Vana Gene
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Meera Maharjan ◽  
Anil Kumar Sah ◽  
Susil Pyakurel ◽  
Sabita Thapa ◽  
Susan Maharjan ◽  
...  

Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal on the skin and in the nasal cavity of humans, is one of the most serious cases of nosocomial infections. Moreover, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For the treatment of MRSA infections, vancomycin is considered as a drug of choice. However, the emergence of vancomycin resistance among MRSA isolates has been perceived as a formidable threat in therapeutic management. To estimate the rate of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and to detect the vancomycin-resistant genes, namely, vanA and vanB, among the isolates, a hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to December 2018 in Annapurna Neurological Institute and Allied Science, Kathmandu, Nepal. S. aureus was isolated and identified from different clinical samples and processed for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the modified Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. The screening of MRSA was performed as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. VRSA was confirmed by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method by employing E-test strips. All the phenotypically confirmed VRSA were further processed to detect the vanA and vanB gene by using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 74 (20.3%) S. aureus were isolated, and the highest percentage of S. aureus was from the wound samples (36.5%). Of 74 S. aureus isolates, the highest number (89.2%) was resistant to penicillin, and on the other hand, linezolid was found to be an effective drug. Likewise, 45 (60.81%) were found to be MRSA, five (11.11%) were VRSA, and 93.2% of S. aureus isolates showed an MAR index greater than 0.2. Two VRSA isolates (40%) were positive for the vanA gene. The higher prevalence of MRSA and significant rate of VRSA in this study recommend routine surveillance for the MRSA and VRSA in hospital settings before empirical therapy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
Author(s):  
Farzad Mohamadi ◽  
Jalil Vand Yousefi ◽  
Naser Harzandi ◽  
Sobhan Ghafourian

Background: Due to the importance of identifying the source of infectious agents, different typing methods have been developed, among which the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method is known as the gold standard for bacteria. Also, Enterococcus faecalis is classified as a nosocomial infection. Objectives: The current study aimed to identify the source of E. faecalis by the PFGE method. Methods: Bacteria were collected from all cases of urinary tract infections. Then, the identification process was performed. All isolates were evaluated for vancomycin resistance, and then PFGE was carried out. Results: The results of disk diffusion showed that 54% of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin. Also, 4% of the isolates were intermediate, and 42% showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Afterwards, the PCR of the VanA gene was performed to confirm the results of disk diffusion. Thus, 48 out of 54 (88.8%) isolates had the VanA gene, and none of the four intermediate isolates had the VanA gene. Our results demonstrated that 54 isolates were vancomycin-resistant, and 50 different pulsotypes groups were identified. Conclusions: Our findings showed the isolates of E. faecalis were from different clonal lineages.


Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 97
Author(s):  
Wedad Ahmed ◽  
Heinrich Neubauer ◽  
Herbert Tomaso ◽  
Fatma Ibrahim El Hofy ◽  
Stefan Monecke ◽  
...  

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci- and ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from milk of bovine mastitis cases in Egypt. Fifty milk samples of dairy animals were collected from localities in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF MS, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method. PCR amplifications were carried out, targeting resistance-associated genes. Seventeen Enterococcus isolates and eight coliform isolates could be cultivated. Vancomycin resistance rate was high in Ent. faecalis. The VITEK 2 system confirmed all E. coli isolates as ESBL-producing. All Ent. faecalis isolates harbored erm(B), tetL and aac-aphD genes. The vanA gene was detected in Ent. faecalis isolate, vanB was found in other Enterococcus, while one isolate of E. casseliflavus exhibited the vanA gene. E. coli isolates exhibited high prevalence of erm(B) and tetL. E. coli isolates were analyzed by DNA microarray analysis. Four isolates were determined by O-serotyping as O8 (n = 1), O86 (n = 2) and O157 (n = 1). H-serotyping resulted in H11, H12, H21 (two isolates each) and one was of H16 type. Different virulence-associated genes were detected in E. coli isolates including lpfA, astA, celB, cmahemL, intI1 and intI2, and the iroN gene was identified by DNA microarray analysis.


Antibiotics ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 890
Author(s):  
Eva Cunha ◽  
Rita Janela ◽  
Margarida Costa ◽  
Luís Tavares ◽  
Ana Salomé Veiga ◽  
...  

Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases in dogs. Although previous studies have shown the potential of the antimicrobial peptide nisin for PD control, there is no information regarding its influence in the development of antimicrobial resistance or horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Nisin’s mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and selection window (MSW) were determined for a collection of canine oral enterococci. Isolates recovered after the determination of the MPC values were characterized for their antimicrobial profile and its nisin minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. The potential of vanA HGT between Enterococcus faecium CCGU36804 and nine clinical canine staphylococci and enterococci was evaluated. Nisin MPC values ranged from 400 to more than 600 μg/mL. In comparison with the original enterococci collection, the isolates recovered after the determination of the nisin MPC showed increased resistance towards amoxicillin/clavulanate (5%), vancomycin (5%), enrofloxacin (10%), gentamicin (10%) and imipenem (15%). The HGT of vanA gene was not observed. This work showed that nisin selective pressure may induce changes in the bacteria’s antimicrobial resistance profile but does not influence horizontal transfer of vanA gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nisin’s MPC and MSW determination regarding canine enterococci.


2020 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Radhwane Saidi ◽  
Zafer Cantekin ◽  
Nora Mimoune ◽  
Yasar Ergun ◽  
Hasan Solmaz ◽  
...  

Staphylococcus strains are frequently as- sociated with clinical and subclinical bovine intra-mammary infection. The virulence factors of staphylococcus have not been widely studied in Algeria. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of slime production, VanA gene and antiseptic resistance genes in staphylococci strains isolated from bovine mas- titis in Algeria. The study examined 35 Staphy- lococci strains obtained from the inflammatory secretion of mammary glands of cows with mastitis. Slime production was determined by detecting the icaA and icaD genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and Congo red agar (CRA) method. The presence of qacAB and qac C antiseptic resistance genes and the VanA resistance gene in these isolates was investigated by PCR. The results of the current study revealed that of the 35 Staphylo- cocci isolates, 42.85% (15/35) and 17.14% (6/35) of the isolates harboured the slime production gene by analysing icaA and icaD genes, respec- tively and 71.42% (25/35) by the CRA method. However, VanA and antiseptic resistance genes (qacAB and qac C) were not detected in any of the isolates. Therefore, the majority of Staphylo- coccus strains were capable of producing slime, and the CRA detection rate was higher than the PCR method for the biofilm-producing capac- ity of Staphylococcus strains. Thus, the presence of the ica genes in Staphylococcus strains con- firms its role as a virulence factor in the patho- genesis of bovine mastitis.


2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S806-S807
Author(s):  
Cecilia G Carvalhaes ◽  
Helio S Sader ◽  
Jennifer M Streit ◽  
Mariana Castanheira ◽  
Rodrigo E Mendes

Abstract Background Enterococcus faecium (EFM) causes difficult-to-treat infections due to its intrinsic resistance (R) and ability to acquire R to many antimicrobials. This study evaluated the vancomycin (VAN)-R rates over time and the activity of oritavancin (ORI) against a collection of EFM causing bloodstream infections (BSI). Methods A total of 1,081 BSI EFM isolates collected from 36 US hospitals in a prevalence mode design during 2010-2019 were evaluated. Bacterial identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution. For comparison, the ORI breakpoint for VAN-susceptible E. faecalis was applied to EFM. Isolates were characterized as VanA or VanB phenotypes based on their susceptibility (S) to VAN and teicoplanin (TEC). The VanB phenotype was confirmed by PCR and/or whole genome sequencing. Results Overall, 72.3% (782/1,081) of EFM were VAN-R (Table). VanA was the most common phenotype (97.7%; 764/782). The yearly VAN-R rates decreased from 81.8% in 2010 to 58.7% in 2019. A total of 18 (2.3%) isolates exhibited a VanB phenotype (TEC MIC, 0.5-8 mg/L); however, the vanB gene only was confirmed in 9 EFM isolates (TEC MIC, 0.5-1 mg/L), which were all collected in 2010-2012. The remaining 9 (50.0%) VanB phenotype EFM isolates carried a vanA gene (TEC MIC, 4-8 mg/L). ORI was very active against VAN-susceptible EFM (MIC50/90, ≤ 0.008/≤0.008/mg/L), VanA (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.12 mg/L; MIC100, 0.5 mg/L), and VanB (MIC50/90, ≤ 0.008/0.015 mg/L; MIC100, 0.03 mg/L) subsets. Only linezolid (LZD) and ORI (MIC, ≤ 0.12 mg/L) showed > 95.0%S against EFM and VAN-R subsets. Daptomycin (DAP)-R rarely was observed (0.8%), but it was more frequently found in the last 5 years. However, 49.9% of EFM isolates showed elevated DAP MICs (2 and 4 mg/L). ORI inhibited 77.8%, and 100.0% of DAP-R and LZD-nonsusceptible EFM isolates at ≤ 0.12 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion VAN-R rates among EFM causing BSI in the US decreased during 2010-2019. VanA remains the most common phenotype, whereas vanB-carrying isolates became rarer in later years. Interestingly, half of VanB-phenotype isolates carried a vanA gene. ORI was very active against EFM causing BSI, including isolates R to VAN, DAP, and/or nonsusceptible to LZD. Table 1 Disclosures Cecilia G. Carvalhaes, MD, PhD, A. Menarini Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.R.L. (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Cidara Therapeutics (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Fox Chase Chemical Diversity Center (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck & Co, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support) Helio S. Sader, MD, PhD, A. Menarini Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.R.L. (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Melinta (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Paratek Pharma, LLC (Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support) Jennifer M. Streit, BS, A. Menarini Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.R.L. (Research Grant or Support)A. Menarini Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.R.L. (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Paratek Pharma, LLC (Research Grant or Support) Mariana Castanheira, PhD, 1928 Diagnostics (Research Grant or Support)A. Menarini Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.R.L. (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Amplyx Pharmaceuticals (Research Grant or Support)Cidara Therapeutics (Research Grant or Support)Cidara Therapeutics (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Fox Chase Chemical Diversity Center (Research Grant or Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck & Co, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Merck & Co, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Paratek Pharma, LLC (Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Qpex Biopharma (Research Grant or Support) Rodrigo E. Mendes, PhD, A. Menarini Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.R.L. (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Basilea Pharmaceutica International, Ltd (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Department of Health and Human Services (Research Grant or Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)


2020 ◽  
Vol 29 (3) ◽  
pp. 97-104
Author(s):  
Amira H. Elkhyat ◽  
Amal F. Makled ◽  
Ahmed M. Albeltagy ◽  
Tarek F. Keshk ◽  
Amal M. Dawoud

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of burn wound infection. Vancomycin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is becoming a worldwide growing threat. Objectives: to detect the prevalence of MRSA in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility patterns. In addition, the resistance patterns of MRSA to vancomycin and the prevalence of vanA gene among MRSA isolates were investigated. Methodology: A total 250 clinical samples were obtained from patients admitted to Burn Unit in Menoufia University Hospitals. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates were performed. Cefoxitin disk diffusion method was used to identify MRSA strains. Vancomycin resistance was determined by agar dilution method. Detection of mecA and vanA genes by multiplex PCR was done. Results: Staphylococcus aureus represented 43.3% of all isolates. By cefoxitin disc diffusion method, 94% (79/84) of isolated S. aureus were MRSA that showed a high resistance to most antimicrobials used with rates ranged from 40.5 % to 100%. Phenotypically among MRSA isolates, vancomycin sensitive S. aureus (VSSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) were 59.5%, 15.2%, 25.3% respectively. Among MRSA isolates, 17 (21.5%) isolates had vanA gene by PCR (16 isolates were VRSA and one isolate was VSSA).Conclusion: This study is considered as an alarm demonstrating that implementation of proper infection control measures is mandatory to control spread of such resistant strains in our hospital.


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