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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Byron Marshall ◽  
Michael Curry ◽  
Robert E. Crossler ◽  
John Correia

Survey items developed in behavioral Information Security (InfoSec) research should be practically useful in identifying individuals who are likely to create risk by failing to comply with InfoSec guidance. The literature shows that attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions drive compliance behavior and has influenced the creation of a multitude of training programs focused on improving ones’ InfoSec behaviors. While automated controls and directly observable technical indicators are generally preferred by InfoSec practitioners, difficult-to-monitor user actions can still compromise the effectiveness of automatic controls. For example, despite prohibition, doubtful or skeptical employees often increase organizational risk by using the same password to authenticate corporate and external services. Analysis of network traffic or device configurations is unlikely to provide evidence of these vulnerabilities but responses to well-designed surveys might. Guided by the relatively new IPAM model, this study administered 96 survey items from the Behavioral InfoSec literature, across three separate points in time, to 217 respondents. Using systematic feature selection techniques, manageable subsets of 29, 20, and 15 items were identified and tested as predictors of non-compliance with security policy. The feature selection process validates IPAM's innovation in using nuanced self-efficacy and planning items across multiple time frames. Prediction models were trained using several ML algorithms. Practically useful levels of prediction accuracy were achieved with, for example, ensemble tree models identifying 69% of the riskiest individuals within the top 25% of the sample. The findings indicate the usefulness of psychometric items from the behavioral InfoSec in guiding training programs and other cybersecurity control activities and demonstrate that they are promising as additional inputs to AI models that monitor networks for security events.

Fawziya M. Rammo ◽  
Mohammed N. Al-Hamdani

Many languages identification (LID) systems rely on language models that use machine learning (ML) approaches, LID systems utilize rather long recording periods to achieve satisfactory accuracy. This study aims to extract enough information from short recording intervals in order to successfully classify the spoken languages under test. The classification process is based on frames of (2-18) seconds where most of the previous LID systems were based on much longer time frames (from 3 seconds to 2 minutes). This research defined and implemented many low-level features using MFCC (Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients), containing speech files in five languages (English. French, German, Italian, Spanish), from voxforge.org an open-source corpus that consists of user-submitted audio clips in various languages, is the source of data used in this paper. A CNN (convolutional Neural Networks) algorithm applied in this paper for classification and the result was perfect, binary language classification had an accuracy of 100%, and five languages classification with six languages had an accuracy of 99.8%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 783
Diana Fedunova ◽  
Andrea Antosova ◽  
Jozef Marek ◽  
Vladimir Vanik ◽  
Erna Demjen ◽  

Amyloid fibrils draw attention as potential novel biomaterials due to their high stability, strength, elasticity or resistance against degradation. Therefore, the controlled and fast fibrillization process is of great interest, which raises the demand for effective tools capable of regulating amyloid fibrillization. Ionic liquids (ILs) were identified as effective modulators of amyloid aggregation. The present work is focused on the study of the effect of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium-based ILs with kosmotropic anion acetate (EMIM-ac) and chaotropic cation tetrafluoroborate (EMIM-BF4) on the kinetics of lysozyme amyloid aggregation and morphology of formed fibrils using fluorescence and CD spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, AFM with statistical image analysis and docking calculations. We have found that both ILs decrease the thermal stability of lysozyme and significantly accelerate amyloid fibrillization in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% (v/v) in conditions and time-frames when no fibrils are formed in ILs-free solvent. The effect of EMIM-BF4 is more prominent than EMIM-ac due to the different specific interactions of the anionic part with the protein surface. Although both ILs induced formation of amyloid fibrils with typical needle-like morphology, a higher variability of fibril morphology consisting of a different number of intertwining protofilaments was identified for EMIM-BF4.

2022 ◽  
pp. 030157422110562
Santosh Rahul Tavva ◽  
Suresh Gorantla ◽  
Vizia Muddada ◽  
Tivanani V D Mahendra ◽  
Ramoji Rao Lenka ◽  

Objective To evaluate the quantity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles released into the artificial salivary medium from orthodontic composite impregnated with 1% weight/weight (w/w) and 5% w/w titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) used for bonding metal brackets, thereby eventually comprehending the permissible levels. Materials and Method Eighty freshly extracted teeth for orthodontic treatment were divided into 2 groups of 40 teeth each and were bonded with brackets containing 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles and placed in an artificial salivary medium. Quantification of 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium nanoparticles was done using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy for 4 timely periods 24 h, 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. Results In the teeth that received 1% TiO2, the amount of titanium released was greatest in 2 months with no significant release at later intervals. In the second group that received 5%, there was a significant release of titanium at all intervals, with highest release at second month. On comparing the 2 concentrations at 4 different time intervals, the quantities were significantly greater in the 5% group at all time frames, thus implying a significant increase in titanium released with an increase in concentration from 1% to 5%. Conclusion Titanium release was higher in 5% w/w composite containing nanoparticles than 1% w/w composite containing nanoparticles, and 1% and 5% concentrations can be used safely and are within the permissible limits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Morgan Brady ◽  
Patria A. Hume ◽  
Susan Mahon ◽  
Alice Theadom

Background: Treatment approaches often differ dependent upon whether a person experiences a sports-related or a non-sports-related mild traumatic brain injury. It remains unclear if recovery from these injuries is comparable or unique to context of the injury.Objective: To identify knowledge gaps on self-reported outcomes and trajectories between sports- and non-sports-related mild traumatic brain injuries and how they are assessed in adults.Methods: This scoping review used a systematic search of key electronic databases, including PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Embase, MEDLINE, and CINAHL for articles published in 1937 until March 10, 2021. Articles were included if they were available in English; full text published in a peer-reviewed journal; had a prospective or retrospective study design; reported data on mild TBI cases >16 years of age, and included data from at least two time points on self-reported outcomes within 12 months post-injury. A standardized data extraction spreadsheet was used to determine the participant characteristics, definitions, assessment methods, outcomes, and recovery time frames.Results: Following removal of duplicates, the search strategy elicited 6,974 abstracts. Following abstract review, 174 were retained for full text review. Of the 42 articles that met inclusion criteria, 18 were sports related (15 in the USA and three in Canada) and 24 were general population studies (six in USA, three in Canada, three in Australasia, nine in Europe, two in Taiwan, and one in Morocco). Direct comparison in recovery trajectories between the sport and general population studies was difficult, given notable differences in methodology, definitions, types of outcome measures, and timing of follow-up assessments. Only one article reported on both sports-related and non-sports-related traumatic brain injuries separately at comparable timepoints. This study revealed no differences in recovery time frames or overall symptom burden.Discussion: Whilst there is a clear benefit in researching specific subpopulations in detail, standardized outcome measures and follow-up time frames are needed across contexts to facilitate understanding of similarities and differences between sports- and non-sports-related mild traumatic brain injuries to inform clinical treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Eemu-Samuli Väliaho ◽  
Jukka A. Lipponen ◽  
Pekka Kuoppa ◽  
Tero J. Martikainen ◽  
Helena Jäntti ◽  

Aim: Atrial fibrillation (AF) detection is challenging because it is often asymptomatic and paroxysmal. We evaluated continuous photoplethysmogram (PPG) for signal quality and detection of AF.Methods: PPGs were recorded using a wrist-band device in 173 patients (76 AF, 97 sinus rhythm, SR) for 24 h. Simultaneously recorded 3-lead ambulatory ECG served as control. The recordings were split into 10-, 20-, 30-, and 60-min time-frames. The sensitivity, specificity, and F1-score of AF detection were evaluated for each time-frame. AF alarms were generated to simulate continuous AF monitoring. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values (PPVs) of the alarms were evaluated. User experiences of PPG and ECG recordings were assessed. The study was registered in the Clinical Trials database (NCT03507335).Results: The quality of PPG signal was better during night-time than in daytime (67.3 ± 22.4% vs. 30.5 ± 19.4%, p < 0.001). The 30-min time-frame yielded the highest F1-score (0.9536), identifying AF correctly in 72/76 AF patients (sensitivity 94.7%), only 3/97 SR patients receiving a false AF diagnosis (specificity 96.9%). The sensitivity and PPV of the simulated AF alarms were 78.2 and 97.2% at night, and 49.3 and 97.0% during the daytime. 82% of patients were willing to use the device at home.Conclusion: PPG wrist-band provided reliable AF identification both during daytime and night-time. The PPG data’s quality was better at night. The positive user experience suggests that wearable PPG devices could be feasible for continuous rhythm monitoring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 158-164
Siti Lailatul Akmar ◽  
Moeez Ansari ◽  
Zurairah Berahim ◽  
Wan Nazatul Shima Shahidan

Objective: Both honeybees (Apis spp.) and stingless bees (Trigona spp.) produce honeys which normally taken orally, have high nutritional and therapeutics value. Until recently, phytochemical comparison of both honey is still scarce and elucidating cytotoxicity effects on human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF) in oral cavity is of interest. Materials and Methods: Kelulut honey (KH), acquired from the stingless bees and acacia honey (AH) from the sting bees honey samples were underwent GC-MS analysis to ascertain their composition. HGF were exposed to various concentrations of KH and AH from the lowest 0.015% to the highest 5% by MTT assay for 24h, 48h and 72h. Results: GC-MS analysis determined various beneficial compounds such as flavonoids, furans, pyrans, levoglucosan and hydroxymethylfurfural from both of honey samples. MTT assay showed that the HGF cells demonstrated good viability up to percentages (v/v) as high as almost 2% in both honeys. The IC50 values for both honey for all time frames fall at above 2%. Conclusion: Both honey showed good survivability of HGF cells up to 2% of concentration. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 158-164

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 119-131
Alexander Tokarčík ◽  
Henrieta Pavolová ◽  
Tomáš Bakalár ◽  
Lucia Bednárová

The article deals with innovation management in the conditions of a manufacturing company whose aim is to reduce the working time fund that directly determines productivity or efficiency of the company in competitive market conditions. Based on explicit quantification of time frames based on an analytical – chronometric method applicable to production operations in the process. The results of observation, time measurement, research and evaluation of time consumption during the implementation of a repeated production operation, or its complex part within defined production site are presented. Based on explicitly performed quantitative analysis, introducing of innovative technology, innovative solutions in the field of production technology management that support sustainable development with an emphasis on the development of environmental quality are presented including an explicit quantification of working time fund savings through the implementation of innovative machinery and equipment in critical production operations of the analysed production process.

Dzhustin Esiobu

This article, following classical methodological patterns, as well as their evolution framework, identifies key features of the two most predominant constitutionalism traditions — political and legal, simultaneously drawing indispensable red lines with regard to correlation of the doctrine and a Fundamental Law itself. Respectively, the features have been rendered as the very elements of constitutionalism’s role within times of change — i. e., over the aforementioned time frames and transition states in between — whereas the doctrine’s capacity to answer so-called “questions of constitutionalism” constitutes its underlying response mechanism. The article addresses the phenomena of authority, society and democracy in their modern perception, and makes crucial points upon the constitutionalism’s effect on their sheer structures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 218-223
Dariia Khokhel

The problem of nature deterioration in the Anthropocene has become an important art concern, thus leading to analysis of ecological images in the texts of various genres. Our analysis of such imagery in a gaslight romance series is equally topical. The subject of the study is universe of the series of novels by Cindy Spencer Pape which centres around alternative nineteenth century London with highly developed steam engines and corresponding technology. Ecocritical approach is chosen as the research method of the study as the novels have powerful ecological imagery, which requires close analysis. The series covers a number of years, and so the ecological deterioration due to coal overuse can be traced through various London locales, which are described in different time frames, and the comparative reading of these descriptions provides the proof of ecological deterioration. It reveals the consistent ecological discourse within the series, its ties strengthened through steady layering of the images of nature, burdened with progressing pollution. There is social dimension to the issue, as the poorer urban residents are shown to be more effected by this problem due to their jobs, work and living conditions. The paper aims to reveal these numerous aspects of ecological imagery in the texts. The results. Close text analysis of various levels allows us to decipher the multi-layered ecological images and dwell on the message they bear. As the environment degradation takes place in the past, the series allows us to describe its results as facts and compress its progress in time and space within the span of the novels setting. This intensifies the image of the catastrophe, makes it feel more immediate and pressing, thus becoming a powerful plot tool that results in search for solutions of the problem and alleviation of the existing results of coal overuse. This research is the basis of further analysis of ecological imagery in steampunk and gaslight romance as genres, fruitful in that regard.

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