Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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Published By Georg Thieme Verlag Kg

1098-9048, 1069-3424
Updated Wednesday, 14 July 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 587-594
Author(s):  
Laia Fernández-Barat ◽  
Victoria Alcaraz-Serrano ◽  
Rosanel Amaro ◽  
Antoni Torres

Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in patients with bronchiectasis (BE) is associated with a poor outcome and quality of life, and its presence is considered a marker of disease severity. This opportunistic pathogen is known for its ability to produce biofilms on biotic or abiotic surfaces and to survive environmental stress exerted by antimicrobials, inflammation, and nutrient or oxygen depletion. The presence of PA biofilms has been linked to chronic respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis but not in BE. There is considerable inconsistency in the reported infection/eradication rates of PA and chronic PA. In addition, inadequate antimicrobial treatment may potentiate the progression from intermittent to chronic infection and also the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A better comprehension of the pathophysiology of PA infections and its implications for BE is urgently needed. This can drive improvements in diagnostic accuracy, can move us toward a new consensus definition of chronic infection, can better define the follow-up of patients at risk of PA, and can achieve more successful eradication rates. In addition, the new technological advances regarding molecular diagnostics, -omics, and biomarkers require us to reconsider our traditional concepts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 556-566
Author(s):  
Tavleen Kaur Jaggi ◽  
Soo Kai Ter ◽  
Micheál Mac Aogáin ◽  
Sanjay H. Chotirmall

AbstractBronchiectasis is a chronic condition of global relevance resulting in permanent and irreversible structural airway damage. Bacterial infection in bronchiectasis is well studied; however, recent molecular studies identify fungi as important pathogens, either independently or in association with bacteria. Aspergillus species are established fungal pathogens in cystic fibrosis and their role is now increasingly being recognized in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. While the healthy airway is constantly exposed to ubiquitously present Aspergillus conidia in the environment, anatomically damaged airways appear more prone to colonization and subsequent infection by this fungal group. Aspergilli possess diverse immunopathological mechanistic capabilities and when coupled with innate immune defects in a susceptible host, such as that observed in bronchiectasis, it may promote a range of clinical manifestations including sensitization, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus bronchitis, and/or invasive aspergillosis. How such clinical states influence “endophenotypes” in bronchiectasis is therefore of importance, as each Aspergillus-associated disease state has overlapping features with bronchiectasis itself, and can evolve, depending on underlying host immunity from one type into another. Concurrent Aspergillus infection complicates the clinical course and exacerbations in bronchiectasis and therefore dedicated research to better understand the Aspergillus-host interaction in the bronchiectasis airway is now warranted.


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 616-622
Author(s):  
Gerard Muñoz Castro ◽  
Ana Balañá Corberó

AbstractThe respiratory system is constantly exposed to external pathogens but has different and effective defense systems. The pathophysiology of bronchiectasis affects the defense system considerably in that alterations occur in the airway that reduce its effectiveness in mucociliary clearance and the greater presence of mucins leads to the accumulation of more adherent and viscous mucus. One of the pillars of treatment of this disease should be improvement of mucociliary clearance and a decrease in the adherence and viscosity of the mucus. To this end, the mobilization of secretions must be increased through effective respiratory physiotherapy techniques, which can be manual and/or instrumental. The properties of mucus can be modified to improve its mobilization through the use of a mucoactive agent. Despite the increase in the number and quality of studies, the evidence for these treatments remains scarce, although their application is recommended in all guidelines.


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 567-586
Author(s):  
Shera Tan ◽  
Shannon Kasperbauer

AbstractNontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and 193 species of NTM have been discovered thus far. NTM species vary in virulence from benign environmental organisms to difficult-to-treat human pathogens. Pulmonary infections remain the most common manifestation of NTM disease in humans and bronchiectasis continues to be a major risk factor for NTM pulmonary disease (NTM PD). This article will provide a useful introduction and framework for clinicians involved in the management of bronchiectasis and NTM. It includes an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of NTM PD. We will address the challenges faced in the diagnosis of NTM PD and the importance of subspeciation in guiding treatment and follow-up, especially in Mycobacterium abscessus infections. The treatment of both Mycobacterium avium complex and M. abscessus, the two most common NTM species known to cause disease, will be discussed in detail. Elements of the recent ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA NTM guidelines published in 2020 will also be reviewed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 623-638
Author(s):  
Stephanie Detailleur ◽  
Robin Vos ◽  
Pieter Goeminne

AbstractIn this review paper, we discuss the characteristics that define severe bronchiectasis and which may lead to deterioration of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. These characteristics were used to establish the current severity scores: bronchiectasis severity index (BSI), FACED, and E-FACED (exacerbation frequency, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, age, colonization, extension and dyspnea score). They can be used to predict mortality, exacerbation rate, hospital admission, and quality of life. Furthermore, there are different treatable traits that contribute to severe bronchiectasis and clinical deterioration. When present, they can be a target of the treatment to stabilize bronchiectasis.One of the first steps in treatment management of bronchiectasis is evaluation of compliance to already prescribed therapy. Several factors can contribute to treatment adherence, but to date no real interventions have been published to ameliorate this phenomenon. In the second step, treatment in deteriorating patients with bronchiectasis should be guided by the predominant symptoms, for example, cough, sputum, difficulty expectoration, exacerbation rate, or physical impairment. In the third step, we evaluate treatable traits that could influence disease severity in the deteriorating patient. Finally, in patients who are difficult to treat despite maximum medical treatment, eligibility for surgery (when disease is localized), should be considered. In case of end-stage disease, the evaluation for lung transplantation should be performed. Noninvasive ventilation can serve as a bridge to lung transplantation in patients with respiratory failure.


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 606-615
Author(s):  
Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin ◽  
Marta Hernandez-Argudo ◽  
Lidia Perea ◽  
Oriol Sibila

AbstractA significant proportion of bronchiectasis patients are chronically infected by potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may lead to frequent exacerbations and worse clinical outcomes. Current bronchiectasis guidelines recommend long-term inhaled antibiotics and/or oral macrolides as a part of patient management. In recent years, an increasing amount of evidence assessing the impact of these treatments on patient outcomes has been collected. Inhaled antibiotics have demonstrated significant improvements in sputum bacterial load, but their impact on patient quality of life, lung function, and exacerbation rate has not been consistent across trials. In this regard, recent post hoc analyses of inhaled antibiotics trials in bronchiectasis patients have shown that sputum bacterial load may be a key biomarker to predict treatment response in these patients. Oral macrolides, on the other hand, have proven to reduce exacerbation frequency and improve quality of life, but potential drug-related adverse effects and the increase in bacterial resistance are relevant. This review aims to summarize current important evidence for long-term antibiotic treatment in bronchiectasis patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 499-512
Author(s):  
Holly R. Keir ◽  
James D. Chalmers

AbstractBronchiectasis is a complex, heterogeneous disorder defined by both a radiological abnormality of permanent bronchial dilatation and a clinical syndrome. There are multiple underlying causes including severe infections, mycobacterial disease, autoimmune conditions, hypersensitivity disorders, and genetic conditions. The pathophysiology of disease is understood in terms of interdependent concepts of chronic infection, inflammation, impaired mucociliary clearance, and structural lung damage. Neutrophilic inflammation is characteristic of the disease, with elevated levels of harmful proteases such as neutrophil elastase associated with worse outcomes. Recent data show that neutrophil extracellular trap formation may be the key mechanism leading to protease release and severe bronchiectasis. Despite the dominant of neutrophilic disease, eosinophilic subtypes are recognized and may require specific treatments. Neutrophilic inflammation is associated with elevated bacterial loads and chronic infection with organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Loss of diversity of the normal lung microbiota and dominance of proteobacteria such as Pseudomonas and Haemophilus are features of severe bronchiectasis and link to poor outcomes. Ciliary dysfunction is also a key feature, exemplified by the rare genetic syndrome of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Mucus symptoms arise through goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia and reduced ciliary function through dyskinesia and loss of ciliated cells. The contribution of chronic inflammation, infection, and mucus obstruction leads to progressive structural lung damage. The heterogeneity of the disease is the most challenging aspect of management. An understanding of the pathophysiology of disease and their biomarkers can help to guide personalized medicine approaches utilizing the concept of “treatable traits.”


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 525-536
Author(s):  
Pamela J. McShane

AbstractImmunodeficiency represents a vast number of diseases and syndromes. Both primary and secondary forms of immunodeficiency are important contributors to the development of bronchiectasis. Primary immune deficiencies, in particular, are increasingly identified and defined as contributors. Specific immune deficiencies that are closely associated with bronchiectasis and as discussed in this article are common variable immunodeficiency, specific antibody deficiency, immunodeficiencies involving immunoglobulin E, DOCK8 immunodeficiency, phosphoglucomutase 3 deficiency, activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome, and X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Each of these primary immune deficiencies has unique nuances. Vigilance for these unique signs and symptoms is likely to improve recognition of specific immunodeficiency in the idiopathic bronchiectasis patient. Secondary forms of immunodeficiency occur as a result of a separate disease process. Graft versus host disease, malignancy, and human immunodeficiency virus are three classic examples discussed in this article. An awareness of the potential for these disease settings to lead to bronchiectasis is necessary to optimize patient care. With understanding and mindfulness toward the intricate relationship between bronchiectasis and immunodeficiency, there is an opportunity to elucidate pathophysiologic underpinnings between these two syndromes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 537-548
Author(s):  
Amelia Shoemark ◽  
Katharine Harman

AbstractPrimary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited cause of bronchiectasis. The estimated PCD prevalence in children with bronchiectasis is up to 26% and in adults with bronchiectasis is 1 to 13%. Due to dysfunction of the multiple motile cilia of the respiratory tract patients suffer from poor mucociliary clearance. Clinical manifestations are heterogeneous; however, a typical patient presents with chronic productive cough and rhinosinusitis from early life. Other symptoms reflect the multiple roles of motile cilia in other organs and can include otitis media and hearing loss, infertility, situs inversus, complex congenital heart disease, and more rarely other syndromic features such as hydrocephalus and retinitis pigmentosa. Awareness, identification, and diagnosis of a patient with PCD are important for multidisciplinary care and genetic counseling. Diagnosis can be pursued through a multitest pathway which includes the measurement of nasal nitric oxide, sampling the nasal epithelium to assess ciliary function and structure, and genotyping. Diagnosis is confirmed by the identification of a hallmark ultrastructural defect or pathogenic mutations in one of > 45 PCD causing genes. When a diagnosis is established management is centered around improving mucociliary clearance through physiotherapy and treatment of infection with antibiotics. The first international randomized controlled trial in PCD has recently been conducted showing azithromycin is effective in reducing exacerbations. It is likely that evidence-based PCD-specific management guidelines and therapies will be developed in the near future. This article examines prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of PCD highlighting recent advances in basic science and clinical care.


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