Apparently Healthy
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 151-156
Swarnali Chakrabarty ◽  
Qazi Shamima Akhter ◽  
Lala Shourav Das ◽  
Mohammad Mostafizur Rahman Department of Physiology ◽  
Dhaka medical college ◽  

As a result of increasing environmental temperature, use of air conditioner (AC) has become very popular specially in the urban areas mostly during warmer months of the year. Exposure to cold, dry air of AC on a regular basis can cause various alternations in lung functions of AC users which can lead to many future lung diseases. These alternations in lung functions can be influenced by the temperature at which AC is regulated. This cross-sectional study was conducted to observe the effects of air conditioner use and variation of AC temperature on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of apparently healthy adult male and female living in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The study group (group A) consisted of 48 apparently healthy adult male and female who were exposed to air conditioner for at least 6 hours per day for minimum 5 days per week for the past 2 to 4 years. They were divided into two subgroups based on temperature at which AC was regulated. Group A1 consisted of 24 subjects (12 male and 12 female) who were exposed to AC for at least 6 hours per day for minimum 5 days per week for the past 2 to 4 years and where temperature of the AC was constantly regulated in between 18° C to 22°C. Group A2 consisted of 24 subjects (12 male and 12 female) who were exposed to AC for the same period of time but where AC was constantly regulated in between 23°C to 25°C. The control group (group B) consisted of similar number of age, gender, BMI and socioeconomically matched subjects who did not use air conditioner nearly at all. Actual, predicted and percentage of predicted value of PEFR were estimated in both the study and control group using Minato Autospiro AS-507. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired Student’s ‘t’ test and p value 0.05 was taken as level of significance. In this study mean actual and percentage (%) of predicted value of PEFR were significantly lower in AC users in comparison to nonusers in case of both male and female. Between two groups of AC users, mean actual and percentage of predicted value of PEFR were significantly lower in the group where AC temperature was constantly regulated in between 18°C to 22°C in comparison to the group where AC temperature was constantly regulated in between 23°C to 25°C. Use of AC can significantly reduce lung functions of AC users and lower AC temperature is associated with more reduction of PEFR in AC users.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
Akhimienho Kingsley Irelosen ◽  
Nyong Eno Etim ◽  
Adesina Sunday Babatunde

In Nigeria, a prevalence of obesity of 4.2% has been reported among adolescents in a study in South-West Nigeria. Studies on the prevalence of obesity among adolescents have yielded different prevalence rates in different parts of the country. The present study was planned to determine the prevalence of obesity amongst apparently healthy adolescents aged 10-18 years in secondary schools in Uyo, as well as determine associated predisposing factors to obesity. This was a cross sectional school-based study of 1,701 adolescents selected by multi-stage sampling technique, carried out between December 2016 to February 2018. It involved measurement of weight, height and waist circumference of the study subjects, as well as administration of pretested questionnaires. Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) percentile and waist to height ratio of the subjects were determined. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Prevalence of obesity was determined and Chi Square was used to determine the relationship between qualitative variables. General obesity was defined as a BMI ≥95th percentile, while central obesity was defined as WtHR ≥0.5 or waist circumference ≥90th percentile for age and sex. Prevalence of general obesity was 5.6% while the prevalence of central obesity was 11.2% using WC percentile and 9% using WHtR. This study also revealed higher prevalence of obesity in females, adolescents from monogamous homes, as well as those whose parents are from the upper socio-class. It is recommended that routine measurement of the indices of adiposity and public health enlightenment measures aimed at reducing the burden of obesity amongst adolescents in Uyo be encouraged by public health authorities. The physicians should be encouraged to measure the indices of adiposity during consultations.

BMC Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Chengyi Ding ◽  
Dara O’Neill ◽  
Steven Bell ◽  
Emmanuel Stamatakis ◽  
Annie Britton

Abstract Background Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be cardio-protective among apparently healthy individuals; however, it is unclear whether this association is also present in those with disease. To examine the association between alcohol consumption and prognosis in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), we conducted a series of meta-analyses of new findings from three large-scale cohorts and existing published studies. Methods We assessed alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and subsequent cardiovascular events via de novo analyses of 14,386 patients with a previous myocardial infarction, angina, or stroke in the UK Biobank Study (median follow-up 8.7 years, interquartile range [IQR] 8.0–9.5), involving 1640 deaths and 2950 subsequent events, and 2802 patients and 1257 deaths in 15 waves of the Health Survey for England 1994–2008 and three waves of the Scottish Health Survey 1995, 1998, and 2003 (median follow-up 9.5 years, IQR 5.7–13.0). This was augmented with findings from 12 published studies identified through a systematic review, providing data on 31,235 patients, 5095 deaths, and 1414 subsequent events. To determine the best-fitting dose-response association between alcohol and each outcome in the combined sample of 48,423 patients, models were constructed using fractional polynomial regression, adjusting at least for age, sex, and smoking status. Results Alcohol consumption was associated with all assessed outcomes in a J-shaped manner relative to current non-drinkers, with a risk reduction that peaked at 7 g/day (relative risk 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.73–0.85) for all-cause mortality, 8 g/day (0.73, 0.64–0.83) for cardiovascular mortality and 6 g/day (0.50, 0.26–0.96) for cardiovascular events, and remained significant up to 62, 50, and 15 g/day, respectively. No statistically significant elevated risks were found at higher levels of drinking. In the few studies that excluded former drinkers from the non-drinking reference group, reductions in risk among light-to-moderate drinkers were attenuated. Conclusions For secondary prevention of CVD, current drinkers may not need to stop drinking. However, they should be informed that the lowest risk of mortality and having another cardiovascular event is likely to be associated with lower levels of drinking, that is up to approximately 105g (or equivalent to 13 UK units, with one unit equal to half a pint of beer/lager/cider, half a glass of wine, or one measure of spirits) a week.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254858
Eman Ahmed El-Attar ◽  
Tamer A. Hosny ◽  
Kiyoshi Ichihara ◽  
Rania N. Bedair ◽  
Ahmed Salah El-Din Tork

Background Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an important determinant of ovarian reserve in fertility workups in many clinical settings. Thus, we investigated the age dependent decline in AMH specific to the Egyptian population and sought to establish an age dependent reference interval parametrically. Methods Serum samples were collected from 841 apparently healthy women. AMH was measured using an electro-chemiluminescent technique. Box-Cox power transformation was used to make the AMH distribution Gaussian for parametric derivation of reference intervals. Results Power of 0.4 was found optimal for Gaussian transformation of AMH reference values. We demonstrate the strong negative relation between circulating AMH and female age with Spearman’s correlation coefficient of rS = −0.528. Age-specific reference interval was determined for every 5 years of age from 16 to 49, and nomogram was constructed by smoothing the lines connecting adjacent lower and upper reference limits. Conclusion The age-specific reference intervals and the age-AMH nomogram could be valuable in the clinical practice of in reproductive medicine. To our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm AMH levels in Egyptian females. We were able to explore age-related AMH levels specific to Egyptian females in the fertile age group and to treat skewed AMH data in a multi-step scheme using power transformation. Thus, a more accurate nomogram was constructed accommodating a profile delineated for a wide age range and a rescaled AMH axis improving its usability.

Ahmed Abdulahi Hussen ◽  
Foziya Mohammed Hussien ◽  
Nejib Yusuf ◽  
Aragaw Yimer Ahmed ◽  
Hamid Yimam Hassen

Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is linked to several social, psychological, and health-related problems. Studies show that khat is associated with gastrointestinal and nervous system diseases. However, little is known about khat’s effect on the cardiovascular system. This case report describes acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among two young adults who chew khat frequently, but who do not have underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Case 1 is a 29-year-old apparently healthy man who presented with severe, squeezing, left-side chest pain after consumption of khat. Most of the laboratory results were within the normal range except for his serum troponin level, which was 400 times more than the normal limit. The patient was diagnosed with Killip class IV, ST-segment elevation, anteroseptal AMI. Case 2 is a 25-year-old man who is a frequent khat chewer. He presented with sudden-onset, severe, squeezing, retrosternal chest pain after khat chewing and vigorous activity. The patient was diagnosed with (Killip class III) acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. These case reports describe two young adult male patients who were confirmed of having AMI with no known risk factors. Both cases had a similar history of frequent khat chewing and the onset of AMI after it, implying that khat could be an important CVD risk factor among young adults. Hence, it is essential to explore further the epidemiology and association between khat use and AMI. Both molecular and population-level studies could help to establish the causal relationship of khat and CVD.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 1445
Lanre Sulaiman ◽  
Ismaila Shittu ◽  
Alice Fusaro ◽  
Bitrus Inuwa ◽  
Bianca Zecchin ◽  

Since 2006, multiple outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) have been reported in Nigeria involving different subtypes. Surveillance and molecular epidemiology have revealed the vital role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the dissemination of AI virus to commercial poultry farms. To better understand the ecology and epidemiology of AI in Nigeria, we performed whole-genome sequencing of nineteen H9N2 viruses recovered, from apparently healthy poultry species, during active surveillance conducted in nine LBMs across Nigeria in 2019. Analyses of the HA gene segment of these viruses showed that the H9N2 strains belong to the G1 lineage, which has zoonotic potential, and are clustered with contemporary H9N2 identified in Africa between 2016 and 2020. We observed two distinct clusters of H9N2 viruses in Nigeria, suggesting different introductions into the country. In view of the zoonotic potential of H9N2 and the co-circulation of multiple subtypes of AI virus in Nigeria, continuous monitoring of the LBMs across the country and molecular characterization of AIVs identified is advocated to mitigate economic losses and public health threats.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-114
Amos Dangana ◽  
Ifeoma Miracle Okoronkwo ◽  
Solomon Oloche Onoja ◽  
Innocent Nwabueze Okonkwo ◽  
Nonye Bibiana Egenti ◽  

Background: Albuminuria and Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (ACR) has been identified as early indices of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), Hypertension and are at great risk of hypertensive nephropathy, but this not so for the apparently healthy individuals. Objectives: This study was therefore carried out to evaluate and quantitate albuminuria and urine ACR among apparently healthy individual and to compare values with the hypertensive attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu State. Materials and method: The study was carried out on eighty-nine (89) volunteers (50 tests and 39 controls) age 21-77 years between August and September 2019. A structured questionnaire was used to get vital information, anthropometric measurements were taken while blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed for serum creatinine (Scr), urine creatinine (UCr) and urine albumin using Jaffe modified kinetic method and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method respectively. Body mass index (BMI) in Kg/m2, urine ACR in mg/mmol and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using Chronic Disease Epidemiology Equation were calculated. Data were analyzed using student’s T-test and one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Generally, results showed that males have higher (p<0.05) height, Scr, eGFR, and UCr but lower (p<0.05) BMI) when compared with the females, but no significant difference (P>0.05) between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse, weight, urine albumin and ACR. Also, the study revealed that the test subjects have higher SBP, DBP, weight, BMI, SCr, urine albumin, and ACR but lower (p<0.05) eGFR and UCr when compared with the control subjects, but no significant difference (P>0.05) between pulse and height. Furthermore, intra gender analysis of the results showed that males tests have higher SBP, DBP, weight, BMI and urine ACR but lower (p<0.05) eGFR and UCr when compared with male controls, but no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed for pulse, height, Scr and urine albumin. Finally, the results showed that female tests have higher (P<0.05) SBP, pulse, Scr, urine albumin and ACR but lower (p<0.05) eGFR when compared with the female controls Conclusion: Findings and results from this study suggest that the hypertensives stand a higher risk of kidney damage, consequently cardiovascular disease (CVD).

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Pie Ntampaka ◽  
François Niragire ◽  
Philip Njeru Nyaga ◽  
Gervais Habarugira

Canine nematodes pose a public health risk to humans and livestock; however, the prevalence of canine nematodiases in Rwanda is unknown. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of canine nematodiases and identifying the risk factors for such infections in Kigali, the capital city of Rwanda. A cross-sectional study involved 93 dogs selected across Kigali city. Faecal samples were collected from apparently healthy dogs, and nematode eggs were identified and quantified using the McMaster technique. Risk factors for canine nematodiases were analysed by a multivariable binary logistic regression model. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodiases in dogs was 33.3% (95% CI: 23.8–42.9). The most prevalent species was Ancylostoma spp with 32.3% (95% CI: 22.8–41.8). Nearly 38.7% and 3.2% of the dogs infected with Ancylostoma spp and Toxocara canis had high egg counts per gram (EPG) of faeces (≥550), respectively. Approximately 96.8% of dogs infected with nematodes had monoinfection. Logistic regression analysis showed that dog’s age (1 to 2.5 years old), location (Gasabo and Kicukiro districts), and feeding practices were significantly associated with prevalence of canine nematodiases. In particular, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was more than 5 times higher for dogs fed on uncooked animal products and leftovers from households and restaurants compared to those who ate food prepared for them. The AOR was also about 16 times higher for dogs that scavenged and ate leftovers from households compared to those who ate food prepared for them. The findings of this study indicate that the prevalence of GI nematodes in domestic dogs in Kigali city, Rwanda, was 33.3% (95% CI: 23.8–42.9). The identified nematodes, namely, Ancylostoma spp. and Toxocara canis, are zoonotic, and dogs and humans are at risk of contracting these nematodes. The factors associated with canine GI nematodes in Kigali city include feeding practices and the dog’s age and location (district). Dog owners need to rethink procedures for deworming and feeding their dogs. Again, the public should be made aware of the role of dogs in transmitting zoonotic nematodes to humans.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (3) ◽  
pp. 196-202
D. A. Bazhenova ◽  
O. S. Puchkova ◽  
E. A. Mershina ◽  
V. E. Sinitsyn

Background. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the main causes of death among women, and current prevention paradigms may not be sufficient in this group. In this context, it has been suggested that the detection of breast vascular calcifications can improve the screening and assessment of the risk of cardiovascular diseases in apparently healthy women.Objective: to study the role of breast vascular calcifications as a potential predictor for coronary artery calcification. Material and methods. Examinations were made in 123 patients who underwent digital mammography and cardiac computed tomography to estimate a coronary artery calcium score.Results. The use of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney W-test for abnormal distribution showed a relationship between the presence of breast vascular calcifications and calcium score (p< 0.001), and that between aortic wall calcification and calcium score (p< 0.001).Conclusion. Breast vascular calcifications detected by mammography are an indicator of a higher frequency of coronary artery calcification and, apparently, a predictor for the increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  

Pulse oximetry screening test (POT) has been shown to be useful for in early detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). The precise oxygen saturation expected at altitudes above 1500 meters above sea level is unknown, and its usefulness in children born above this height is also unknown. The target is to describe the results obtained from the POT in 100 apparently healthy newborns in a private hospital at 2550 meters above sea level where most of them were evaluated by one or more fetal-stage ultrasounds for the detection of CCHD among other things. Sex, resuscitation and weeks of gestation did not alter the results. 95 patients had “normal” prenatal ultrasound, of which 32% tested positive POT, and CCHD was also ruled out after clinical follow-up. It was concluded that all the patients with a positive test were healthy. We suggest possibility of modifying the POT parameters in order to avoid false positives is also discussed.

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