epithelial tissue
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 717-723
Bing Pan ◽  
Binghui Liu ◽  
Juhua Pan ◽  
Jian Xin ◽  
Chenglin Fu

Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) developed in the glandular epithelial tissue of breast. microRNA (miR)-367 is an important player in cancer progression, but has never been studied in BC. This experiment tries to probe the mechanism of miR-367 in BC treatment with downstream target gene. Materials and Methods: Human BC cell lines and healthy breast epithelium cells were applied in this study. After the transfection of miR-367 inhibitor or mimic into BC cells, functional assays were conducted to measure cell growth. Afterwards, flow cytometry was employed in apoptosis verification. Then, target relation between miR-367 and ARID1B was certified. Furthermore, ARID1B level was also measured. Results: miR-367 was underexpressed in human BC cells (p < 0.05). Besides, overexpressed miR-367 inhibited BC cell proliferation and encouraged apoptosis, while underexpressed miR-367 led to an opposite outcome (p < 0.05). This experiment then implied that miR-367 dramatically suppressed the activity of cell transfected with ARID1B-wild type. miR-367 overexpression quenched ARID1B level in BC cells; while silencing miR-367 upregulated ARID1B expression (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our experiment discovered that miR-367 quenched BC cell growth and promoted apoptosis by targeting ARID1B. This investigation may provide novel insights in BC treatment.

Tsuyoshi Hirashima

All living tissues and organs have their respective sizes, critical to various biological functions, such as development, growth, and homeostasis. As tissues and organs generally converge to a certain size, intrinsic regulatory mechanisms may be involved in the maintenance of size regulation. In recent years, important findings regarding size regulation have been obtained from diverse disciplines at the molecular and cellular levels. Here, I briefly review the size regulation of biological tissues from the perspective of control systems. This minireview focuses on how feedback systems engage in tissue size maintenance through the mechanical interactions of constituent cell collectives through intracellular signaling. I introduce a general framework of a feedback control system for tissue size regulation, followed by two examples: maintenance of epithelial tissue volume and epithelial tube diameter. The examples deliver the idea of how cellular mechano-response works for maintaining tissue size.

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (6) ◽  
pp. 399-408
S. S. Zainutdinov ◽  
G. F. Sivolobova ◽  
V. B. Loktev ◽  
G. V. Kochneva

Mucosal immunity is realized through a structural and functional system called mucose-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). MALT is subdivided into parts (clusters) depending on their anatomical location, but they all have a similar structure: mucus layer, epithelial tissue, lamina propria and lymphoid follicles. Plasma cells of MALT produce a unique type of immunoglobulins, IgA, which have the ability to polymerize. In mucosal immunization, the predominant form of IgA is a secretory dimer, sIgA, which is concentrated in large quantities in the mucosa. Mucosal IgA acts as a first line of defense and neutralizes viruses efficiently at the portal of entry, preventing infection of epithelial cells and generalization of infection. To date, several mucosal antiviral vaccines have been licensed, which include attenuated strains of the corresponding viruses: poliomyelitis, influenza, and rotavirus. Despite the tremendous success of these vaccines, in particular, in the eradication of poliomyelitis, significant disadvantages of using attenuated viral strains in their composition are the risk of reactogenicity and the possibility of reversion to a virulent strain during vaccination. Nevertheless, it is mucosal vaccination, which mimics a natural infection, is able to induce a fast and effective immune response and thus help prevent and possibly stop outbreaks of many viral infections. Currently, a number of intranasal vaccines based on a new vector approach are successfully undergoing clinical trials. In these vaccines, the safe viral vectors are used to deliver protectively significant immunogens of pathogenic viruses. The most tested vector for intranasal vaccines is adenovirus, and the most significant immunogen is SARSCoV-2 S protein. Mucosal vector vaccines against human respiratory syncytial virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 based on Sendai virus, which is able to replicate asymptomatically in cells of bronchial epithelium, are also being investigated.

M. D. Ardatskaya ◽  
L. V. Maslovskii ◽  
I. V. Zverkov

The frequency of intestinal microbiota disorders in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) is extremely high and can reach 97%. The bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) and the syndrome of increased epithelial permeability (SPEP), developing against the background of excretory insufficiency of the pancreas, affect the severity of the clinical picture of the disease, reduce the effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy and generally contribute to the further progression of CP.The article presents a modern view on the mechanisms of the formation of SIBO and SPEP in CP. There is their aggravating effect on the course of the disease and the aggravation of disorders of the digestive and absorption processes that accompany them is shown and analyzed in the article.For decontamination of conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic flora, increasing the number and metabolic activity of indigenous microflora in patients with CP, the use of a non-absorbable broad-spectrum antibiotic rifaximin is effective. In order to restore the barrier function of the gastrointestinal mucosa, the drug of choice is rebamipid, a universal cytoprotector that affects all three levels of epithelial tissue protection (preepithelial, epithelial and subepithelial).Conclusion. CP is characterized by the complexity of its etiology and pathogenesis. Bacterial factors, in particular, SIBO and SPEP, play an essential role in the development of inflammatory changes in the pancreas. In the complex therapy of CP, it is advisable to take measures aimed at correcting disorders of the intestinal microbiota.

Chanyi Lu ◽  
Xiaoli Lin ◽  
Jumpei Yamashita ◽  
Ranhui Xi ◽  
Minliang Zhou ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Elliot Mpolokang Fana ◽  
Sununguko Wata Mpoloka ◽  
Melvin Leteane ◽  
LaToya Seoke ◽  
Kelebogile Masoba ◽  

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDv), like other ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome viruses, has a tendency to mutate rapidly. As such, available vaccines may not confer enough cross-protection against incursion of new lineages and sublineages. This paper is a retrospective study to determine the topotypes/lineages that caused previous FMD outbreaks in 6 southern African countries and the efficacy of the current vaccines to protect cattle against them. A total of 453 bovine epithelial tissue samples from 33 FMD outbreaks that occurred in these countries from 2014 to 2018 were investigated for the presence of FMDv. The genetic diversity of the identified Southern African Type (SAT)-FMD viruses was determined by comparing sequences from outbreaks and historical prototype sequences. Of the 453 samples investigated, 176 were positive for four FMDv serotypes. Out of the 176 FMD positive cases there were 105 SAT2 samples, 32 SAT1 samples, 21 SAT3 samples, and 18 serotype O samples. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the SATs VP1 gene sequences into previously observed topotypes in southern Africa. SAT1 viruses were from topotypes I and III, SAT2 viruses belonged to topotypes I, II, III, and IV, and SAT3 viruses were of topotypes I and II. Vaccine matching studies on the field FMDv isolates produced r1-values greater than or equal to 0.3 for the three SAT serotypes. This suggests that there is no significant antigenic difference between current SAT FMD vaccine strains and the circulating SAT serotypes. Therefore, the vaccines are still fit-purpose for the control FMD in the region. The study did not identify incursion of any new lineages/topotypes of FMD into the sampled southern African countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 115126-115139
Flávio Augusto de Moraes Palma ◽  
Ananda Resende Da Mata ◽  
Isabela de Almeida Rocha ◽  
Letícia Martim ◽  
Daiana Broll Repeke ◽  

The Hera (Hedera helix L) is part of the ARALIACEAE family, is included in the group of plants that produce saponins, has antifungal action, is hypocholesterolemic, has anti-inflammatory activity, is expectorant, antispasmodic and purifying. It was evaluated, by histological studies, the wound healing action of the extract of Hera leaves on skin wounds, as well as changes in the epithelial tissue and wound healing period. 75 Wistar rats were used and divided into five groups, according to the treatment: negative control (PBS), Hera 10 mg/ml, Hera 30 mg/ml, Hera 50 mg/ml and the positive control (Nebacetin). The animals were anesthetized and undergone through a cut of 4 cm in the dorsal region, exposing their muscle fascias. Right after, daily, the suitable substance to each group was applied in the lesion. After periods of 3, 7, 14, 21 days after the surgery, the animals were killed to collect fragments of the lesion. The material was prepared in stained slides with HE and toluidine blue for histologic analysis. The results showed that at day 14 of treatment, the animals under effect of 30 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml of Hera extract did not present edema. It was also observed a reduction in vascular congestion in the Hera of 30 mg/ml, Hera 50 mg/ml and Nebacetin groups compared to the other groups analyzed. All groups treated with Hera extract showed a reduction of inflammatory cells in day 14 post-lesion, besides the increase of fibroblast this period, showing acceleration in the chronicity of the lesion. Regarding the number of mast cells, a significant increase in the early lesion, in the 3 and 7 days periods was observed, in Hera 50 mg/ml and 30 mg/ml groups, respectively. According to the results, the Hera extract, especially at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml accelerated the healing process; based on the decreased permanence period of the edema and congestion of the vessels, as well as changes in the number of cells related to inflammation of lesions.

Q. A. Shah ◽  
N. M. Soomro ◽  
J. M. Shah ◽  
M. A. Hussain ◽  
S. F. Syed

Avian colibacillosis is considered the major bacterial disease in the poultry industry worldwide. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and pathology by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in broiler chicken. Various organs of affected broilers were checked for the E. coli infection. One hundred and forty commercial poultry farms were divided into seven age groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G). Group A (1st week), B (2nd week), C (3rd week), D (4th week), E (5th week), F (6th week), G (7th to 9th week). Investigations were conducted from day 1 until the marketing of birds based on clinical findings. A total of 2491 (23.71% of sick birds) dead birds were observed positive for E. coli infection. Three forms of infection were observed i.e. omphalitis, colisepticaemia, and colibacillosis at the rate of 1.55, 17 and 56.65%, respectively. Omphalitis was confirmed by microbial culture and revealed in only groups A and B with 76.24 and 23.76 respectively. While, Colisepticaemia was observed at the rate of 3.11, 6.74, 20.18, 29.63, 19.16, and 22.18 in groups B, C, D, E, F, and G respectively. Whereas Colibacillosis was noticed as 0.075, 3.35, 5.99, 19.20, 26.70, 16.11 and 28.55% in groups A, B, C, D, E, F, and G respectively. Petechiation of heart, kidney, and gizzard besides hemorrhagic enteritis, hemorrhagic tracheitis, and necrotic foci on the liver and caseous exudates in air sacs were the prime gross lesions noticed in colibacillosis. Microscopically, no lesion was observed in serosa, muscularis externa, and submucosa. However, loss of epithelial tissue and breaches in the mucosal layer of the small intestine were observed. Furthermore, characteristic pink and grayish colonies were observed in E. coli cultures on McConkey’s and Blood agar respectively.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6328
Manuela Santarosa ◽  
Roberta Maestro

Cell-to-cell adhesion is a key element in epithelial tissue integrity and homeostasis during embryogenesis, response to damage, and differentiation. Loss of cell adhesion and gain of mesenchymal features, a phenomenon known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), are essential steps in cancer progression. Interestingly, downregulation or degradation by endocytosis of epithelial adhesion molecules (e.g., E-cadherin) associates with EMT and promotes cell migration. Autophagy is a physiological intracellular degradation and recycling process. In cancer, it is thought to exert a tumor suppressive role in the early phases of cell transformation but, once cells have gained a fully transformed phenotype, autophagy may fuel malignant progression by promoting EMT and conferring drug resistance. In this review, we discuss the crosstalk between autophagy, EMT, and turnover of epithelial cell adhesion molecules, with particular attention to E-cadherin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xiaoxi He ◽  
Si Chen ◽  
Yinghua Tang ◽  
Xiaomin Zhao ◽  
Liting Yan ◽  

ObjectivesTo investigate the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling in oral malignant transformation.MethodsWe used immunohistochemistry to investigate HGF and c-Met expression in 53 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens and 21 adjacent nontumor specimens and evaluated the associations between HGF and c-Met expression and clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, HGF-overexpression transgenic (HGF-Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice were treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) to induce oral carcinogenesis for 16 weeks. At 16, 20, and 24 weeks, tongue lesions were collected for clinical observation; estimation of HGF, c-Met, and PCNA expression; apoptosis (TUNEL) assays; and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq).ResultsHGF and c-Met were positively expressed in 92.5% and 64% of OSCC samples, respectively. High HGF expression was significantly associated with smaller tumor size (p = 0.006) and inferior TNM stage (p = 0.032). No correlation between HGF and c-Met levels and other clinical parameters or prognosis was noted. In addition, HGF and c-Met expression was elevated in 4NQO-induced lesions of Wt mice. Compared with Wt mice, HGF-Tg mice have lower tumor incidence, number, volume, and lesion grade. In addition, the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in Wt mice was significantly higher than that in HGF-Tg mice at different time points. At 16 weeks, HGF-Tg mice exhibited less apoptotic cells compared with Wt mice (p &lt; 0.000), and these levels gradually increased until the levels were greater than that of Wt mice at 24 weeks (p &lt; 0.000). RNA-seq data revealed that 140 genes were upregulated and 137 genes were downregulated in HGF-Tg mice. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are highly correlated with oxidative and metabolic signaling and that downregulated DEGs are related to MAPK and PI3K-AKT signaling.ConclusionsHGF and c-Met expression is upregulated in OSCC tissues and is associated with the occurrence and development of OSCC. HGF overexpression in normal oral epithelial tissue can inhibit 4NQO-induced tumorigenesis potentially through inhibiting proliferation and accelerating apoptosis via MAPK and PI3K-AKT signaling.

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