significant release
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2022 ◽  
pp. 030157422110562
Santosh Rahul Tavva ◽  
Suresh Gorantla ◽  
Vizia Muddada ◽  
Tivanani V D Mahendra ◽  
Ramoji Rao Lenka ◽  

Objective To evaluate the quantity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles released into the artificial salivary medium from orthodontic composite impregnated with 1% weight/weight (w/w) and 5% w/w titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) used for bonding metal brackets, thereby eventually comprehending the permissible levels. Materials and Method Eighty freshly extracted teeth for orthodontic treatment were divided into 2 groups of 40 teeth each and were bonded with brackets containing 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles and placed in an artificial salivary medium. Quantification of 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium nanoparticles was done using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy for 4 timely periods 24 h, 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. Results In the teeth that received 1% TiO2, the amount of titanium released was greatest in 2 months with no significant release at later intervals. In the second group that received 5%, there was a significant release of titanium at all intervals, with highest release at second month. On comparing the 2 concentrations at 4 different time intervals, the quantities were significantly greater in the 5% group at all time frames, thus implying a significant increase in titanium released with an increase in concentration from 1% to 5%. Conclusion Titanium release was higher in 5% w/w composite containing nanoparticles than 1% w/w composite containing nanoparticles, and 1% and 5% concentrations can be used safely and are within the permissible limits.

2021 ◽  
pp. 19-24
Galina Pavlovna Pankratova ◽  
Zukhra Kamilovna Shaikhutdinova ◽  
Tatyana Nikolaevna Potapova ◽  
Marina Vasilevna Bidevkina ◽  

When investigating new disinfectants, it is necessary to assess the degree of their danger by modeling the conditions of use. As is known, the main danger of disinfectants, especially volatiles, is posed by the inhalation route of entry into the body, exerting an irritating effect on the respiratory organs, as well as a general toxic and sensitizing effect. Despite reasonable restrictions on the use of disinfectants from the aldehyde class for decontamination of the surfaces of premises and equipment, state registration receives disinfectants based on glutaraldehyde (GA), intended for wide use in various areas, including everyday life, which is unacceptable. Experiments were carried out to confirm the danger of using GA-based disinfectants. Sensitizing effect of GA-based disinfectant under conditions of surface treatment by rubbing method is studied. Significant release of GA into the air after surface treatment (27.7±4.1 mg/m3) was detected. The concentration of GA in the air decreased by 4.5 times after 6 hours of ventilation. The sensitizing effect of the GA-based agent was determined on guinea pigs by a provocative ear swelling test and a leukocyte specific lysis reaction. The results of the study indicate a pronounced sensitizing effect of the agent. Keywords: glutaraldehyde, toxicity, disinfectants, disinfection, sensitization, inhalation, guinea pigs.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Nigel Craig ◽  
Nick Pilcher ◽  
Alan M. Forster ◽  
Craig Kennedy

PurposeThe spirits industry is a major economic contributor worldwide, often requiring years of maturation in barrels that is associated with significant release of ethanol into the surrounding environment. This provides carbon nutrition for colonisation of black fungal growths, one type being Baudoinia compniacensis, or Whisky Black. Although growth is localised in production areas, numerous sites exist globally, and this paper's purpose is to investigate the extent and implications of colonisation.Design/methodology/approachThe paper presents and discusses the results of a visual survey of the area surrounding a site where whisky is maturing in nearby bonded warehouses. The evaluation considers radial zoning distance from the ethanol source and material substrate types and surface textures. Classical key stages of Building Pathology, namely manifestation, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy, are considered.FindingsKey findings are that the colonisation of the fungus is non-uniform and dependent on the substrate building material. Additionally, rougher-textured building materials displayed heavier levels of fungal manifestation than smooth materials. Aspects such as distance, wind direction and moisture are considered relative to the extent and level of fungal growth.Originality/valueThis investigation provides the first assessment of the extent and nature of the fungal growth in properties built in surrounding areas to bonded warehouses. Such information can facilitate open dialogue between stakeholders that recognise the aspirations of values of corporate social responsibility, whilst balancing the economic importance of distilling with recognition of the fungus's impact on property values and appropriate recurring remedial treatments.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 1082
Hueng-Chuen Fan ◽  
Fung-Wei Chang ◽  
Ying-Ru Pan ◽  
Szu-I Yu ◽  
Kuang-Hsi Chang ◽  

Whether meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) serves as an indicator of fetal distress is under debate; however, the presence of MSAF concerns both obstetricians and pediatricians because meconium aspiration is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality, even with appropriate treatment. The present study suggested that thick meconium in infants might be associated with poor outcomes compared with thin meconium based on chart reviews. In addition, cell survival assays following the incubation of various meconium concentrations with monolayers of human epithelial and embryonic lung fibroblast cell lines were consistent with the results obtained from chart reviews. Exposure to meconium resulted in the significant release of nitrite from A549 and HEL299 cells. Medicinal agents, including dexamethasone, L-Nω-nitro-arginine methylester (L-NAME), and NS-398 significantly reduced the meconium-induced release of nitrite. These results support the hypothesis that thick meconium is a risk factor for neonates who require resuscitation, and inflammation appears to serve as the primary mechanism for meconium-associated lung injury. A better understanding of the relationship between nitrite and inflammation could result in the development of promising treatments for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).

2021 ◽  
Vol 80 (1) ◽  
pp. 103-112
Luis Carrasco Páez ◽  
Inmaculada C. Martínez-Díaz

Abstract This study was aimed to assess the neuroendocrine response to stress induced by different sports environments (a regular training session and a competitive event), to define the contribution of psychological and physical stress, and to check the possible relationship between state-anxiety and stress hormones responses to competitive and non-competitive sports practices. Twelve young national-level male swimmers participated in this investigation. Endorphins, adrenocorticotropin, and prolactin plasma levels were measured at baseline conditions (t0), before a regular swimming training session (t1), and before and after real swimming competition consisting of 100 m freestyle (t2 and t3, respectively). Moreover, state-anxiety was evaluated in all assessment time-points. The results showed no differences in endorphin, adrenocorticotropin, prolactin and state-anxiety between t0 and t1; however, significant increases in endorphins (142%), prolactin (137%) and state-anxiety (13%) were observed in t2. Huge stress response was observed in t3 (increases of 354%, 387%, and 250% for endorphins, adrenocorticotropin, and prolactin, respectively) although state-anxiety decreased slightly. Lastly, a lack of the relationship between stress hormones and state-anxiety was found in all conditions. Mental and especially physical stress associated with sports competition induces a significant release of stress hormones which is not relevant for the regular training session.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Ekaterina Mostovenko ◽  
Matthew M. Dahm ◽  
Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan ◽  
Tracy Eye ◽  
Aaron Erdely ◽  

Abstract Background Growing industrial use of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F) warrants consideration of human health outcomes. CNT/F produces pulmonary, cardiovascular, and other toxic effects in animals along with a significant release of bioactive peptides into the circulation, the augmented serum peptidome. While epidemiology among CNT/F workers reports on few acute symptoms, there remains concern over sub-clinical CNT/F effects that may prime for chronic disease, necessitating sensitive health outcome diagnostic markers for longitudinal follow-up. Methods Here, the serum peptidome was assessed for its biomarker potential in detecting sub-symptomatic pathobiology among CNT/F workers using label-free data-independent mass spectrometry. Studies employed a stratified design between High (> 0.5 µg/m3) and Low (< 0.1 µg/m3) inhalable CNT/F exposures in the industrial setting. Peptide biomarker model building and refinement employed linear regression and partial least squared discriminant analyses. Top-ranked peptides were then sequence identified and evaluated for pathological-relevance. Results In total, 41 peptides were found to be highly discriminatory after model building with a strong linear correlation to personal CNT/F exposure. The top-five peptide model offered ideal prediction with high accuracy (Q2 = 0.99916). Unsupervised validation affirmed 43.5% of the serum peptidomic variance was attributable to CNT/F exposure. Peptide sequence identification reveals a predominant association with vascular pathology. ARHGAP21, ADAM15 and PLPP3 peptides suggest heightened cardiovasculature permeability and F13A1, FBN1 and VWDE peptides infer a pro-thrombotic state among High CNT/F workers. Conclusions The serum peptidome affords a diagnostic window into sub-symptomatic pathology among CNT/F exposed workers for longitudinal monitoring of systemic health risks. Graphical abstract

Abhirup Shaw ◽  
Beáta B. Tóth ◽  
Róbert Király ◽  
Rini Arianti ◽  
István Csomós ◽  

Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes might open up new strategies in combating obesity. Recent studies in rodents and humans have indicated that these adipocytes release cytokines, termed “batokines”. Irisin was discovered as a polypeptide regulator of beige adipocytes released by myocytes, primarily during exercise. We performed global RNA sequencing on adipocytes derived from human subcutaneous and deep-neck precursors, which were differentiated in the presence or absence of irisin. Irisin did not exert an effect on the expression of characteristic thermogenic genes, while upregulated genes belonging to various cytokine signaling pathways. Out of the several upregulated cytokines, CXCL1, the highest upregulated, was released throughout the entire differentiation period, and predominantly by differentiated adipocytes. Deep-neck area tissue biopsies also showed a significant release of CXCL1 during 24 h irisin treatment. Gene expression data indicated upregulation of the NFκB pathway upon irisin treatment, which was validated by an increase of p50 and decrease of IκBα protein level, respectively. Continuous blocking of the NFκB pathway, using a cell permeable inhibitor of NFκB nuclear translocation, significantly reduced CXCL1 release. The released CXCL1 exerted a positive effect on the adhesion of endothelial cells. Together, our findings demonstrate that irisin stimulates the release of a novel adipokine, CXCL1, via upregulation of NFκB pathway in neck area derived adipocytes, which might play an important role in improving tissue vascularization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Riyam Haleem ◽  
Noor Ayuni Ahmad Shafiai ◽  
Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd Noor

Abstract Background The demand for fake braces usage in Southeast Asia are increasing but lack of certification and information on fake braces as medical devices from regulated bodies raised a concern towards its safety. The aim of this study was to determine the types of metal ion leachable from removable fake braces based on heavy metal ions present in metallic materials, immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Methods Three sets of fake braces and one control were dissembled to only their brackets and archwires and immersed separately in SBF. They were placed in an incubator shaker at a temperature of 37 °C at 50 rpm. A 3.0 ml measurement of SBF was taken out from the sample containers at days 7, 14 and 28 and kept at − 20 °C for further analysis. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26.0 (IBM, Armonk, USA) (P < 0.05). Descriptive and one-way ANOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to assess the significant differences between the metal ions released in SBF from the control samples and fake braces. Results All 23 elements under investigation except Si ions were detected from the control samples and fake braces. There were significant increased K ions and reduced levels of Mg ions from the fake archwires and brackets. Most ions released were less than 10 mg/L (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Al) or 1 mg/L (Li, Ba) into the SBF medium. Conclusion There were significant release of Ca and K ions from the fake samples. Elements such as Li, Ba, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd and Sb had increased in concentration at day 7 and the concentration plateaued until day 28.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 1454-1464
Ana Gabriela V. Sepulchro ◽  
Vanessa O.A. Pellegrini ◽  
Lucas D. Dias ◽  
Marco A.S. Kadowaki ◽  
David Cannella ◽  

Cost-efficient plant biomass conversion using biochemical and/or chemical routes is essential for transitioning to sustainable chemical technologies and renewable biofuels. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes that make part of modern hydrolytic cocktails destined for plant biomass degradation. Here, we characterized MtLPMO9A from Thermothelomyces thermophilus M77 (formerly Myceliophthora thermophila) and demonstrated that it could be efficiently driven by chlorophyllin excited by light in the presence of a reductant agent. However, in the absence of chemical reductant, chlorophyllin and light alone do not lead to a significant release of the reaction products by the LPMO, indicating a low capacity of MtLPMO9A reduction (either via direct electron transfer or via superoxide ion, O2•-). We showed that photocatalysis could significantly increase the LPMO activity against highly crystalline and recalcitrant cellulosic substrates, which are poorly degraded in the absence of chlorophyllin and light. We also evaluated the use of co-substrates by MtLPMO9A, revealing that the enzyme can use both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and molecular oxygen (O2) as co-substrates for cellulose catalytic oxidation.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 2726
Hung-Wei Cheng ◽  
Yu-Ling Ou ◽  
Chia-Chi Kuo ◽  
Hsin-Yi Tsao ◽  
Huai-En Lu

Immunotherapy is a newly developed method for cancer treatment, but still generates limited response in partial patients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because the immunity cycle is limited by the tumor microenvironment (TME). Herein, we introduce multifunctional gold nanocages (AuNCs)-based nanocarriers with Ansamitocin P3 (AP3) loaded and anti-PDL1 binding (AP3-AuNCs-anti-PDL1) which can combine photothermal therapy, chemotherapeutic agent-triggered DCs maturation, and checkpoint immunotherapy in one platform. The AP3-AuNCs-anti-PDL1 using Avidin-biotin to bind anti-PDL1 on the surface of AP3-AuNCs showed specifically cellular targeting compared to AuNCs, which can increase the immune responses. The AP3-AuNCs+NIR-10 min exhibited the highly activated DCs maturation with two-fold higher than control+NIR, which can be attributed to the significant release of AP3. The results illustrated the synergistic effect of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and controlled AP3 release under near infrared (NIR) in triggering effective DCs maturation. Among them, AP3 release played the more important role than the TAAs under PTT in promoting T-cell activation. These results illustrate the promising potential of AuNCs-based nanocarriers combined with AP3 and the checkpoint inhibitors to strengthen the positive loop of immunity cycle.

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