified, and it was found that the Ni-LM catalyst could degrade methylene blue and Congo red by 84% and 74%, respectively. The catalytic mechanism and charge transfer mechanism were revealed by combining the optical band gap value. Finally, we provided a theoretical basis for the further development of liquid metal photocatalytic materials in the field of new energy environments.

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