emotional reaction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 681-695
Valentyna Voloshyna ◽  
Inna Stepanenko ◽  
Anna Zinchenko ◽  
Nataliia Andriiashyna ◽  
Oksana Hohol

<p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of the study was to identify what neuropsychological effect online learning had on psychology students and how it could be moderated. The study was descriptive and combined qualitative and quantitative methods to address the research questions. The study relied on three phases such as baseline study, experiment, and reporting. The experiment utilised neuropsychology tests adopted from the NeurOn platform. It was found that the Psychology students’ perceptions of e-learning and their emotional reaction to them were found not to be appreciative. The practices in breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga were proved to be able to moderate the impact of online learning on the experimental group students’ attentional capacities, memory processes, and cognition abilities. The above findings were supported by the results obtained for the neuropsychology tests and the experimental group students’ self-reflections yielded from the use of the MovisensXS App. The students confirmed that breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga reduced study stress and burnout caused by e-learning and improved their academic performance. The focus group online discussion also showed that integration of breathing exercises, meditation, and yoga helped the experimental group students keep emotional balance, concentrate on their studies easier, remember more information, and meet deadlines in completing assignments. The education scientists are suggested to study how the e-learning curriculum could be reshaped so that it used relaxation practices on regular basis.</p>

Roman E. von Rezori ◽  
Friederike Buchallik ◽  
Petra Warschburger

Abstract Background Benefit finding, defined as perceiving positive life changes resulting from adversity and negative life stressors, gains growing attention in the context of chronic illness. The study aimed at examining the psychometric properties of the Benefit Finding Scale for Children (BFSC) in a sample of German youth facing chronic conditions. Methods A sample of adolescents with various chronic conditions (N = 304; 12 – 21years) completed the 10-item BFSC along with measures of intra- and interpersonal resources, coping strategies, and health-related quality of life (hrQoL). The total sample was randomly divided into two subsamples for conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA/CFA). Results EFA revealed that the BFSC scores had a one-dimensional factor structure. CFA verified the one-dimensional factor structure with an acceptable fit. The BFSC exhibited acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.87 – 0.88) and construct validity. In line with our hypotheses, benefit finding was positively correlated with optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and support seeking. There were no correlations with avoidance, wishful thinking, emotional reaction, and hrQoL. Sex differences in benefit finding were not consistent across subsamples. Benefit finding was also positively associated with age, disease severity, and social status. Conclusions The BFSC is a psychometrically sound instrument to assess benefit finding in adolescents with chronic illness and may facilitate further research on positive adaptation processes in adolescents, irrespective of their specific diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 3-16
Jorge Alberto Close

This article identifies the physiological, neurological, and psychological determinants that arise from constraints imposed by both genetic and environmental factors, originating human behaviours. The determinants, called Ego Selves, that organise the phenomena that Eric Berne classified, structured, conceptualised, and defined to mould transactional analysis and design instruments to assist professionals and patients to adjust behaviours, are analysed. A different form of presenting the adapted Child, differentiating it from Berne’s model where the adapted Child is shown as a part of the natural Child, is presented. Parent-Adapted Child, and the Adult ego states, adjusting their manifestation and organization to the physiological development of their corres-ponding ego self, are identified, proposing that the Adapted Child is a part of the Parent ego state. Contamination is reviewed and adjusted for cons-istency between cause and effect, identifying that the contaminated ego state is the Parent ego state, creating a delusion based on injunctions that generate an illusion in the adapted Child portion of it which in turn causes the natural child’s emotional reaction, considerably limiting the Adult ego state's capabilities to intervene. Script analysis is reviewed and organised indicating that the script is a life plan initiated at conception and ending at death, and that it is indispensable for survival, having adequate and inadequate segments that may limit lifespan and quality of life. Occurrences, neurophysiological factors, and memories involved in their development and implementation are also identified. Suggestions and examples for the integrated development of intervention strategies and tactics to adjust behaviours and fulfil contracts are presented in the corresponding section.

Miriam Schuler ◽  
Sebastian Mohnke ◽  
Till Amelung ◽  
Klaus M Beier ◽  
Martin Walter ◽  

Abstract Behavioral studies found evidence for superior cognitive empathy (CE) in pedophilic men without a history of child sexual offending (P-CSO) compared to pedophilic men with a history of CSO (P+CSO). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies also point to differences between P-CSO and P+CSO. Neural processing associated with CE has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the neural correlates of CE in subjects with pedophilia with (P+CSO) and without (P-CSO) child sexual offending. 15 P+CSO, 15 P-CSO, and 24 teleiophilic male controls (TC) performed a CE task during fMRI. We observed reduced activation in the left precuneus (Pcu) and increased activation in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in P-CSO compared to P+CSO. P-CSO also showed stronger connectivity between these regions, which might reflect a top-down modulation of the Pcu by the ACC toward an increased self-focused emotional reaction in social situations. There was also evidence for increased right superior temporal gyrus activation in P-CSO that might constitute a potentially compensatory recruitment due to the dampened Pcu activation. These findings provide first evidence for altered neural processing of CE in P-CSO and underline the importance of addressing CE in pedophilia and CSO in order to uncover processes relevant to effective prevention of child sexual abuse.

Witold Stok

The author of the article, one of the acclaimed Polish cinematographers, describes his practical eforts involved in making two short documentary films on Holocaust directed by him. The first one,Sonderzug (1978), was based on Stok’s idea to recreate his first emotional reaction to the landscape around Treblinka in the film that lasts 9 minutes, as long as the way of the Jews from the ramp to their end in the death camp. The other film, Prayer (1981), is the portrayal of a Japanese Buddhist monk praying at the site of the former Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. The formal inspiration of the film came from Japanese visual art.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 345-368
Dušan Pavlović ◽  
Stevo Đurašković

We examine the 1914-1918 creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as a form of the ultimatum game. The negotiations among the Serbian Cabinet and the yugoslav Committee representatives of the Habsburg Souths Slavs from 1914-1918 exemplify three versions of this game. The first version is a typical (rational choice) type of the ultimatum game in which the receiver is satisfied with any offer by the Proposer. The second version is an instance of behavioral game theory. When the Proposer gives an unfair offer, it provokes an emotional reaction in the receiver who will reject it at the cost of harming themselves. We observe this behavior in the emotional behavior of frano Supilo, a Croat and one of the leaders of the yugoslav Committee. The third version of the behavioral ultimatum game can be observed in the behavior of Serbian Prime minister nikola Pašić who opposed any concessions to the yugoslav Committee, thus giving an ultimatum to the Croat side to accept the Serbian offer or remain with nothing, which was harmful to the Serbian side, too. This example is important because it produces two conclusions. first, historical games are often a mixture of several versions. Second, Proposers, too, can have an emotional reaction and give an offer that can hurt themselves. This aspect of the ultimatum game is less mentioned because it is difficult to simulate in experiments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13388
Barbara Ester Adele Piga ◽  
Gabriele Stancato ◽  
Nicola Rainisio ◽  
Marco Boffi

Simulations of urban transformations are an effective tool for engaging citizens and enhancing their understanding of urban design outcomes. Citizens’ involvement can positively contribute to foster resilience for mitigating the impact of climate change. Successful integration of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) into the urban fabric enables both the mitigation of climate hazards and positive reactions of citizens. This paper presents two case studies in a southern district of Milan (Italy), investigating the emotional reaction of citizens to existing urban greenery and designed NBS. During the events, the participants explored in Virtual Reality (VR) (n = 48) and Augmented Reality (AR) (n = 63) (i) the district in its current condition and (ii) the design project of a future transformation including NBS. The environmental exploration and the data collection took place through the exp-EIA© method, integrated into the mobile app City Sense. The correlations between the color features of the viewed landscape and the emotional reaction of participants showed that weighted saturation of green and lime colors reduced the unpleasantness both in VR and AR, while the lime pixel area (%) reduced the unpleasantness only in VR. No effects were observed on the Arousal and Sleepiness factors. The effects show high reliability between VR and AR for some of the variables. Implications of the method and the benefits for urban simulation and participatory processes are discussed.

Milutina K.L. ◽  
Harahulia A.O.

Purpose. The research concerns the problem of choosing an individual eating style and identifying possible psychological factors of choosing an eating style by a person. Methods. To achieve this purpose theoretical methods were used: analysis of psychological literature and generalization of psychological dates; empirical methods: Kugler-Jones guilt questionnaire, J. Rotter’s “Locus of Control” method, methods of mathematical and statistical processing and visualization of empirical data: one-way analysis of variance.Results. The results of an empirical study of psychological characteristics, in particular the features of guilt and personal responsibility in people with different eating styles. The sample was 80 people. Respondents were people aged 20 to 45 with different eating styles: traditional, healthy, alternative and interval. The traditional diet meant the consumption of food, characteristic of the culture of the subjects, healthy eating – strict restrictions on food consumption (calories, the ratio of macro- and micro-elements in the diet, restriction of harmful products and sugar), alternative (complete rejection of certain products or Interval or intermittent – alternation between meals, fasting for a day or several days. The greatest experience of guilt as a condition is inherent in people with a choice of alternative, healthy and interval eating styles. That is, people who choose a style of eating with certain restrictions have a fairly high, compared to the traditional style of eating emotional reaction to a particular behavior that may be contrary to their personal moral principles. The highest prevalence of guilt as a trait in people who follow a healthy and alternative diet. Such people have an emotional attitude, which is associated with responsibility for violating personal moral principles. Such specificity of guilt presupposes that such individuals are more likely to adhere to such severe restrictions on food consumption.Conclusions. It was researched the problem of choosing an individual eating style and identifying possible psychological factors of choosing an eating style by a person. Representatives of the traditional style of eating are attracted to the external locus of control, in contrast to the representatives of a healthy, alternative diet, which is characterized by an internal locus of control. At the same time, people with interval nutrition showed the same manifestation of both internal and external locus of personality control.Key words: orthorexia, eating styles, guilt, locus of control, morality. Мета. Дослідити проблему вибору індивідуального стилю харчування та виявлення можливих психологічних факторів вибору стилю харчування особистістю. Методи. Для реалізації цієї мети було використано теоретичні методи: аналіз психологічної літератури та узагальнення психологічних даних із проблеми дослідження, емпіричні: опитувальник провини Куглера-Джонс, методика «Локус-контролю» Дж. Роттера, методи математично-статистичної обробки та візуалізації емпіричних даних: однофакторний дисперсійний аналіз.Результати. Представлено результати емпіричного дослідження психологічних характеристик, зокрема особливостей прояву почуття провини та особистісної відповідальності в осіб з різним стилем харчування. Вибірка становила 80 осіб. Респондентами виступили особи віком від 20-ти до 45-ти років із різним стилем харчування: традиційним, здоровим, альтернативним та інтервальним. Під традиційним харчуванням малося на увазі споживання їжі, характерної для культури досліджуваних, під здоровим харчуванням – дотримання чітких обмежень у споживанні страв (калорійність, співвідношення макро- та мікроелементів у раціоні, обмеження шкідливих продуктів та цукру), альтернативним – повна відмова від певних продуктів або способів приготування їжі. Інтервальне або переривчасне – чергування між прийомами їжі, голодування протягом дня або кількох днів. Найбільше переживання провини як стану притаманне людям із вибором альтернативного, здоро-вого та інтервального стилів харчування. Тобто у людей, які вибирають стиль харчування з певними обмеженнями, виявлено досить високу, порівняно із представниками традиційного стилю харчування, емоційну реакцію на конкретну поведінку, яка може суперечити їхнім особистісним моральним прин-ципам. Найбільше переважає високий рівень переживання провини як риси у людей, які дотримуються здорового та альтернативного способу харчування. У таких осіб існує емоційна установка, яка пов’я-зана з відповідальністю за порушення особистісних моральних принципів. Така специфічність переживання почуття провини зумовлює те, що такі особистості з більшою ймовірністю можуть дотриму-ватися таких жорстких обмежень у споживанні їжі.Висновки. Досліджено особливості вибору індивідуального стилю харчування та виявлено мож-ливі психологічні фактори вибору стилю харчування. Представникам традиційного стилю харчування приманний екстернальний локус контролю на відміну від представників здорового, альтернативного харчування, яким притаманний інтернальний локус контролю. Причому в осіб з інтервальним харчуванням виявлено однаковий прояв як інтернального, так і екстернального локус контролю особистості.Ключові слова: орторексія, стилі харчування, провина, локус контролю, мораль.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 20-30
Demchenko I. ◽  
Bilan V. ◽  
Friauf N. ◽  

The article describes significant trends of school and family cooperation in inclusive education. Its success depends on qualitative psychological and pedagogical advisory support services for parents of the children with developmental disorders. It has been found that in the families, who bring up children with developmental disorders, there are specific mutual relations. It highlights the specific features of parents’ perceiving of their urgent inner family situation that touches every family relation structures: emotional, cognitive and behavioral. The mental tension and emotional discomfort are identified to appear clearly in the sphere of emotional reaction of parents of the children with developmental disorders. The cognitive sphere is for perceiving of their family situation as a troubled. Behavioral sphere is characterized by active search for inner and outside psychological and pedagogical advisory support. The types of incorrect family upbringing caused by parents’ deprecation of the fact they have children with developmental disorders (deprecation; hyper care; anxious and distrustful upbringing; non-interference) and its consequences are distinguished. We established that while providing psychological and pedagogical advisory support for parents of the children with developmental disorders it is impossible to be limited by urgent needs and enquiries. It is proved by the fact that every set consulting task is to be comprehended in advance and work on the changes of the present and future. Taking into account the efforts of the scholars to describe the issue, we may distinguish the proof of optimal conditions to provide qualitative psychological and pedagogical advisory support services for parents of the children with special educational needs in inclusive educational space may be perceived as a perspective of the further scientific search.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 895-895
Jennifer Rose

Abstract Pain is neither a vital sign nor a normal part of aging. Yet, older adults frequently experience pain chronically or from an acute event. Pain was identified as a gap per the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Quality Measures report (2019). The purpose of this quality improvement project was to improve the assessment of pain at a skilled nursing facility (SNF) by using a standardized tool. The Comprehensive Pain Assessment Tool for the Cognitively Intact evaluates the complex sensation and emotional reaction of the pain experience. Nurse managers (N=7) received 1:1 education on pain, pain assessment, use of the pain assessment tool, and took a post-test. Chart audits were conducted to identify tool use and evaluate the patient response. Additional data were collected from nurse managers via a questionnaire. All nurse managers received education and completed the post-test. Pain assessments and care plans were completed for 100% of the SNF residents in the cohort (N=22). Follow-up assessments were completed on only 75% of the cohort. Of the cohort, 95% demonstrated improved physical ability and functioning in activities of daily living as their pain experience improved. Only 4.5% of the cohort participated in the anticipated level of minutes of therapy as a result of facility infection control limitations due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This project demonstrated improved pain management through use of a tool to comprehensively assess pain. An organizational policy to comprehensively assess pain at this SNF could promote a higher level of independence and functioning for older adults.

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