adaptive immune response
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elisa Pesce ◽  
Nicola Manfrini ◽  
Chiara Cordiglieri ◽  
Spartaco Santi ◽  
Alessandra Bandera ◽  
...  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has rapidly spread across the globe starting from February 2020. It is well established that during viral infection, extracellular vesicles become delivery/presenting vectors of viral material. However, studies regarding extracellular vesicle function in COVID-19 pathology are still scanty. Here, we performed a comparative study on exosomes recovered from the plasma of either MILD or SEVERE COVID-19 patients. We show that although both types of vesicles efficiently display SARS-CoV-2 spike-derived peptides and carry immunomodulatory molecules, only those of MILD patients are capable of efficiently regulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. Accordingly, by mass spectrometry, we show that the proteome of exosomes of MILD patients correlates with a proper functioning of the immune system, while that of SEVERE patients is associated with increased and chronic inflammation. Overall, we show that exosomes recovered from the plasma of COVID-19 patients possess SARS-CoV-2-derived protein material, have an active role in enhancing the immune response, and possess a cargo that reflects the pathological state of patients in the acute phase of the disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hang Ji ◽  
Hongtao Zhao ◽  
Jiaqi Jin ◽  
Zhihui Liu ◽  
Xin Gao ◽  
...  

Effective treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) remains an open challenge. Given the critical role of the immune microenvironment in the progression of cancers, we aimed to develop an immune-related gene (IRG) signature for predicting prognosis and improving the current treatment paradigm of GBM. Multi-omics data were collected, and various bioinformatics methods, as well as machine learning algorithms, were employed to construct and validate the IRG-based signature and to explore the characteristics of the immune microenvironment of GBM. A five-gene signature (ARPC1B, FCGR2B, NCF2, PLAUR, and S100A11) was identified based on the expression of IRGs, and an effective prognostic risk model was developed. The IRG-based risk model had superior time-dependent prognostic performance compared to well-studied molecular pathology markers. Besides, we found prominent inflamed features in the microenvironment of the high-risk group, including neutrophil infiltration, immune checkpoint expression, and activation of the adaptive immune response, which may be associated with increased hypoxia, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild type, and necrosis. Notably, the IRG-based risk model had the potential to predict the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Together, our study offers insights into the immune microenvironment of GBM and provides useful information for clinical management of this desperate disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 911
Author(s):  
Andrea Hanel ◽  
Carsten Carlberg

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) belong to the innate and adaptive immune system and are highly sensitive and responsive to changes in their systemic environment. In this study, we focused on the time course of transcriptional changes in freshly isolated human PBMCs 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after onset of stimulation with the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Taking all four time points together, 662 target genes were identified and segregated either by time of differential gene expression into 179 primary and 483 secondary targets or by driver of expression change into 293 direct and 369 indirect targets. The latter classification revealed that more than 50% of target genes were primarily driven by the cells' response to ex vivo exposure than by the nuclear hormone and largely explained its down-regulatory effect. Functional analysis indicated vitamin D’s role in the suppression of the inflammatory and adaptive immune response by down-regulating ten major histocompatibility complex class II genes, five alarmins of the S100 calcium binding protein A family and by affecting six chemokines of the C-X-C motif ligand family. Taken together, studying time-resolved responses allows to better contextualize the effects of vitamin D on the immune system.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Felix Sebastian Nettersheim ◽  
Simon Braumann ◽  
Kouji Kobiyama ◽  
Marco Orecchioni ◽  
Melanie Vassallo ◽  
...  

Atherosclerosis is a chronic, lipid-driven disease of medium sized arteries which causes myocardial infarction and stroke. Recently, an adaptive immune response against the plaque-associated autoantigen Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB), the structural protein component of low-density lipoprotein, has been implicated in atherogenesis. In healthy individuals, CD4+ T cells responding to ApoB mainly comprised regulatory T cells, which confer immune tolerance and atheroprotection. Mice and patients with atherosclerosis harbor increased numbers of proatherogenic ApoB-reactive T-helper cell subsets. Given the lack of therapies targeting proatherogenic immunity, clarification of the underlying mechanisms is of high clinical relevance. T cells develop in the thymus, where strong autoreactive T cells are eliminated in the process of negative selection. Herein, we investigated whether the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE), which controls expression of numerous tissue-restricted self-antigens in the thymus, is involved in mediating tolerance to ApoB and whether Aire deficiency might contribute to atherogenesis. Mice deficient for Aire were crossbred to apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to obtain atherosclerosis-prone Aire−/−Apoe−/− mice, which were fed a regular chow diet (CD) or western-type diet (WD). CD4+ T cells responding to the ApoB peptide p6 were analyzed by flow cytometry. We demonstrate that Aire deficiency influences neither generation nor activation of ApoB-reactive T cells and has only minor and overall inconsistent impacts on their phenotype. Furthermore, we show that atherosclerotic plaque size is not affected in Aire−/−Apoe−/− compared to Aire+/+Apoe−/−, irrespective of diet and gender. In conclusion, our data suggests that AIRE is not involved in regulating thymic expression of ApoB or atherosclerosis. Alternative mechanisms how ApoB-reactive CD4 T cells are selected in the thymus will have to be investigated.


Pathobiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Omar Bushara ◽  
David Joseph Escobar ◽  
Samuel Edward Weinberg ◽  
Leyu Sun ◽  
Jie Liao ◽  
...  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Crohn’s disease (CD) is a condition on the spectrum of inflammatory bowel disease that affects up to 20 people per 100,000 in the US annually, and with incidence increasing. One of the most significant sources of morbidity in CD is the formation of strictures, with resultant intestinal blockage a common indication for hospitalization and surgical intervention in these patients. The pathophysiology of stricture formation is not fully understood. However, the fibroplasia that leads to fibrostenotic stricture formation may have shared pathophysiology with IgG4-related fibrosis. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> Initial intestinal inflammation recruits innate immune cells, such as neutrophils, that secrete IL-1β and IL-23, which induces a type 17 CD4+ T-helper T-cell (Th17)-mediated adaptive immune response. These CD4+ Th17 T cells also contribute to inflammation by secreting proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-21. IL-21 recruits and stimulates CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, which secrete more IL-21. This causes ectopic germinal center formation, recruiting and stimulating naïve B cells. The IL-17 and IL-21 produced by Th17 cells and Tfh cells also induce IgG4 plasmablast differentiation. Finally, these IgG4-producing plasmablasts secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which activates local PDGF-receptor expressing fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, resulting in uncontrolled fibroplasia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 803
Author(s):  
Alessandro Lazzaro ◽  
Gabriella De Girolamo ◽  
Valeria Filippi ◽  
Giuseppe Pietro Innocenti ◽  
Letizia Santinelli ◽  
...  

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body’s response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. Despite significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, its pathogenesis and mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the recent developments in our understanding of the hallmarks of sepsis pathogenesis (immune and adaptive immune response, the complement system, the endothelial disfunction, and autophagy) and highlight novel laboratory diagnostic approaches. Clinical management is also discussed with pivotal consideration for antimicrobic therapy management in particular settings, such as intensive care unit, altered renal function, obesity, and burn patients.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Raquel Guillamat-Prats ◽  
Daniel Hering ◽  
Martina Rami ◽  
Carmen Haerdner ◽  
Donato Santovito ◽  
...  

Abstract Identifying novel pathways regulating the adaptive immune response in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis is of particular interest in view of developing new therapeutic drugs. Here we report that the lipid receptor GPR55 is highly expressed by splenic B cells and inversely correlates with atheroma plaque size in mice. In human carotid endarterectomy specimen, GPR55 transcript levels were significantly lower in unstable compared to stable carotid plaques. To study the impact of GPR55 deficiency in atherosclerosis, we crossed Gpr55 knockout mice with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice and subjected the mice to Western diet for 4 to 16 weeks. Compared to ApoE-/- controls, ApoE-/-Gpr55-/- mice developed larger plaques with increased necrotic core size, associated with elevated circulating and aortic leukocyte counts. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and RNA-sequencing analysis of splenic B cells in these mice revealed a hyperactivated B cell phenotype with disturbed plasma cell maturation and immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody overproduction. The specific contribution of B cell GPR55 in atherosclerosis was further studied in mixed Gpr55-/-/µMT bone marrow chimeras on low density receptor deficiency (Ldlr-/-) background, revealing that B-cell specific depletion of Gpr55 was sufficient to promote plaque development. Conversely, adoptive transfer of wildtype B cells into ApoE-/-Gpr55-/- mice blunted the proatherogenic phenotype. In vitro stimulation of splenocytes with the endogenous GPR55 ligand LPI promoted plasma cell proliferation and enhanced B cell activation marker expression, which was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist CID16020046. Collectively, these discoveries provide new evidence for GPR55 as key modulator of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis. Targeting GPR55 could be useful to limit inflammation and plaque progression in patients suffering from atherosclerosis.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Author(s):  
Sara Becker ◽  
Annette Fink ◽  
Jürgen Podlech ◽  
Matthias J. Reddehase ◽  
Niels A. Lemmermann

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are host species-specific and have adapted to their respective mammalian hosts during co-evolution. Host-adaptation is reflected by “private genes” that have specialized in mediating virus-host interplay and have no sequence homologs in other CMV species, although biological convergence has led to analogous protein functions. They are mostly organized in gene families evolved by gene duplications and subsequent mutations. The host immune response to infection, both the innate and the adaptive immune response, is a driver of viral evolution, resulting in the acquisition of viral immune evasion proteins encoded by private gene families. As the analysis of the medically relevant human cytomegalovirus by clinical investigation in the infected human host cannot make use of designed virus and host mutagenesis, the mouse model based on murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) has become a versatile animal model to study basic principles of in vivo virus-host interplay. Focusing on the immune evasion of the adaptive immune response by CD8+ T cells, we review here what is known about proteins of two private gene families of mCMV, the m02 and the m145 families, specifically the role of m04, m06, and m152 in viral antigen presentation during acute and latent infection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julieta H. Sepúlveda-Yáñez ◽  
Diego Alvarez Saravia ◽  
Bas Pilzecker ◽  
Pauline A. van Schouwenburg ◽  
Mirjam van den Burg ◽  
...  

Upon antigen recognition, activation-induced cytosine deaminase initiates affinity maturation of the B-cell receptor by somatic hypermutation (SHM) through error-prone DNA repair pathways. SHM typically creates single nucleotide substitutions, but tandem substitutions may also occur. We investigated incidence and sequence context of tandem substitutions by massive parallel sequencing of V(D)J repertoires in healthy human donors. Mutation patterns were congruent with SHM-derived single nucleotide mutations, delineating initiation of the tandem substitution by AID. Tandem substitutions comprised 5,7% of AID-induced mutations. The majority of tandem substitutions represents single nucleotide juxtalocations of directly adjacent sequences. These observations were confirmed in an independent cohort of healthy donors. We propose a model where tandem substitutions are predominantly generated by translesion synthesis across an apyramidinic site that is typically created by UNG. During replication, apyrimidinic sites transiently adapt an extruded configuration, causing skipping of the extruded base. Consequent strand decontraction leads to the juxtalocation, after which exonucleases repair the apyramidinic site and any directly adjacent mismatched base pairs. The mismatch repair pathway appears to account for the remainder of tandem substitutions. Tandem substitutions may enhance affinity maturation and expedite the adaptive immune response by overcoming amino acid codon degeneracies or mutating two adjacent amino acid residues simultaneously.


Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Author(s):  
Mikiko Watanabe ◽  
Angela Balena ◽  
Davide Masi ◽  
Rossella Tozzi ◽  
Renata Risi ◽  
...  

Obesity is associated with a poor COVID-19 prognosis, and it seems associated with reduced humoral response to vaccination. Public health campaigns have advocated for weight loss in subjects with obesity, hoping to eliminate this risk. However, no evidence proves that weight loss leads to a better prognosis or a stronger immune response to vaccination. We aimed to investigate the impact of rapid weight loss on the adaptive immune response in subjects with morbid obesity. Twenty-one patients followed a hypocaloric, very-low-carbohydrate diet one week before to one week after the two mRNA vaccine doses. The diet’s safety and efficacy were assessed, and the adaptive humoral (anti-SARS CoV-2 S antibodies, Abs) and cell-mediated responses (IFNγ secretion on stimulation with two different SARS CoV-2 peptide mixes, IFNγ-1 and IFNγ-2) were evaluated. The patients lost ~10% of their body weight with metabolic improvement. A high baseline BMI correlated with a poor immune response (R −0.558, p = 0.013 for IFNγ-1; R −0.581, p = 0.009 for IFNγ-2; R −0.512, p = 0.018 for Abs). Furthermore, there was a correlation between weight loss and higher IFNγ-2 (R 0.471, p = 0.042), and between blood glucose reduction and higher IFNγ-1 (R 0.534, p = 0.019), maintained after weight loss and waist circumference reduction adjustment. Urate reduction correlated with higher Abs (R 0.552, p = 0.033). In conclusion, obesity is associated with a reduced adaptive response to a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, and weight loss and metabolic improvement may reverse the effect.


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