stress factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1015-1021
Gen Lin ◽  
Ruichun Long ◽  
Xiaoqing Yang ◽  
Songsong Mao ◽  
Hongying Li

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the role of etomidate in intestinal cell ischemia and hypoxia-reperfusion injury and potential mechanisms. Method: In this study, we establish the intestinal epithelial cells ischemia-reperfusion model in vitro. CCK8 was used to detect cell viability and flow cytometry assay was used to detect apoptosis levels of treated OGD/R model cells. ELISA measured the expression level of oxidative stress factors and inflammatory factors. Furthermore, western blot assay was used to detect the expression the apoptosis-related factors and TNFR-associated factors in treated OGD/R model cells. Result: Etomidate does not affect the activity of intestinal epithelial cells, and can protect intestinal epithelial cells to reduce ischemiareperfusion injury, and the expression of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in cells with mild intestinal epithelial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etomidate alleviates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial ischemia-reperfusion injury cells. Etomidate inhibits the activation of traf6-mediated NF-κB signal during ischemia-anoxia reperfusion of intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our study demonstrated that etomidate attenuates inflammatory response and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells during ischemic hypoxia-reperfusion injury and inhibits activation of NF-κB signaling regulated by TRAF6.

Alberto S. de Melo ◽  
Yuri L. Melo ◽  
Claudivan F. de Lacerda ◽  
Pedro R. A. Viégas ◽  
Rener L. de S. Ferraz ◽  

ABSTRACT Global climate change tends to intensify water unavailability, especially in semi-arid regions, directly impacting agricultural production. Cowpea is one of the crops with great socio-economic importance in the Brazilian semi-arid region, cultivated mainly under rainfed farming and considered moderately tolerant to water restriction. This species has physiological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation to these stress factors, but there is still no clear vision of how these responses can not only allow survival, but also ensure yield advances in the field. Besides acclimation mechanisms, the exogenous application of abiotic (salicylic acid, silicon, proline, methionine, and potassium nitrate) and biotic (rhizobacteria) elicitors is promising in mitigating the effects of water restriction. The present literature review discusses the acclimation mechanisms of cowpea and some cultivation techniques, especially the application of elicitors, which can contribute to maintaining crop yield under different water scenarios. The application of elicitors is an alternative way to increase the sustainability of production in rainfed farming in semi-arid regions. However, the use of eliciting substances in cowpea still needs to be carefully explored, given the difficulties caused by genotypic and edaphoclimatic variability under field conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 352-357
Xiaofang Kang ◽  
Hongcheng Zhu

Hormone support (estrogen and progesterone) is a key factor in decidualization and embryo implantation. Elevated levels of estrogen lead to luteal phase defects through Neuropilin 1, a membranecytoskeleton junction protein. This study aimed to explore the effect of BMSCs on endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) in adenomyosis. ESCs obtained from patients with adenomyosis were cocultured with BMSCs in the absence of presence of Neuropilin 1 inhibitor followed by analysis of expression of decidualization-related genes by RT-qPCR and western blot, cell viability by MTT assay, cell invasion and migration by Transwell assay, oxidative stress factors by ROS kit. Treatment with Neuropilin 1 inhibitor significantly decreased ESC proliferation and invasion, blocked epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and restrained decidualization with a downregulation of decidualization-related genes. Furthermore, inhibition of Neuropilin 1 exerted effects through estrogen regulation. However, co-culture with BMSCs restored ESC activity by promoting Neuropilin expression and enhanced intrauterine ESC decidualization. In conclusion, Neuropilin 1 inhibitor restrains decidualization through estrogen regulation which can be abrogated by estrogen receptor antagonists. BMSCs restore the damaged ESC decidualization through increasing Neuropilin 1 expression, which provides new insights into the adverse effect of Neuropilin 1 on human ESCs, suggesting that BMSC is a potential therapeutic drug candidate for adenomyosis.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 156
Purushothaman Ramamoorthy ◽  
Raju Bheemanahalli ◽  
Stephen L. Meyers ◽  
Mark W. Shankle ◽  
Kambham Raja Reddy

Drought, ultraviolet-B (UV-B), and nitrogen stress are significant constraints for sweetpotato productivity. Their impact on plant growth and development can be acute, resulting in low productivity. Identifying phenotypes that govern stress tolerance in sweetpotatoes is highly desirable to develop elite cultivars with better yield. Ten sweetpotato cultivars were grown under nonstress (100% replacement of evapotranspiration (ET)), drought-stress (50% replacement of ET), UV-B (10 kJ), and low-nitrogen (20% LN) conditions. Various shoot and root morphological, physiological, and gas-exchange traits were measured at the early stage of the crop growth to assess its performance and association with the storage root number. All three stress factors caused significant changes in the physiological and root- and shoot-related traits. Drought stress reduced most shoot developmental traits (29%) to maintain root growth. UV-B stress increased the accumulation of plant pigments and decreased the photosynthetic rate. Low-nitrogen treatment decreased shoot growth (11%) and increased the root traits (18%). The highly stable and productive cultivars under all four treatments were identified using multitrait stability index analysis and weighted average of absolute scores (WAASB) analyses. Further, based on the total stress response indices, ‘Evangeline’, ‘O’Henry’, and ‘Beauregard B-14’ were identified as vigorous under drought; ‘Evangeline’, ‘Orleans’, and ‘Covington’ under UV-B; and ‘Bonita’, ‘Orleans’, and ‘Beauregard B-14’ cultivars showed greater tolerance to low nitrogen. The cultivars ‘Vardaman’ and ‘NC05-198’ recorded a low tolerance index across stress treatments. This information could help determine which plant phenotypes are desirable under stress treatment for better productivity. The cultivars identified as tolerant, sensitive, and well-adapted within and across stress treatments can be used as source materials for abiotic stress tolerance breeding programs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-85
B. Asadova

Stress factors limit the development of living organisms, especially plants, and reduce their productivity. In this regard, the study of the effects of stress factors on plants and the discovery of adaptation mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of stress in the cell. From a biological point of view, stress is considered to be any change in the external environment that impairs the normal development of the plant or changes it in a negative direction. Stresses cause changes in the physiological activity of plants, weaken the process of biosynthesis in the cell, disrupt normal life and ultimately can cause plant death.

2022 ◽  
Kevin Tabury ◽  
Mehri Monavarian ◽  
Eduardo Listik ◽  
Abigail K Shelton ◽  
Alex Seok Choi ◽  

Metastatic growth of ovarian cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity requires adaptation to various cellular stress factors to facilitate cell survival and growth. Here we demonstrate the role of PVT1, one such stress induced long non-coding RNA, in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. PVT1 is an amplified and overexpressed lncRNA in ovarian cancer with strong predictive value for survival and response to targeted therapeutics. We find that expression of PVT1 is regulated by ovarian tumor cells in response to cellular stress, particularly loss of cell-cell contacts and changes in matrix rigidity occurring in a YAP1 dependent manner. Induction of PVT1 promotes tumor cell survival, growth, and migration. Conversely, reducing PVT1 levels robustly abrogates metastatic behavior and tumor cell dissemination in cell lines and syngeneic transplantation models in vivo. We find that reducing PVT1 causes widespread transcriptome changes leading to alterations in cellular stress response and metabolic pathways including doxorubicin metabolism, which directly impacts chemosensitivity. Together, these findings implicate PVT1 as a promising therapeutic target to suppress metastasis and avoid chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

Alberto Bermejo-Franco ◽  
Juan Luis Sánchez-Sánchez ◽  
María Isabel Gaviña-Barroso ◽  
Beatriz Atienza-Carbonell ◽  
Vicent Balanzá-Martínez ◽  

(1) Background: The aim of the study was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the mental health and quality of life of male and female physical therapy students at the European University of Madrid. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted including a range of tests capturing different domains: 36-item Short Form Health Survey, six-item state version of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Three Items Loneliness Scale, four-item version of the Perceived Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory revised version, and Sleep Quality Numeric Rating Scale. (3) Results: A total of 151 students completed the study, consisting of 78 females and 73 males. Gender differences were observed on most of the domains evaluated. Female participants showed worse levels of general health perception, quality of life, depression symptoms, anxiety, stress, experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility, sleep quality and loneliness compared to male physical therapy students. (4) Conclusions: The results of this study support the need of psychological interventions as preventive programs in situations such as COVID-19 pandemic. The aims of this study comprise of improving knowledge, awareness, and self-coping strategies or other psychological domains oriented to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on mental health and health-related quality of life in university students, especially among female ones.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Mariarosaria De Pascali ◽  
Marzia Vergine ◽  
Carmine Negro ◽  
Davide Greco ◽  
Federico Vita ◽  

Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) subsp. pauca “De Donno” is the etiological agent of “Olive Quick Decline Syndrome” (OQDS) on olive trees (Olea europaea L.); the presence of the bacterium causes xylem vessel occlusions inducing a drought stress and the development of leaf scorch symptoms, which may be worsened by water shortage in summer. In order to evaluate how the two stress factors overlap each other, the carbohydrate content and the expression patterns of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism have been evaluated in two olive cvs trees (Cellina di Nardò, susceptible to Xf, and Leccino, resistant to Xf) reporting transcriptional dynamics elicited by Xf infection, drought, or combined stress (drought/Xf). In the Xf-susceptible Cellina di Nardò plants, Xf and its combination with drought significantly decrease total sugars compared to control (−27.0% and −25.7%, respectively). In contrast, the Xf-resistant Leccino plants show a more limited reduction in sugar content in Xf-positive conditions (−20.1%) and combined stresses (−11.1%). Furthermore, while the amount of glucose decreases significantly in stressed Cellina di Nardò plants (≈18%), an increase was observed in Leccino plants under drought/Xf combined stresses (+11.2%). An opposite behavior among cvs was also observed for sucrose, as an accumulation of the disaccharide was recorded in stressed Leccino plants (≈37%). The different response to combined stress by Xf-resistant plants was confirmed considering genes coding for the sucrose or monosaccharide transporter (OeSUT1, OeMST2), the cell wall or vacuolar invertase (OeINV-CW, OeINV-V), the granule-bound starch synthase I (OeGBSSI) and sucrose synthase (OeSUSY), with a higher expression than at least one single stress (e.g., ≈1-fold higher or more than Xf for OeMST2, OeINV-CW, OeINV-V, OeGBSSI). It is probable that the pathways involved in drought stress response induce positive effects useful for pathogen resistance in cv Leccino, confirming the importance of investigating the mechanisms of cross-talk of biotic and abiotic responses.

2022 ◽  
pp. 33-36
Н.Ю. Антипова ◽  
Е.В. Кашнова

Представлены результаты селекционной работы по культуре перца сладкого. Показано влияние основных факторов среды на рост растений перца в условиях резко континентального климата Западной Сибири. Освещены некоторые направления сортовой селекции для необогреваемых теплиц и открытого грунта. Главное направление селекции – создание скороспелых сортов с высокой потенциальной продуктивностью, использование которых позволит получать не только гарантированный урожай, но и успешно вести семеноводство. Экспериментальные данные получены в условиях Западной Сибири (г. Барнаул, Алтайский край) при выращивании перца в открытом грунте и необогреваемых пленочных теплицах (весенне-летний культурооборот) на ЗСООС – филиале ФГБНУ ФНЦО. Селекционную работу вели с 2000 года и по настоящее время. Оценку селекционного материала проводили в 2015–2021 годах. Материалом для исследований служили коллекционные, селекционные образцы перца различного генетического и эколого-географического происхождения, а также созданные сорта. Представленные сорта перца пластичны, обладают комплексом хозяйственно ценных признаков: высокой урожайностью, хорошим качеством продукции, устойчивостью к стрессовым факторам и основным болезням. Наиболее востребована группа сортов с конусовидными и пирамидальными плодами (Сибирский князь, Подарок лета, Кавалер, Солнечная улыбка, Золотая пирамида), урожайность которых 4–6 кг/м2 в теплице, в открытом грунте – 26–42 т/га, содержание витамина С – 114–248 мг%, пригодные для салатов, цельноплодного консервирования, замораживания и фарширования. Сорта Солнечная улыбка и Золотая пирамида с плодами оранжевой и желтой окраски в биологической спелости незаменимы при украшении блюд. Крупноплодные сорта с плодами призмовидно-кубовидной формы различной окраски в технической спелости: Викинг (темно-зеленая) и Вальс (светло-зеленая) востребованы в течение всего сезона, особенно в период заготовок впрок. Урожайность этой группы сортов в теплице – 4–7 кг/м2, в открытом грунте – 26–39 т/га, содержание витамина С – 120–191 мг%. Сорта перспективны для выращивания в Сибири, способны удовлетворить высокие требования овощеводов и потребителей. The results of breeding work on the culture of sweet pepper are presented. The influence of the main environmental factors on the growth of pepper plants in the sharply continental climate of Western Siberia is shown. Some directions of varietal selection for unheated greenhouses and open ground are highlighted. The main direction of breeding is the creation of precocious varieties with high potential productivity, the use of which will allow not only to obtain a guaranteed harvest, but also to successfully conduct seed production. Experimental data were obtained in the conditions of Western Siberia (Barnaul, Altai Krai) when growing pepper in the open ground and unheated film greenhouses (spring-summer cultural turnover) at the WSVES – branch of the FSBSI FSVC. Breeding work was carried out from 2000 to the present. The selection material was evaluated in 2015–2021. The materials for research were collectible, breeding samples of pepper of various genetic and ecological-geographical origin, as well as created varieties. The presented varieties of pepper are plastic, have a complex of economically valuable characteristics: high yield, good product quality, resistance to stress factors and major diseases. The most popular group of varieties with cone-shaped and pyramidal fruits (Sibirskii knyaz», Podarok leta, Kavaler, Solnechnaya ulybka, Zolotaya piramida), the yield of which is 4–6 kg/m2 in a greenhouse, in the open ground – 26–42 t/ha, vitamin C content – 114–248 mg%, suitable for salads, whole-fruit canning, freezing and stuffing. Varieties Solnechnaya ulybka and Zolotaya piramida with orange and yellow fruits in biological ripeness are indispensable for decorating dishes. Large-fruited varieties with prismatic-cuboid fruits of various colors in technical ripeness: Viking (dark green) and Val's (light green) are in demand throughout the season, especially during the harvesting period for the future. The yield of this group of varieties is 4–7 kg/m2 in a greenhouse, in the open ground – 26–39 t/ha, vitamin C content 120–191 mg%. The varieties are promising for cultivation in Siberia, able to meet the high demands of vegetable growers and consumers.

K. S. Makarova ◽  
A. V. Pastukhova ◽  
A. S. Gazizulina ◽  
A. F. Petrov ◽  
A. A. Zenkova ◽  

   The authors presented the results of the influence of stress factors on the yield of garden strawberry remontant large-fruited. Phenological and morphological observations, recording and evaluating the quality of the obtained fruits were carried out during the research. Varieties of remontant strawberries with a complex of economically beneficial features were identified. There were features as high yield, winter hardiness, resistance to major diseases and pests were presented. The obtained data confirmed that the highest productivity per bush showed varieties bearing fruit during the entire growing season: Selva - 376.06g, Vima Rina - 411.27g, Remontant large-fruited (hybrid) - 425.42g.

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