confirmatory factor analyses
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Luka Komidar ◽  
Anja Podlesek ◽  
Tina Pirc ◽  
Sonja Pečjak ◽  
Katja Depolli Steiner ◽  

The importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and measures for assessing students’ self-regulation skills and knowledge are greatly needed. We present the results of the first thorough adaptation of the Children’s Perceived use of Self-Regulated Learning Inventory (CP-SRLI). The inventory, consisting of 15 scales measuring nine components of SRL, was administered to a sample of 541 Slovenian ninth graders. Confirmatory factor analyses supported internal structure validity of most components, but two components required some structural modifications. Internal consistency coefficients were acceptable for the majority of scale scores and were highly comparable to the original ones. While metric invariance across gender was confirmed, the scalar invariance of some scales needs further examination. Meaningful correlations with relevant externally assessed and self-reported self-regulation and school performance variables indicated good criterion validity of the inventory. The Slovenian version of the CP-SRLI thus proved to be a sufficiently valid and reliable instrument for assessing pupils’ learning self-regulation.

2022 ◽  
Nikolay R. Rachev ◽  
Sandra Jeanette Geiger ◽  
Jáchym Vintr ◽  
Desislava Kirilova Kirilova ◽  
Anna Nabutovsky ◽  

The framing effect occurs when different presentations of the same problem lead to predictably different preferences. The dual-process framework of higher cognition assumes that the effect violates rational principles, but alternative accounts and recent evidence have contested this interpretation. Contributing to this debate, we tested the dual-process assumption by investigating associations between susceptibility to framing and the willingness and ability to think in line with rational norms, conceptualized as actively open-minded thinking and pseudo-profound bullshit receptivity. We conducted two online studies among North American (N = 259) and Bulgarian (N = 248) university students and administered several framing problems within subjects, presumably a necessary condition for the associations to appear. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that susceptibility to framing was associated with decreased actively open-minded thinking and increased bullshit receptivity in both sites. Exploratory multi-group analyses demonstrated partial strong invariance and showed that the findings generalize across both sites in terms of direction and partially in terms of magnitude. These results broadly support the dual-process account of the framing effect. Our study further contributes to adapting existing measures to a novel setting and expanding the findings across borders and populations.

Roman E. von Rezori ◽  
Friederike Buchallik ◽  
Petra Warschburger

Abstract Background Benefit finding, defined as perceiving positive life changes resulting from adversity and negative life stressors, gains growing attention in the context of chronic illness. The study aimed at examining the psychometric properties of the Benefit Finding Scale for Children (BFSC) in a sample of German youth facing chronic conditions. Methods A sample of adolescents with various chronic conditions (N = 304; 12 – 21years) completed the 10-item BFSC along with measures of intra- and interpersonal resources, coping strategies, and health-related quality of life (hrQoL). The total sample was randomly divided into two subsamples for conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA/CFA). Results EFA revealed that the BFSC scores had a one-dimensional factor structure. CFA verified the one-dimensional factor structure with an acceptable fit. The BFSC exhibited acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.87 – 0.88) and construct validity. In line with our hypotheses, benefit finding was positively correlated with optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and support seeking. There were no correlations with avoidance, wishful thinking, emotional reaction, and hrQoL. Sex differences in benefit finding were not consistent across subsamples. Benefit finding was also positively associated with age, disease severity, and social status. Conclusions The BFSC is a psychometrically sound instrument to assess benefit finding in adolescents with chronic illness and may facilitate further research on positive adaptation processes in adolescents, irrespective of their specific diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
William R. Nugent ◽  
Linda Daugherty

About 38.4% of U.S. households include a dog, and 25.4% a cat, as pets, and a recent poll suggested over 90% of pet owners feel their companion animal is a family member. Numerous studies have suggested pet ownership has physical, mental, and social health benefits, though much of this research has yielded mixed results. Results of a recent review suggested significant measurement problems in human-animal interaction (HAI) and human-animal bond (HAB) research, including the absence of validity evidence, overly long measures, lack of evidence for measurement equivalence across species of pets, and measures lacking a basis in important psychological, family, and attachment theories. This article describes the development and results of a measurement equivalence study of a new measure of the HAB called the family bondedness scale (FBS). This scale, and the research results, address multiple gaps in HAB measurement. Results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses with multiple covariates indicated the scores on the FBS showed equivalence between cat and dog owners. The use of the FBS in both veterinary research and practice, as well as in research and practice in other disciplines, such as social work and psychology, are considered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Doris Baumann ◽  
Willibald Ruch

In a recent work, we introduced a theoretical model for fulfillment in life that covers cognitive and affective components and distinguishes different time frames. The present study evaluates this model and describes the construction of the Fulfilled Life Scale (FLS) to assess fulfillment regarding the whole lived life retrospectively. We investigated the scale in two samples (Sample 1: N = 282 adults aged 50–93 years; Sample 2: N = 406 adults aged 40–85 years). The model of the cognitive component combines three sources of fulfillment (self, life, impact/legacy) with three criteria (wholeness, fit, value), yielding nine facets. Employing hierarchical factor analysis, we inspected all solutions between one and nine. We identified three optimal factors, which we labeled unfolded self and life, the worthwhile life, and positive impact and legacy. Next, we selected marker items and replicated the factor structure in Sample 2. The three scales were positively intercorrelated and showed good internal consistency in both samples. For the affective component, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses established a one-factor structure in both samples, and high internal consistency was obtained. Across a range of related constructs, we demonstrated construct and criterion validity. Notably, cognitive and affective fulfillment incrementally predicted a global rating of a fulfilled life and mental well-being, even after controlling for subjective and eudaimonic well-being. Overall, the study proves that the FLS is necessary to capture people’s experience of a fulfilled life, which could not be assessed sufficiently with previous well-being measures. Both cognitive and affective fulfillment were able to predict additional variance in mental well-being. Moreover, the study reveals psychometric support for the FLS and presents the first evidence on its validity. Lastly, applications in research and practice are discussed, especially in the context of living and aging well in the second half of life.

Jonathan Martínez-Líbano ◽  
María-Mercedes Yeomans ◽  
Juan-Carlos Oyanedel

The main objective of this study was to estimate the psychometric properties of the Emotional Fatigue Scale (ECE) in a sample of 1308 Chilean university students and confirm the unifactorial structure of the scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The ECE assessment had an internal consistency of 0.893 (Cronbach’s Alpha). An exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation and a confirmatory analysis were performed, obtaining the factor that explains 52.3% of the variance. The results indicated that the ECE has adequate psychometric properties for use with higher education students in Chile. The ECE scale has good psychometric properties to be applied in the Chilean university context. Its usage may be very relevant to contribute to higher education institutions to emphasize students’ mental health and prevent possible severe pathologies in future professionals. It is suggested to use the ECE scale together with the EES-Int, which is the only interpretation table for this instrument.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001312452110699
Esther Cuadrado ◽  
Blas Domínguez-Herrera ◽  
Bárbara Luque ◽  
Manuel Moyano ◽  
Carmen Tabernero

The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a reliable and valid scale that allows the measurement of the perception that teachers have of attention to diversity in the classroom: the Perception of Attention to Diversity Scale (PADS). To this end, 456 teachers answered a survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a robust adjustment of the expected bifactorial structure. The two factors identified were the perception of attention (a) related to the Specific Educational Needs, with five items, and (b) related to cultural diversity, with four items. The patterns of relationship between the scale and its factors with other psychological variables supported the construct validity. The study provides a useful tool both to measure the perception that teachers have of the levels of attention to diversity they offer in the classroom, and to analyze the relationship that such perception can have with different study variables.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Juan Francisco Aguirre ◽  
Yunuen Socorro Rangel-Ledezma ◽  
Perla Jannet Jurado-García ◽  
Humberto Blanco ◽  
Martha Ornelas ◽  

Anxiety is a feeling of fear, dread or restlessness and can develop into a weight-related disorder. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the trait anxiety subscale of the Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS), as well as the invariance in Mexican preadolescents. The sample consisted of 604 participants, 285 female and 319 male, whose ages ranged between 11 and 12 years (M = 11.37; SD = 0.48). The questionnaire’s factor structure was analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses. The analyses show the viability and adequacy of a two-factor structure (weight and non-weight factors) both for the total sample and for the populations of male and female. The two-factor structure showed adequate reliability and validity fit indicators. The factor structure, the factor loadings and intercepts are considered invariant according to the variable sex; however, differences between female and male participants were found for levels of anxiety caused by physical appearance. In conclusion, the PASTAS can be considered a convenient instrument to assess the variables related to anxiety generated by one’s physical appearance, as well as allowing more participants to be quickly assessed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alica Mertens ◽  
Maximilian Theisen ◽  
Joachim Funke

The current study introduces the Multi-Motive Grid Mobility (MMG-M) in an age-stratified sample (N = 206) that aims to disentangle six motive components – hope of success, hope of affiliation, hope of power, fear of failure, fear of rejection, and fear of power – in mobility-related and mobility-unrelated scenarios. Similar to the classical Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), we selected 14 picture scenarios representing seven mobility and seven non-mobility situations. The scenarios were combined with 12 statements from the MMG. Both the MMG-M and MMG were assessed to allow comparability between psychometric criteria. The results of confirmatory factor analyses yielded a good model fit for a six-factor solution with an additional mobility factor for the MMG-M. Internal consistency of the items was similar to the MMG. Lastly, we investigated associations between the motive components and mobility-related variables. We found that risk awareness was positively related to all fear components in both mobility and non-mobility scenarios. Most importantly, physical constraint was positively associated with fear of rejection and fear of power in mobility situations underlining the importance to create support systems to reduce these concerns in people’s everyday lives.

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