chronic exposure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 56 ◽  
pp. 74-75
Lidia Cabeza ◽  
Bahrie Ramadan ◽  
Julie Giustiniani ◽  
Christophe Houdayer ◽  
Yann Pellequer ◽  

Walessa Alana Bragança Aragão ◽  
Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt ◽  
Leidiane Alencar de Oliveira Lima ◽  
Michel Platini Caldas de Souza ◽  
Lygia Sega Nogueira ◽  

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Philip Newsholme ◽  
Jordan Rowlands ◽  
Roselyn Rose’Meyer ◽  
Vinicius Cruzat

Irreversible pancreatic β-cell damage may be a result of chronic exposure to supraphysiological glucose or lipid concentrations or chronic exposure to therapeutic anti-diabetic drugs. The β-cells are able to respond to blood glucose in a narrow concentration range and release insulin in response, following activation of metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and the TCA cycle. The β-cell cannot protect itself from glucose toxicity by blocking glucose uptake, but indeed relies on alternative metabolic protection mechanisms to avoid dysfunction and death. Alteration of normal metabolic pathway function occurs as a counter regulatory response to high nutrient, inflammatory factor, hormone or therapeutic drug concentrations. Metabolic reprogramming is a term widely used to describe a change in regulation of various metabolic enzymes and transporters, usually associated with cell growth and proliferation and may involve reshaping epigenetic responses, in particular the acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and DNA. Other metabolic modifications such as Malonylation, Succinylation, Hydroxybutyrylation, ADP-ribosylation, and Lactylation, may impact regulatory processes, many of which need to be investigated in detail to contribute to current advances in metabolism. By describing multiple mechanisms of metabolic adaption that are available to the β-cell across its lifespan, we hope to identify sites for metabolic reprogramming mechanisms, most of which are incompletely described or understood. Many of these mechanisms are related to prominent antioxidant responses. Here, we have attempted to describe the key β-cell metabolic adaptions and changes which are required for survival and function in various physiological, pathological and pharmacological conditions.

Dongyong Zhu ◽  
Bo He ◽  
Mengdi Zhang ◽  
Yixuan Wan ◽  
Ruibin Liu ◽  

AbstractProlonged exposure to high altitudes above 2500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) can cause cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Herein, we sought to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to plateau hypoxia on the hippocampus in a rat model by using voxel-based morphometry, creatine chemical exchange saturation transfer (CrCEST) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging techniques. 58 healthy 4-week-old male rats were randomized into plateau hypoxia rats (H group) as the experimental group and plain rats (P group) as the control group. H group rats were transported from Chengdu (500 m a.s.l.), a city in a plateau located in southwestern China, to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (4250 m a.s.l.), Yushu, China, and then fed for 8 months there, while P group rats were fed in Chengdu (500 m a.s.l.), China. After 8 months of exposure to plateau hypoxia, open-field and elevated plus maze tests revealed that the anxiety-like behavior of the H group rats was more serious than that of the P group rats, and the Morris water maze test revealed impaired spatial memory function in the H group rats. Multimodal MR imaging analysis revealed a decreased volume of the regional gray matter, lower CrCEST contrast and higher transport coefficient Ktrans in the hippocampus compared with the P group rats. Further correlation analysis found associations of quantitative MRI parameters of the hippocampus with the behavioral performance of H group rats. In this study, we validated the viability of using noninvasive multimodal MR imaging techniques to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to a plateau hypoxic environment on the hippocampus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Francesca Mancuso ◽  
Iva Arato ◽  
Alessandro Di Michele ◽  
Cinzia Antognelli ◽  
Luca Angelini ◽  

The increasing use of nanomaterials in a variety of industrial, commercial, medical products, and their environmental spreading has raised concerns regarding their potential toxicity on human health. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) represent one of the most commonly used nanoparticles. Emerging evidence suggested that exposure to TiO2 NPs induced reproductive toxicity in male animals. In this in vitro study, porcine prepubertal Sertoli cells (SCs) have undergone acute (24 h) and chronic (from 1 up to 3 weeks) exposures at both subtoxic (5 µg/ml) and toxic (100 µg/ml) doses of TiO2 NPs. After performing synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles, we focused on SCs morphological/ultrastructural analysis, apoptosis, and functionality (AMH, inhibin B), ROS production and oxidative DNA damage, gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, proinflammatory/immunomodulatory cytokines, and MAPK kinase signaling pathway. We found that 5 µg/ml TiO2 NPs did not induce substantial morphological changes overtime, but ultrastructural alterations appeared at the third week. Conversely, SCs exposed to 100 µg/ml TiO2 NPs throughout the whole experiment showed morphological and ultrastructural modifications. TiO2 NPs exposure, at each concentration, induced the activation of caspase-3 at the first and second week. AMH and inhibin B gene expression significantly decreased up to the third week at both concentrations of nanoparticles. The toxic dose of TiO2 NPs induced a marked increase of intracellular ROS and DNA damage at all exposure times. At both concentrations, the increased gene expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and HO-1 was observed whereas, at the toxic dose, a clear proinflammatory stress was evaluated along with the steady increase in the gene expression of IL-1α and IL-6. At both concentrations, an increased phosphorylation ratio of p-ERK1/2 was observed up to the second week followed by the increased phosphorylation ratio of p-NF-kB in the chronic exposure. Although in vitro, this pilot study highlights the adverse effects even of subtoxic dose of TiO2 NPs on porcine prepubertal SCs functionality and viability and, more importantly, set the basis for further in vivo studies, especially in chronic exposure at subtoxic dose of TiO2 NPs, a condition closer to the human exposure to this nanoagent.

Chemosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 287 ◽  
pp. 132414
Henghai Su ◽  
Peihong Yuan ◽  
Hehua Lei ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Dazhi Deng ◽  

Andrea Soltysova ◽  
Patricia Begerova ◽  
Kristina Jakic ◽  
Katarina Kozics ◽  
Monika Sramkova ◽  

AbstractThe unique physicochemical properties make inorganic nanoparticles (INPs) an exciting tool in diagnosis and disease management. However, as INPs are relatively difficult to fully degrade and excrete, their unintended accumulation in the tissue might result in adverse health effects. Herein, we provide a methylome–transcriptome framework for chronic effects of INPs, commonly used in biomedical applications, in human kidney TH-1 cells. Renal clearance is one of the most important routes of nanoparticle excretion; therefore, a detailed evaluation of nanoparticle-mediated nephrotoxicity is an important task. Integrated analysis of methylome and transcriptome changes induced by INPs (PEG-AuNPs, Fe3O4NPs, SiO2NPs, and TiO2NPs) revealed significantly deregulated genes with functional classification in immune response, DNA damage, and cancer-related pathways. Although most deregulated genes were unique to individual INPs, a relatively high proportion of them encoded the transcription factors. Interestingly, FOS hypermethylation inversely correlating with gene expression was associated with all INPs exposures. Our study emphasizes the need for a more comprehensive investigation of INPs’ biological safety, especially after chronic exposure. Graphical abstract

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