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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Khan ◽  
M. H. Mushtaq ◽  
J. Muhammad ◽  
B. Ahmed ◽  
E. A. Khan ◽  

Abstract There are different opinions around the World regarding the zoonotic capability of H3N8 equine influenza viruses. In this report, we have tried to summarize the findings of different research and review articles from Chinese, English, and Mongolian Scientific Literature reporting the evidence for equine influenza virus infections in human beings. Different search engines i.e. CNKI, PubMed, ProQuest, Chongqing Database, Mongol Med, and Web of Knowledge yielded 926 articles, of which 32 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Analyzing the epidemiological and Phylogenetic data from these articles, we found a considerable experimental and observational evidence of H3N8 equine influenza viruses infecting human being in different parts of the World in the past. Recently published articles from Pakistan and China have highlighted the emerging threat and capability of equine influenza viruses for an epidemic in human beings in future. In this review article we have summarized the salient scientific reports published on the epidemiology of equine influenza viruses and their zoonotic aspect. Additionally, several recent developments in the start of 21st century, including the transmission and establishment of equine influenza viruses in different animal species i.e. camels and dogs, and presumed encephalopathy associated to influenza viruses in horses, have documented the unpredictable nature of equine influenza viruses. In sum up, several reports has highlighted the unpredictable nature of H3N8 EIVs highlighting the need of continuous surveillance for H3N8 in equines and humans in contact with them for novel and threatening mutations.

2022 ◽  
Ziad Sabry ◽  
Rui Wang ◽  
Aryo Jahromi ◽  
Christina Rabeler ◽  
William B Kristan ◽  

Sensing electric fields is an ability that certain animal species utilize for communication, hunting, and spatial orientation. Freshwater planarians move toward the cathode in a static electric field (cathodic electrotaxis). First described by Raymond Pearl more than a century ago, planarian electrotaxis has received little attention and the underlying mechanisms and evolutionary significance remain unknown. We developed an apparatus and scoring metrics for automated quantitative and mechanistic studies of planarian behavior upon exposure to a static electric field. Using this automated setup, we characterized electrotaxis in the planarian Dugesia japonica and found that this species responds to voltage instead of to current, in contrast to results from previous studies using other species. Because longer planarians exhibited more robust electrotaxis than shorter planarians, we hypothesized that signals from the head impede cathodic electrotaxis. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of the regenerative abilities of planarians and compared electrotaxis in head and tail fragments of various lengths. We found that tail and trunk fragments electrotaxed while head fragments did not, regardless of size. However, we could restore cathodic electrotaxis in head fragments via decapitation, demonstrating that the presence of the head impaired cathodic electrotaxis. This result is in stark contrast to other stimulated behaviors such as phototaxis, thermotaxis or chemotaxis, which are weaker or absent in headless fragments. Thus, electrotaxis may be an important ability of headless planarian fragments to support survival prior to head regeneration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
Yogendra Shah ◽  
Sarad Paudel ◽  
Kishor Pandey ◽  
Govind Prasad Gupta ◽  
Eddie Samuneti Solo ◽  

AbstractTuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in humans and animals. Numbers of multi drug resistance TB (MDR-TB), extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) and zoonotic TB cases are increasingly being reported every year in Nepal posing a major public health problem. Therefore, the Government of Nepal should act immediately to strengthen the screening facilities across the country to be able to identify and treat the TB infected patients as well as detect zoonotic TB in animal species. Endorsement of One Health Act by the Government of Nepal is an opportunity to initiate the joint programs for TB surveillance among human and animal species using one health approach to reduce the TB burden in Nepal.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Cristian Piras ◽  
Enrico Gugliandolo ◽  
Fabio Castagna ◽  
Ernesto Palma ◽  
Domenico Britti

Ivermectin has a wide number of many diverse functions. Certainly, it is irreplaceable for the treatment of parasitic pathologies in both human and veterinary medicine, and the latter represents the major field of its application. It has been called the “drug for the world’s poor” because of its role as a saviour for those living on the margins of society, in underdeveloped areas afflicted by devastating and debilitating diseases, such as Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic filariasis. It showed huge, unexpected potential as an antibacterial (Chlamydia trachomatis and mycobacteria), and it has antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. The research line described here is placed right in the middle of the investigation on the impact of this drug as an antimicrobial and an immunomodulator. Being a drug widely employed for mass administration, it is mandatory to broaden the knowledge of its possible interaction with bacterial growth and its generation of antimicrobial resistance. Equally, it is important to understand the impact of these drugs on the immune systems of animal species, e.g., horses and dogs, in which this drug is often used. More importantly, could immunomodulation and antibacterial activity promote both bacterial growth and the occurrence of resistance mechanisms?

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Sarah Mondoloni ◽  
Manuel Mameli ◽  
Mauro Congiu

AbstractThroughout life, individuals experience a vast array of positive and aversive events that trigger adaptive behavioural responses. These events are often unpredicted and engage actions that are likely anchored on innate behavioural programs expressed by each individual member of virtually all animal species. In a second step, environmental cues, that are initially neutral, acquire value through the association with external sensory stimuli, and become instrumental to predict upcoming positive or negative events. This process ultimately prompts learned goal-directed actions allowing the pursuit of rewarding experience or the avoidance of a danger. Both innate and learned behavioural programs are evolutionarily conserved and fundamental for survival. Among the brain structures participating in the encoding of positive/negative stimuli and contributing to innate and learned behaviours is the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb). The LHb provides top-down control of monoaminergic systems, responds to unexpected appetitive/aversive stimuli as well as external cues that predict the upcoming rewards or punishments. Accordingly, the LHb controls a number of behaviours that are innate (originating from unpredicted stimuli), and learned (stemming from predictive cues). In this review, we will discuss the progresses that rodent’s experimental work made in identifying how LHb activity governs these vital processes, and we will provide a view on how these findings integrate within a complex circuit connectivity.

Juliana H. Giffoni ◽  
Raffaella B. C. Teixeira ◽  
Raphael R. Wenceslau ◽  
Melina A. F. Abrantes ◽  
Jéssica G. Oliveira ◽  

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Mei Jiang ◽  
Shu-Fei Xu ◽  
Tai-Shan Tang ◽  
Li Miao ◽  
Bao-Zheng Luo ◽  

Abstract Background Bioassessment and biomonitoring of meat products are aimed at identifying and quantifying adulterants and contaminants, such as meat from unexpected sources and microbes. Several methods for determining the biological composition of mixed samples have been used, including metabarcoding, metagenomics and mitochondrial metagenomics. In this study, we aimed to develop a method based on next-generation DNA sequencing to estimate samples that might contain meat from 15 mammalian and avian species that are commonly related to meat bioassessment and biomonitoring. Results In this project, we found the meat composition from 15 species could not be identified with the metabarcoding approach because of the lack of universal primers or insufficient discrimination power. Consequently, we developed and evaluated a meat mitochondrial metagenomics (3MG) method. The 3MG method has four steps: (1) extraction of sequencing reads from mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes); (2) assembly of mitogenomes; (3) mapping of mitochondrial reads to the assembled mitogenomes; and (4) biomass estimation based on the number of uniquely mapped reads. The method was implemented in a python script called 3MG. The analysis of simulated datasets showed that the method can determine contaminant composition at a proportion of 2% and the relative error was < 5%. To evaluate the performance of 3MG, we constructed and analysed mixed samples derived from 15 animal species in equal mass. Then, we constructed and analysed mixed samples derived from two animal species (pork and chicken) in different ratios. DNAs were extracted and used in constructing 21 libraries for next-generation sequencing. The analysis of the 15 species mix with the method showed the successful identification of 12 of the 15 (80%) animal species tested. The analysis of the mixed samples of the two species revealed correlation coefficients of 0.98 for pork and 0.98 for chicken between the number of uniquely mapped reads and the mass proportion. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the potential of the non-targeted 3MG method as a tool for accurately estimating biomass in meat mix samples. The method has potential broad applications in meat product safety.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Eva Jablonka ◽  
Simona Ginsburg ◽  
Anat Zeligowski

Which living organisms are conscious, feeling creatures, and which are more like sophisticated robots that can only respond to stimuli and solve simple problems? There are many different and hotly debated answers to this question. We used biology to come up with a new approach for determining which organisms are conscious. We propose that organisms that can learn in a specific, flexible manner are conscious. Using this criterion, it is likely that consciousness first appeared about 540 million years ago and can now be found in many animal species. If our ideas are accepted, this means that we must change our attitude toward non-human animals and do a better job of protecting them from pain and suffering.

2022 ◽  
Feda S. Aljaser

The development in cryobiology in animal breeding had revolutionized the field of reproductive medicine. The main objective to preserve animal germplasm stems from variety of reasons such as conservation of endangered animal species, animal diversity, and an increased demand of animal models and/or genetically modified animals for research involving animal and human diseases. Cryopreservation has emerged as promising technique for fertility preservation and assisted reproduction techniques (ART) for production of animal breeds and genetically engineered animal species for research. Slow rate freezing and rapid freezing/vitrification are the two main methods of cryopreservation. Slow freezing is characterized by the phase transition (liquid turning into solid) when reducing the temperature below freezing point. Vitrification, on the other hand, is a phenomenon in which liquid solidifies without the formation of ice crystals, thus the process is referred to as a glass transition or ice-free cryopreservation. The vitrification protocol applies high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPA) used to avoid cryoinjury. This chapter provides a brief overview of fundamentals of cryopreservation and established methods adopted in cryopreservation. Strategies involved in cryopreserving germ cells (sperm and egg freezing) are included in this chapter. Last section describes the frontiers and advancement of cryopreservation in some of the important animal models like rodents (mouse and rats) and in few large animals (sheep, cow etc).

Rhaabe Dayane da Silva GOMES ◽  
Maria de Fátima BEZERRA ◽  
Cláudia Souza MACÊDO ◽  
Ingrid Laíse Silvestre de OLIVEIRA ◽  
Luís Henrique Fernandes BORBA ◽  

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