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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiaqi Bi ◽  
Peiyu Sun ◽  
Erwei Feng ◽  
Jianxiong Shen ◽  
Chong Chen ◽  

Methylprednisolone (MP) is the drug of choice for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), but the aggressive dosage regimen used often results in adverse side effects. Therefore, MP should be combined with other drugs to lower the required dose. Melatonin is effective in alleviating nerve damage and inhibiting axonal degeneration. The combination of melatonin and half-dose methylprednisolone (HMP) for spinal cord injury treatment has never been reported. In this study, we established a rat model of T9 spinal cord injury by the Allen’s method and assessed the synergistic therapeutic effects of melatonin and HMP by factorial design. Our results demonstrated that melatonin could synergize with HMP to ameliorate acute SCI through PI3K-AKT1 pathway. Combining melatonin with HMP significantly reduced the standard-dose of methylprednisolone and limited its adverse reactions, representing a promising option for treating acute SCI.

M. D. Ardatskaya ◽  
L. V. Maslovskii ◽  
I. V. Zverkov

The frequency of intestinal microbiota disorders in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) is extremely high and can reach 97%. The bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) and the syndrome of increased epithelial permeability (SPEP), developing against the background of excretory insufficiency of the pancreas, affect the severity of the clinical picture of the disease, reduce the effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy and generally contribute to the further progression of CP.The article presents a modern view on the mechanisms of the formation of SIBO and SPEP in CP. There is their aggravating effect on the course of the disease and the aggravation of disorders of the digestive and absorption processes that accompany them is shown and analyzed in the article.For decontamination of conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic flora, increasing the number and metabolic activity of indigenous microflora in patients with CP, the use of a non-absorbable broad-spectrum antibiotic rifaximin is effective. In order to restore the barrier function of the gastrointestinal mucosa, the drug of choice is rebamipid, a universal cytoprotector that affects all three levels of epithelial tissue protection (preepithelial, epithelial and subepithelial).Conclusion. CP is characterized by the complexity of its etiology and pathogenesis. Bacterial factors, in particular, SIBO and SPEP, play an essential role in the development of inflammatory changes in the pancreas. In the complex therapy of CP, it is advisable to take measures aimed at correcting disorders of the intestinal microbiota.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. 3586-3588
Arooj Mahmood ◽  
Ayesha Iqbal ◽  
M. Shairaz Sadiq ◽  
Amina Tariq

Objective: To assess and document the knowledge general dentists possess in relation to incidence, diagnosis and management of trigeminal neuralgia and its application in their practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. The data collection tool was a piloted, self- designed, 14 item structured questionnaire that had questions regarding demographics, factual knowledge and practices of the participants. Hundred general dental practitioners were selected through purposive sampling in Lahore. Only general dentists were included in this survey and all other dental specialties were part of the exclusion criteria. Data was entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics® (Version 23). Results: Most practitioners responded that they were able to identify a patient with trigeminal neuralgia on the basis of diagnosis of exclusion. Carbamezapine was the drug of choice of pharmacological management or in case pharmacological management did not provide relief the patient was referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Conclusion: It was concluded that general dentists had adequate knowledge and sound practices on management of Trigeminal Neuralgia. A need for multi-disciplinary approach and continued medical education (CME) was identified. Keywords: Dentists, Disease Management, Facial Pain, Neuralgia, Knowledge, Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN).

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1909-1912
N. Sarathkumar

Cholera is an acute infectious disease in countries with poor sanitation. The main clinical symptom of cholera is gastroenteritis and a symptom of the disease includes mild to moderate dehydration, vomiting, fever and abdominal pain. Antibiotic drug resistance in V. cholera has become a serious problem mostly in developing countries and muti-drug resistance to different antibiotics as well as Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Kanamycin, Trimethoprim, Sulphonamides Streptomycin and Gentamicin. Multi-drug resistant V. cholera showed resistance against three or more three contrasting classes of antibiotics for recent decades. Fifty diarrheal samples were collected from the different hospitals in and around the Tirupur district. 25 positive V. cholerae were isolated. The isolates were characterized morphologically and biochemically. The confirmed strains were taken to decide susceptibility patterns by the disc diffusion method. Vibrio cholerae isolated in this study was subjected to an antibiogram against 10 commonly used antibiotics. All the tested isolates showed maximum resistance to Erythromycin (97%) and minimum resistance was noted in Trimethoprime (50%) respectively. Electrophoretic examination of plasmid DNA was carried out by Agarose gel Electrophoresis on 0.7%. More than 90% of resists showed were taken for plasmid isolation. The molecular weights of the fragments were evaluated by using a 10,000 bp DNA ladder and it was determined to be 1500 bp respectively. It is crucial to know the sensitivity and resistance pattern of any bacterial species for intercession an effective drug of choice in future

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 658-667
Victoria Elisa Rinaldi ◽  
Giuseppe Di Cara ◽  
Elisabetta Mencaroni ◽  
Alberto Verrotti

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common pediatric generalized epileptic syndrome. Although it is traditionally considered as a benign self-limited condition, the apparent benign nature of this syndrome has been revaluated in recent years. This is mainly due to the increasing evidence that children with CAE can present invalidating neuropsychological comorbidities that will affect them up to adulthood. Moreover, a percentage of affected children can develop drug-resistant forms of CAE. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent studies and new concepts concerning CAE treatment, in particular concerning drug-resistant forms of CAE. A Pubmed search was undertaken to identify all articles concerning management and treatment of CAE, including articles written between 1979 and 2021. Traditional anticonvulsant therapy of CAE that is still in use is based on three antiepileptic drugs: ethosuximide which is the drug of choice, followed by valproic acid and lamotrigine. In the case of first line treatment failure, after two monotherapies it is usual to start a bi-therapy. In the case of absence seizures that are refractory to traditional treatment, other antiepileptic drugs may be introduced such as levetiracetam, topiramate and zonisamide.

2021 ◽  
Muhammad Farooq ◽  
Ifra Siddique ◽  
Zia Ullah

The most important microbe in humans is Staphylococcus aureus, which has caused worldwide dispersion in both nosocomial and community settings. The impact of Gram-positive Staphylococcus Aureuson the host is extremely detrimental to illness development. The life form is noteworthy for its ability to receive anti-toxin protection from a variety of anti-toxin classes. The development and distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) strains, which are generally multi-drug resistant in clinics and, as a result, in the population, cause severe mortality and bleakness. The research of MRSA illness transmission has advanced since its underlying event, which necessitates a complete clinical approach to dealing with take on this microorganism. For long term use drug of choice is vancomycine nevertheless its efficacy has been put to the test by rise in opposition. More modern anti-MRSA anti-infection medicines have been approved for clinical usage in the last 10 years or so. The aim of this chapter is to offer related data on the genus Staphylococcus and the evolution of antibiotic resistance in addition a discussion of the most important antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Although they are notorious for causing anti-infection blockage, there is a constant need for exploring innovative MRSA antagonists from various sources, including plants, and assessing non-anti-toxin draws close.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Zhu Wang ◽  
Mi Cheong Cheong ◽  
Jet Tsien ◽  
Heping Deng ◽  
Tian Qin ◽  

A prevalent feature of Strongyloides stercoralis is a life-long and potentially lethal infection that is due to the nematode parasite’s ability to autoinfect and, thereby, self-replicate within its host. Here, we investigated the role of the parasite’s nuclear receptor, Ss-DAF-12, in governing infection. We identified Δ7-DA as the endogenous Ss-DAF-12 ligand and elucidated the hormone’s biosynthetic pathway. Genetic loss of function of the ligand’s rate-limiting enzyme demonstrated that Δ7-DA synthesis is necessary for parasite reproduction, whereas its absence is required for the development of infectious larvae. Availability of the ligand permits Ss-DAF-12 to function as an on/off switch governing autoinfection, making it vulnerable to therapeutic intervention. In a preclinical model of hyperinfection, pharmacologic activation of DAF-12 suppressed autoinfection and markedly reduced lethality. Moreover, when Δ7-DA was administered with ivermectin, the current but limited drug of choice for treating strongyloidiasis, the combinatorial effects of the two drugs resulted in a near cure of the disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Meera Maharjan ◽  
Anil Kumar Sah ◽  
Susil Pyakurel ◽  
Sabita Thapa ◽  
Susan Maharjan ◽  

Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal on the skin and in the nasal cavity of humans, is one of the most serious cases of nosocomial infections. Moreover, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For the treatment of MRSA infections, vancomycin is considered as a drug of choice. However, the emergence of vancomycin resistance among MRSA isolates has been perceived as a formidable threat in therapeutic management. To estimate the rate of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and to detect the vancomycin-resistant genes, namely, vanA and vanB, among the isolates, a hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to December 2018 in Annapurna Neurological Institute and Allied Science, Kathmandu, Nepal. S. aureus was isolated and identified from different clinical samples and processed for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the modified Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. The screening of MRSA was performed as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. VRSA was confirmed by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method by employing E-test strips. All the phenotypically confirmed VRSA were further processed to detect the vanA and vanB gene by using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 74 (20.3%) S. aureus were isolated, and the highest percentage of S. aureus was from the wound samples (36.5%). Of 74 S. aureus isolates, the highest number (89.2%) was resistant to penicillin, and on the other hand, linezolid was found to be an effective drug. Likewise, 45 (60.81%) were found to be MRSA, five (11.11%) were VRSA, and 93.2% of S. aureus isolates showed an MAR index greater than 0.2. Two VRSA isolates (40%) were positive for the vanA gene. The higher prevalence of MRSA and significant rate of VRSA in this study recommend routine surveillance for the MRSA and VRSA in hospital settings before empirical therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 139-145
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury ◽  
Chandan Kumar Roy ◽  
Lovely Barai ◽  
Shrebash Paul ◽  
Forhad Uddin Hasan Chowdhury ◽  

Bangladesh is an example of a highly populous, agricultural country where melioidosis may be a significantly under diagnosed cause of infection and death. A recent regression model predicted 16,931 cases annually in Bangladesh with a mortality rate of 56%. However, we only manage to confirm (culture) around 80 cases in last 60 years. A lack of awareness among microbiologists and clinicians and a lack of diagnostic microbiology infrastructure are factors that are likely to lead to the underreporting of melioidosis. Melioidosis transmits through inoculation, inhalation and ingestion. Diabetes mellitus is the most common risk factor (12 times higher chance of getting the infection) predisposing individuals to melioidosis and is present in >50% of all patients. The clinical presentation is widely varied and can be mistaken for other diseases such as tuberculosis or more common forms of pneumonia giving rise to its nickname as the “great mimicker”. Disease manifestations vary from pneumonia or localized abscess to acute septicemias, or may present as a chronic infection. Culture is considered the current gold-standard for diagnosis and culture-confirmation should always be sought in patients where disease is suspected. It is strongly recommended that any non–Pseudomonas aeruginosa, oxidase-positive, Gram-negative bacillus isolated from any clinical specimen from a patient in an endemic area should be suspected to be Burkholderia pseudomallei (BP). In addition, based on antibiogram, any Gramnegative bacilli that are oxidase-positive, typically resistant to aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin), colistin, and polymyxin but sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be considered as BP. This bacteria is inherently resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, first generation and second-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, and polymyxin. For intensive phase (10 to 14 days), ceftazidime or carbapenem is the drug of choice. For eradication phase (3 to 6 months), oral trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice. Surgery (drainage of abscess) has an important role in the management of melioidosis. Preventive measures through protective gears could be useful particularly for the risk groups. J MEDICINE 2021; 22: 139-145

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (06) ◽  
pp. 800-821
Joseph P. Lynch ◽  
Adriana E. Kajon

AbstractAdenoviruses (AdVs) are DNA viruses that typically cause mild infections involving the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or conjunctiva. Rare manifestations of AdV infections include hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, hemorrhagic colitis, pancreatitis, nephritis, or meningoencephalitis. AdV infections are more common in young children, due to lack of humoral immunity. Epidemics of AdV infection may occur in healthy children or adults in closed or crowded settings (particularly military recruits). The vast majority of cases are self-limited. However, the clinical spectrum is broad and fatalities may occur. Dissemination is more likely in patients with impaired immunity (e.g., organ transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus infection). Fatality rates for untreated severe AdV pneumonia or disseminated disease may exceed 50%. More than 100 genotypes and 52 serotypes of AdV have been identified and classified into seven species designated HAdV-A through -G. Different types display different tissue tropisms that correlate with clinical manifestations of infection. The predominant types circulating at a given time differ among countries or regions, and change over time. Transmission of novel strains between countries or across continents and replacement of dominant viruses by new strains may occur. Treatment of AdV infections is controversial, as prospective, randomized therapeutic trials have not been done. Cidofovir has been the drug of choice for severe AdV infections, but not all patients require treatment. Live oral vaccines are highly efficacious in reducing the risk of respiratory AdV infection and are in routine use in the military in the United States but currently are not available to civilians.

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