Trait Anxiety
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Daniela S. M. Pereira ◽  
Ana Mónica Pereira ◽  
Teresa Costa Castanho ◽  
Gabriela A. Silva ◽  
Filipe Falcão ◽  

Abstract Background Test anxiety is a crucial factor in determining academic outcomes, and it may lead to poor cognitive performance, academic underachievement, and psychological distress, interfering specifically with their ability to think and perform during tests. The main objective of this study was to explore the applicability and psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Reactions to Tests scale (RTT) in a sample of medical students. Method A sample of 672 medical students completed the RTT. The sample was randomly split in half to allow for independent Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and to test the best fit model—Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). CFA was used to test both the first-order factor structure (four subscales) and second-order factor structure, in which the four subscales relate to a general factor, Test Anxiety. The internal consistency of the RTT was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha, Composite reliability (CR) and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) for the total scale and each of the four subscales. Convergent validity was evaluated through the correlation between RTT and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y).To explore the comparability of measured attributes across subgroups of respondents, measurement invariance was also studied. Results Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fits for the Portuguese RTT version. Concerning internal consistency, results indicate that RTT was found to be reliable to measure test anxiety in this sample. Convergent validity of the RTT with both state and trait anxiety STAI-Y’s subscales was also shown. Moreover, multigroup analyses showed metric invariance across gender and curriculum phase. Conclusion Our results suggest that the RTT scale is a valid and reliable instrument for the measurement of test anxiety among Portuguese Medical Students.

2021 ◽  
Lisa Quadt ◽  
Gemma Louise Williams ◽  
James S Mulcahy ◽  
Marta Silva ◽  
Dennis E O Larsson ◽  

Despite the persistent stereotype that autistic individuals are not motivated to seek meaningful social relationships, rates of loneliness among the autistic population are higher than in the non-autistic population. In this two-part, mixed methods study, we sought to 1) quantify the level of distress associated with loneliness in autistic and non-autistic adults and 2) gain qualitative insight into autistic experiences of loneliness. In Study A, 209 participants (encompassing a group of autistic individuals and a group of non-autistic comparison participants) completed questionnaire ratings of their level of loneliness, associated distress, trait anxiety, depression, and sensory sensitivity. Results indicated that the autistic group scored higher levels across all measures. Both groups manifest strong correlations between loneliness and loneliness distress. In the autistic group, but not the non-autistic group, regression analyses showed that loneliness and sensory sensitivity predicted levels of anxiety, wherein the effect of loneliness on anxiety was partially mediated by the level of sensory sensitivity. In Study B, nine autistic adults took part in ten-minute, unstructured dyadic conversations around the topic of loneliness. Inductive and deductive analyses enriched qualitative understanding of the experiences of loneliness of autistic individuals. Our results broadly oppose the social motivation deficit hypothesis and we instead frame our findings within the larger context of ‘ethical loneliness’, concluding that a concerted effort is needed to overcome the fundamental disconnect with the neurotypical world experienced by many autistic people.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan ◽  
Arsalan Salari ◽  
Eshagh Mohammadyari ◽  
Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi ◽  
Aydin Pourkazemi ◽  

Purpose It is argued that COVID-19 patients show various neuropsychiatric symptoms, including fatigue, depression and anxiety. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated that green tea could potentially have antiviral effects and ameliorate psychiatric disorders. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether drinking green tea can clinically improve psychiatric complications of COVID-19 infection. Design/methodology/approach This study included 40 patients with laboratory confirmed mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disorder in the current randomized open-label controlled trial. Patients were instructed to include three cups/day of green tea (intervention) or black tea (control) to their usual diet for four weeks immediately after diagnosis of the disease. At the study baseline and after the intervention, the enrolled patients’ fatigue, depression and anxiety were assessed by the Chalder Fatigue Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Findings A total of 19 COVID-19 cases in the intervention group (mean age = 52 years) and 14 cases (mean age = 50 years) in the control group completed the study. Analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline levels, and confounders revealed that those who consumed three cups/day of green tea compared to the patients who received black tea experienced significantly lower fatigue, depression and state and trait anxiety levels (adjusted means for fatigue = 12.3 vs 16.2 (P = 0.03), depression = 0.53 vs 1.8 (P = 0.01), 37.4 vs 45.5 (P < 0.01) and 37.9 vs 45.2 (P < 0.01)). Research limitations/implications The open-label design may bias the evaluation of the self-reported status of fatigue, depression or anxiety as the main outcomes assessed. Moreover, as this study did not include patients with severe COVID-19, this might affect the generalizability of the present results. Thus, the recommendation of daily drinking green tea may be limited to the subjects diagnosed with mild-to-moderate type of infection or those with long-term neuropsychiatric complications owing to COVID-19. Besides, considering the ethical issues, this study could not exclude the drug therapy’s confounding effects; thereby, this point should be considered when interpreting the current results. Besides, it is worth noting that Guilan province in the north of Iran is recognized as a tea (and particularly green tea) producing region; thereby, it is an available and relatively inexpensive product. Considering this issue, the recommendation to consume this medicinal plant in adjunct to the routine treatment approach among patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 based on its beneficial effects may be widely accepted. Practical implications Green tea consumption could be considered an option to combat COVID-19 associated psychological complications, including fatigue, depression and anxiety among patients suffering from mild-to-moderate type of this viral infection. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, in this study, for the first time, the effects of green tea compared to black tea on COVID-19 associated fatigue, depression and anxiety status within an open-label controlled trial have been investigated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. p17
Gabriel C. Pircalabu ◽  
Alina Chiracu ◽  
Florinda Golu

The aim of this study is firstly to analyze the differences in postpartum self-acceptance, patterns of beliefs (rationality) and perfectionism in women with and without changes in body weight and secondly to identify the relationships among self-acceptance, rationality, and perfectionism on the one hand and postpartum depression and anxiety on the other hand. The study involved 123 women, newly mothers, aged between 20 and 46 years, M = 32.29, SD = 6.56. The instruments used were Unconditional Self-Acceptance Questionnaire, Inventory of Ideas II, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale, and Inventory of State-Trait Anxiety. The results showed that the level of rationality and self-acceptance was lower in women with higher body weight, while the level of perfectionism was higher in same tier. At the same time, the results obtained by regression and mediation analyzes showed that self-acceptance is negatively associated with both depression and anxiety, rationality is also negatively associated with both depression and anxiety, and perfectionism mediates the relationship between rationality and depression, but not the relationship between rationality and anxiety. The conclusions of the study highlighted the women’s need for support to regain their pre-pregnancy emotional balance and well-being.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Tomislav D. Zbozinek ◽  
Caroline J. Charpentier ◽  
Song Qi ◽  
Dean Mobbs

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Adelinda Candeias ◽  
Edgar Galindo ◽  
Marcus Stueck ◽  
António Portelada ◽  
Jessica Knietzsch

Introduction: The pandemics crisis had consequences in psychological adjustment of persons all over the world. The current study analyzes comparatively the topics of quality of life, and well-being, considering as predictors trait anxiety, feeling of threat, difficulty to relax, empathy and pro-social attitude, health care, sleep quality and optimism, in a population of German and Portuguese adults during the pandemics, in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the psychological reactions to crisis across countries and cultures.Methods: A sample of 470 adults divided in three age groups – —young adults (18—34 years), middle-age adults (34–54 years) and old adults (55 years and older)— completed a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic data, quality of life, well-being, quality of sleep, trait anxiety, Coronavirus threat, optimism regarding the pandemics, difficulty to relax, empathy, and pro-social attitude during the pandemics period.Results: Portuguese participants expresses higher empathy and pro-social attitude and health care but in Germany people have higher quality of sleep. Young adults (a) rated their quality of life lower than middle-age adults and old adults, (b) showed also lower optimism than middle-age and old adults, and (c) showed lower well-being than middle-age,.Conclusions: Young adults rated their quality of life, optimism and well-being during pandemics lower than middle-age and old adults, and experienced higher levels of trait anxiety and difficulty to relax. It seems that young adults show a lower psychological adjustment than other age groups during COVID-19 crisis. It is concluded that quality of life, optimism, and well-being during the pandemics are affected differently according to country and group of age, suggesting individual differences across cultures and ages, and consequently the need of specific interventions to cope with the psychological reactions to pandemics crisis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mei Wang ◽  
Lingxiao Cao ◽  
Hailong Li ◽  
Hongqi Xiao ◽  
Yao Ma ◽  

Objective: Although previous studies have reported on disrupted amygdala subregional functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), most of these studies were conducted in GAD patients with comorbidities or with drug treatment. Besides, whether/how the amygdala subregional functional networks were associated with state and trait anxiety is still largely unknown.Methods: Resting-state functional connectivity of amygdala subregions, including basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) as seed, were mapped and compared between 37 drug-naïve, non-comorbidity GAD patients and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Relationships between amygdala subregional network dysfunctions and state/trait anxiety were examined using partial correlation analyses.Results: Relative to HCs, GAD patients showed weaker functional connectivity of the left BLA with anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortices. Significantly increased functional connectivity of right BLA and CMA with superior temporal gyrus and insula were also identified in GAD patients. Furthermore, these functional connectivities showed correlations with state and trait anxiety scores.Conclusions: These findings revealed abnormal functional coupling of amygdala subregions in GAD patients with regions involved in fear processing and emotion regulation, including anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus, which provide the unique biological markers for GAD and facilitating the future accurate clinical diagnosis and target treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Xiao Zhang ◽  
Hao Yan ◽  
Hao Yu ◽  
Xin Zhao ◽  
Shefali Shah ◽  

AbstractUrbanization is increasing globally, and is associated with stress and increased mental health risks, including for depression. However, it remains unclear, especially at the level of brain function, how urbanicity, social threat stressors, and psychiatric risk may be linked. Here, we aim to define the structural and functional MRI neural correlates of social stress, childhood urbanicity, and their putative mechanistic relevance to depressive illness risk, in terms of behavioral traits and genetics. We studied a sample of healthy adults with divergent urban and rural childhoods. We examined childhood urbanicity effects on brain structure as suggested by MRI, and its functional relevance to depression risk, through interactions between urbanicity and trait anxiety-depression, as well as between urbanicity and polygenic risk for depression, during stress-related medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) engagement. Subjects with divergent rural and urban childhoods were similar in adult socioeconomic status and were genetically homogeneous. Urban childhood was associated with relatively reduced mPFC gray matter volumes as suggested by MRI. MPFC engagement under social status threat correlated with the higher trait anxiety-depression in subjects with urban childhoods, but not in their rural counterparts, implicating an exaggerated physiological response to the threat context with urbanicity, in association with behavioral risk for depression. Stress-associated mPFC engagement also interacted with polygenic risk for depression, significantly predicting a differential mPFC response in individuals with urban but not rural childhoods. Developmental urbanicity, therefore, appears to interact with genetic and behavioral risk for depression on the mPFC neural response to a threat context.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258118
Andrea Lundberg ◽  
Murali Srinivasan

Background Interaction with fish is known to reduce stress and anxiety in humans. Objective This trial evaluated the effect of an aquarium present in a geriatric dental clinic waiting-area (WA) on blood pressure (BP), heart-rate (HR), anxiety, and mood of waiting patients. Methods Participants were recruited into three groups: control (CG): WA without aquarium; partially-stocked aquarium (PSA): aquarium without fish; fully-stocked aquarium (FSA): aquarium with fish. BP and HR of the participants were recorded upon arrival and after 20-minutes of waiting, along with anxiety [State trait anxiety inventory (STAI-6)] and mood [Feeling scale (FS), Felt arousal scale (FAS)] scores. A purpose-built questionnaire evaluated the subjective assessment of the participants’ experience in the WA. ANOVA with repeated measures and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results 392 patients (mean age: 65.07±16.9y) completed this trial. There was an effect of time on the BP [systolic: F(1, 120) = 44.82, p<0.001; diastolic: F(1, 120) = 25.10, p<0.001] and HR [F(1, 120) = 40.94, p<0.001]. No effect of groups on BP [systolic: F(1, 120) = 1.01, p = 0.32; diastolic: F(1, 120) = 0.01, p = 0.92] was revealed, but a decrease of HR [F(1, 120) = 21.59, p<0.001]. No effect of time*group on BP [systolic: F(1, 120) = 0.89, p = 0.35; diastolic: F(1, 120) = 0.31, p = 0.58], or HR [F(1, 120) = 1.04, p-0.31]. WA groups had no effects on the participants’ anxiety [H(2) = 2.76, p = 0.25], or mood [FS: H(2) = 2.28, p = 0.32; FAS: H(2) = 1.54, p = 0.46]. Patients rated FSA higher than others [H(2) = 20.98, p<0.001). Conclusions There was no influence of the presence of an aquarium on the patients’ blood pressure, heart rate, anxiety, or mood.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carin Hill ◽  
Jan Alewyn Nel ◽  
Leon T. de Beer ◽  
Velichko H. Fetvadjiev ◽  
Lyle I Stevens ◽  

The purpose of this study was to expand internal construct validity and equivalence research of the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI), as well as to investigate the nomological validity of the SAPI by examining its relationship with specific and relevant psychological outcomes. The internal and external validity of the SAPI was assessed within three separate samples (N = 936). Using the combined data from all three samples, Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) indicated that the six-factor SAPI model fit proved to be excellent. Measurement invariance analyses showed that the SAPI dimensions in the ESEM model were invariant across gender and race groups. Next, two separate studies explored the associations of the SAPI factors with relevant psychological outcomes. An ESEM-within-CFA (set ESEM) method was used to add the factors into a new input file to correlate them with variables that were not part of the initial ESEM model. Both models generated excellent fit. In Study 1, psychological well-being and cultural intelligence were correlated with the SAPI factors within a sample of students and working adults. All of the psychological well-being dimensions significantly correlated with the SAPI factors, while for cultural intelligence, the highest correlations were between Meta-cognition and Openness and Meta-cognition and Positive Social-Relational Disposition. In Study 2, work locus of control and trait anxiety was correlated with the SAPI factors within a sample of adults from the general South African workforce. Work Locus of Control correlated with most factors of the SAPI, but more prominently with Positive Social-Relational Disposition, while Neuroticism correlated strongly with trait anxiety. Finding an appropriate internal structure that measures personality without bias in a culturally diverse context is difficult. This study provided strong evidence that the SAPI meets the demanding requirements of personality measurement in this context and generated promising results to support the relevance of the SAPI factors.

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