protein gene product
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Hand ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 155894472110669
Lana L. de Lima ◽  
Diego Ariel de Lima ◽  
Thiago H. B. Freire ◽  
Francisco A. A. Almeida ◽  
José A. D. Leite ◽  

Background: The treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by sectioning the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) is not exempt from complications. Some nerve branches may be damaged by the incision. The aim of this study is to identify and map the TCL nerve endings, serving as a guide for sectioning this structure in a zone with less nerve ending density. Methods: Ten TCLs were obtained from fresh frozen cadavers. The TCLs were measured, divided into 3 equal bands (radial, central, and ulnar), and submitted to cryostat sectioning. The sections were subjected to immunofluorescence with the protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and confocal microscopy analysis. Results: All the specimens contained type I and type IV mechanoreceptors. Neural elements occupied 0.695 ± 0.056% of the ligament area. The density of the neural elements was greater in the radial, followed by the ulnar and central bands, with 0.730 ± 0.083%, 0.686 ± 0.009%, and 0.669 ± 0.031%, respectively. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that the region with the least potential for neural element injury during TCL release is the central third near the transition with the ulnar third. When performed distally to proximally with a slight inclination from the radial to the ulnar, this release compromises the lowest nerve element density. Topographically, the proximal limit of the release is the distal wrist crease, while the distal limit is the intersection of Kaplan cardinal line and the axis of the third webspace.

2021 ◽  
pp. 030098582110572
Jim Manavis ◽  
Peter Blumbergs ◽  
Ian Jerrett ◽  
Daren Hanshaw ◽  
Francisco Uzal ◽  

Since axonal injury (AI) is an important component of many veterinary neurologic disorders, we assessed the relative ability of a panel of antibodies (amyloid precursor protein, 3 subunits of neurofilament protein, protein gene product 9.5, ubiquitin, and synaptophysin) to detect axonal swellings or spheroids. Abundant axonal spheroids found in necrotic internal capsule foci produced in 4 sheep by chronic Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon neurotoxicity provided a model system in which to evaluate this important diagnostic tool. There was heterogeneous labeling of subsets of spheroids by the respective antibodies, suggesting that, in order to detect the complete spectrum of AI in diagnostic cases, a range of antibodies should be used, not only when spheroids are plentiful but also when they are few in number or incompletely developed. The application of insufficient markers in the latter cases can potentially lead to the contribution of AI to lesion pathogenesis being underappreciated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 41 ◽  
pp. 517-530
MP Grant ◽  
CR VanderSchee ◽  
H Chou ◽  
A Bolt ◽  
LM Epure ◽  

Tungsten is incorporated in many industrial goods, military applications and medical devices due to its ability to impart flexibility, strength and conductance to materials. Emerging evidence has questioned the safety of tungsten exposure as studies have demonstrated it can promote tumour formation, induce pulmonary disease and alter immune function. Although tungsten is excreted from the body it can accumulate in certain organs such as the brain, colon, liver, kidneys, spleen and bones, where most of the bioaccumulation occurs. Whether prolonged tungsten exposure leads to accumulation in other tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrated that mice exposed to 15 ppm sodium tungstate for 4 weeks in their drinking water showed comparable accumulation in both the bony vertebrae and intervertebral discs (IVDs). Lumbar IVD height was significantly reduced in tungsten-exposed mice and accompanied by decreased proteoglycan content and increased fibrosis. In addition to catabolic enzymes, tungsten also increased the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α as well as the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived nerve factor (BDNF) in IVD cells. Tungsten significantly increased the presence of nociceptive neurons at the endplates of IVDs as observed by the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) in endplate vessels. The present study provided evidence that tungsten may enhance disc degeneration and fibrosis as well as increase the expression of markers for pain. Therefore, tungsten toxicity may play a role in disc degeneration disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 92-99
Anna Junga ◽  
Māra Pilmane ◽  
Zane Ābola ◽  
Olafs Volrāts

IntroductionThe regulatory role of cytokines and extracellular matrix remodeling factors in congenital intra-abdominal adhesions has not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and relative distribution of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in adhesions.Material and methodsTNF-α, PGP 9.5, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were detected using immunohistochemical methods and their relative distribution was evaluated by means of the semiquantitative counting method. The results were analyzed using non-parametric statistical methods.ResultsA moderate number of TNF-α positive macrophages and fibroblasts was found. A positive correlation was observed between the immunoreactive structures for TNF-α and PGP 9.5. A positive reaction for PGP 9.5 was observed in nerve fibers and shape modified fibroblasts. In control group tissues, positive structures were seen in significantly higher counts for PGP 9.5. Few to moderate numbers of MMP-2 positive macrophages, epithelioid cells, fibroblasts and endotheliocytes were detected. There was no significant difference between the groups. A positive reaction for TIMP-2 was seen in fibroblasts, macrophages and endotheliocytes. In control group tissues, positive structures were found in significantly higher counts for TIMP-2.ConclusionsThe positive correlation between the immunoreactive structures for TNF-α and PGP 9.5 suggests that nerve in-growth into intraabdominal adhesions might be induced by TNF-α and PGP 9.5 could have a role in maintaining inflammation. The down-regulation of PGP 9.5 suggests that pathogenesis of congenital intraabdominal adhesions may be related to hypoxia induced damage. The imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 may prove tissue fibrosis as a response to congenital peritoneal adhesions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 75
Asaranti Kar ◽  
Shafqat Bano ◽  
Dilleswari Pradhan ◽  
PradeepKumar Behera ◽  
Akruti Mishra ◽  

Animals ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2169
Yeonju Choi ◽  
Youngwook Jung ◽  
Seongmin Kim ◽  
Junyoung Kim ◽  
Heejun Jung ◽  

Molecular markers can be used to identify and isolate specific developmental stages of germ cells and Leydig cells. Protein gene product (PGP)9.5 expression in spermatogonia and Leydig cells has been reported in several species. The stages of spermatogonia and Leydig cells expressing PGP9.5 vary depending on the species and reproductive stages. Thus, the objectives of this study were (1) to identify the localization of PGP9.5 in donkey testicular cells, and (2) to compare the expression patterns of PGP9.5 in donkey testicular cells between pre- and post-pubertal stages. Testes samples were collected following the routine field castration of six donkeys. Western blotting was performed to verify the cross-reactivity of the rabbit anti-human PGP9.5 antibody to donkey testes. Immunofluorescence was performed to investigate the expression pattern of PGP9.5 in testicular tissues at different reproductive stages. In Western blotting, the protein band of the PGP9.5 antibody appeared at approximately 27 kDa, whereas the band was not observed in the negative control treated with normal mouse IgG. In the pre-pubertal stage, the expression of deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) was found in some spermatogonia in pre-pubertal testicular tissues. However, the immunolabeling of PGP9.5 in testicular tissue was not observed in the seminiferous tubules. In stages 1 and 2, spermatogonia were immunolabeled with either PGP9.5 or DAZL. In contrast, PGP9.5 and DAZL were co-immunolabeled in some of the spermatogonia in stages 3 to 8. Interestingly, some Leydig cells were immunolabeled with PGP9.5 in both pre- and post-pubertal stages. In conclusion, the PGP9.5 antibody can be used as a tool to identify and isolate spermatogonia from seminiferous tubules.

2020 ◽  
Vol 68 (10) ◽  
pp. 669-678
Ningshan Wang ◽  
Jennifer Garcia ◽  
Roy Freeman ◽  
Christopher H. Gibbons

The detection of cutaneous phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (P-syn) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) has ranged from 30% to 100% across different studies. We hypothesize that part of the variability in P-syn detection is due to methodological differences using sections of different tissue thickness. Three skin biopsies were obtained from 29 individuals with PD and 21 controls. Tissues were cut into 10-, 20-, and 50-µm-thick sections and double-stained with protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and P-syn. We quantified the deposition of P-syn with and without PGP 9.5 in sweat glands, pilomotor muscle, and blood vessels using confocal digital images of autonomic structures. Overall, the P-syn-positive rates with PGP 9.5 colocalization in subjects with PD were 100% using 50 µm sections, 90% using 20 µm sections, and 73% using 10 µm sections with 100% specificity. (No P-syn was detected within control subjects.) Without PGP 9.5, colocalization of the P-syn-positive rates was 100% for all samples, but specificity dropped below 70%. In this study, double-immunostained 50 µm skin biopsy tissue sections are superior to 20 and 10 µm tissue sections at detecting P-syn in subjects with PD. The increased sensitivity is likely secondary to a combination of greater volume of tissue analyzed and improved visualization of nerve fiber architecture.

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