Hand Hygiene
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Nouman Mansoor Ali ◽  
Rabail Nasr ◽  
Mehroze Rehman ◽  
Syed Uzair Mahmood

Salmonella typhi is a gram negative, rod shaped bacteria that features a polysaccharide capsule, flagella for motility and fimbria for adhesion to the epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa. The organism is responsible for causing enteric fever and in severe cases it leads to complications such as intestinal perforation which can lead to death. The mainstay of treatment of typhoid fever is antibiotic therapy but unfortunately the emergence of MDR (multidrug resistant) and XDR (extensively drug resistant) strains pose a major threat to the successful treatment of typhoid. Around 200,000 global deaths can be associated with typhoid and most cases are seen in low socioeconomic countries with inadequate healthcare infrastructure particularly those that are densely populated, among them Pakistan is considered as high-risk country according to WHO criteria. Prevention strategies include education of the masses regarding hand hygiene, cleanliness and consumption of clean food and water. In 2019 Pakistan encountered an epidemic of XDR typhoid and to control it, Government introduced typhoid vaccine in its nationwide vaccination program, and is hopeful that it will decrease the burden of disease on state and its citizens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
Thabiso L.A. Bale ◽  
Tendani S. Ramukumba ◽  
Lutendo S. Mudau

Background: Human hands are home to thousands of microorganisms, which may be transmitted to surfaces that the hands come into contact with. When in contact with people who are ailing or have weakened immune systems, some of these microorganisms can cause infections and disease. Correct hand hygiene goes a long way in eradicating these potentially infective microorganisms and forms the cornerstone of infection prevention and control (IPC) within healthcare facilities and beyond. The healthcare industry is constantly challenged by healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and their negative effects on patient safety and clinical outcomes. Hospitals in Pretoria are facing similar challenges posed by HAIs and there is no report available on compliance of healthcare professionals (HCPs) to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) ‘five moments of hand hygiene’. Healthcare professional’s compliance to all of the five moments of hand hygiene, particularly within the patient zone, is crucial in mitigating and reducing the spread of contact-based infections in the healthcare setting.Methods: A quantitative longitudinal design was used in a covert direct observation of HCP compliance to the WHO’s five moments of hand hygiene. The observations were conducted over 4 weeks in three hospitals, covering 25 wards, inclusive of four adult critical care units using the WHO’s ‘five moments of hand hygiene’ observation form.Results: A total of 1906 hand hygiene opportunities were directly observed in three hospitals. Hand hygiene compliance was 17.26% (n = 329). Allied health professionals had higher compliance (23.02%) than medical (19.26%) and nursing professionals (15.76%). The moment before patient contact had the lowest compliance (8.21%) as compared with all other moments.Conclusions: In general, HCPs had low compliance to the five moments of hand hygiene within the patient zone. Allied health professionals had higher compliance than medical and nursing professionals. Compliance in public hospitals was lower than in private hospitals. Critical care units had higher compliance compared to general wards. Healthcare professionals better complied to the moments meant for their safety as compared to those indicated for patient safety.

Deborah G. Druckerman ◽  
Nital Appelbaum ◽  
Jo Dee Armstrong-Novak ◽  
Nadia Masroor ◽  
Kaila Cooper ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (5) ◽  
Nguyen Thi Huong ◽  
Tran Mai Anh ◽  
Tran Van Ngoc ◽  
Vu Thai Son ◽  
Tran Thi Thu Thuy

The research was carried out at Lam Dong II Hospital with a scale of 450 beds with the task of solving emergencies, providing medical examination and treatment for staff and people in 3 districts:Bao Loc, Da Huoai, and Di Linh. At the Intensive Care Unit - Anti-poison Department, Lam Dong II Hospital, patients have to undergo invasive procedures such as endotracheal intubation, mechanicalventilation, and the risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia is very high. To prevent people from risk, hand hygiene VST in patient care is a very important factor. The research analysis solves actual public health problems at Lam Dong II hospital with two main objectives: (1) Describe the current situation of routine hand hygiene of staff at the Intensive Care Unit - Anti-poison Department, Lam Dong II Hospital; (2) Proposing solutions to increase the hand hygiene rate among staff at the Intensive Care Unit - Anti-poison Department, Lam Dong II Hospital. Statistics show that the VST compliance rate of nurses at the Intensive Care Unit - Anti-poison Department is higher than that of doctors, nurses, the percentage of medical staff performing VSTwith quick hand sanitizer (71.8%) higher than the practice of washing hands with soap and water (28.2%), the survey results of 20 health workers showed that the knowledge about VST of the medicalstaff at the department meets the requirements of knowledge from 60% and above

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
K. A. Schmidtke ◽  
K. G. Drinkwater

Abstract Background Human hygiene behaviours influence the transmission of infectious diseases. Changing maladaptive hygiene habits has the potential to improve public health. Parents and teachers can play an important role in disinfecting surface areas and in helping children develop healthful handwashing habits. The current study aims to inform a future intervention that will help parents and teachers take up this role using a theoretically and empirically informed behaviour change model called the Capabilities-Opportunities-Motivations-Behaviour (COM-B) model. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was designed to measure participants’ capabilities, opportunities, and motivations to [1] increase their children’s handwashing with soap and [2] increase their cleaning of surface areas. Additional items captured how often participants believed their children washed their hands. The final survey was administered early in the coronavirus pandemic (May and June 2020) to 3975 participants from Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. Participants self-identified as mums, dads, or teachers of children 5 to 10 years old. ANOVAs analyses were used to compare participant capabilities, opportunities, and motivations across countries for handwashing and surface disinfecting. Multiple regressions analyses were conducted for each country to assess the predictive relationship between the COM-B components and children’s handwashing. Results The ANOVA analyses revealed that India had the lowest levels of capability, opportunity, and motivation, for both hand hygiene and surface cleaning. The regression analyses revealed that for Australia, Indonesia, and South Africa, the capability component was the only significant predictor of children’s handwashing. For India, capability and opportunity were significant. For the United Kingdom, capability and motivation were significant. Lastly, for Saudi Arabia all components were significant. Conclusions The discussion explores how the Behaviour Change Wheel methodology could be used to guide further intervention development with community stakeholders in each country. Of the countries assessed, India offers the greatest room for improvement, and behaviour change techniques that influence people’s capability and opportunities should be prioritised there.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 418
Shahzaib Maqbool ◽  
Maryam Haider ◽  
Ather Iqbal ◽  
Arham Ihtesham ◽  
Waleed Inayat Mohamed ◽  

Objective: Despite remarkable progress in scientific methods and measures against infectious disease transmission, the prevalence of infectious diseases is still on the rise in resource-poor countries. Hand hygiene is considered an effective way of fighting against deadly infectious diseases. Our study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and hand hygiene practices among mothers of children presenting for routine paediatric check-up in the department of paediatrics in a tertiary care hospital of Rawalpindi.Materials and Methods: It’s a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers from the paediatric department of the Holy family hospital (HFH), Rawalpindi. A convenient sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire that included demographic details, knowledge, attitude, and practice levels were assessed through validated questionnaires used in previously published studies. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic details and chi-square analysis was used to find an association between handwashing practice with knowledge and attitude. A P<0.05 was taken as significant. Data analysis was done through SPSS.v.23.Results and Discussion: In total, 400 females participated in the study and the mean age (±SD) was 32.4±10.2 years. The mean age of children was 31.2±12.2 months. The level of good handwashing knowledge and attitude was 93% and 60% respectively. However, the level of good handwashing practice was just 40%. The age of mothers, residential area, occupation, socioeconomic status, and the level of knowledge regarding handwashing, showed significant association with handwashing practices.Conclusion: In our study handwashing practice among mothers was relatively low. Age of mothers, residential area, occupation, socioeconomic status, and the level of knowledge regarding handwashing, were significantly associated with handwashing practices.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 418-423

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 136
Petros Ioannou ◽  
Stamatis Karakonstantis ◽  
Anna Mathioudaki ◽  
Angelos Sourris ◽  
Vasiliki Papakosta ◽  

Health care workers (HCWs) face a higher risk of infection, since they work at the front line of COVID-19 patients’ management. Misinterpretations of current scientific evidence among HCWs may impact the delivery of appropriate care to COVID-19 patients and increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the hospital setting. Moreover, knowledge may affect HCWs perceptions depending on their broad beliefs and past experiences. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and perceptions of HCWs regarding COVID-19 issues during the second wave of the pandemic. A cross-sectional survey, involving a printed questionnaire, was conducted from 21 October 2020 to 31 January 2021 in four tertiary care hospitals located at four distant geographical regions in Greece. In total, 294 HCWs participated in this study. The majority of HCWs provided precise responses regarding general knowledge, perceptions, and practices concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. However, responses on hand hygiene and antimicrobial use in HCWs with COVID-19 were mistaken. This study reveals a certain degree of misconceptions and knowledge gaps in HCWs everyday practice, especially regarding hand hygiene and antimicrobial use in COVID-19 patients.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (7) ◽  
pp. 913
Hyang Soon Oh

Recently, various outbreaks of newly emerging or reemerging diseases are expected more frequently and regularly. The importance of hand hygiene (HH) competency of nursing students (NS) is further required as a crucial learning objective of nursing education in universities. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate knowledge, perception, and performance of HH among NS and analyze their correlation. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire (modified from a World Health Organization questionnaire) was conducted from 23 November to 22 December 2019; 233 responses were used for the final analysis. Results: The average scores (mean ± standard deviation (range)) for knowledge, perception, and performance of HH were 17.82 ± 2.15 (0–25), 77.24 ± 10.78 (15–96), and 67.42 ± 23.10 (0–100), respectively. No significant variables were discovered to the knowledge of HH. Grade, university-affiliated hospitals, and the most recent healthcare institute of clinical practice nursing course significantly affected perceptions of HH (p < 0.039, p = 044, p < 0.001). Knowledge of HH was positively correlated with performance of HH (p = 0.002). The perception and the performance of HH of NS were positively correlated with HH performance of healthcare workers (HCWs); p < 0.001, p = 0.002. Conclusion: HH education for NS is crucial for improving the performance and the knowledge of HH. Good HH performance of healthcare workers (HCWs) can contribute to increased perception and performance of HH among NS. The cooperation of nursing education in a university and clinical practice with competent HCWs in healthcare institutions may create an effective education program for good HH performance of NS, who will be nurses during unpredictable pandemics.

Mohammad Hossein Kaveh ◽  
Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi ◽  
Soheil Hassanipour

Background. Despite the availability of various guidelines, rules, and strategies, hand hygiene adherence rates among healthcare workers are reported significantly lower than expected. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine the most effective interventions to improve hand hygiene and to develop a logic model based on the characteristics of the most effective interventions. Methods. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect databases up to December 21, 2019, with no time limit. Randomized clinical trials which had designed interventions to improve hand hygiene were reviewed. Data were extracted independently by two authors. All statistical analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software (version 2.0). A random-effects model was used to estimate odds ratios. Results. Although 14 studies were initially reviewed, only 12 studies entered the meta-analysis, since they had identified percentage rates of hand hygiene compliance. The most effective intervention (odds ratio 18.4, 95% CI (13.6–24.8)) was a multilevel strategy that influenced the determinants of hand hygiene behavior at individual, interpersonal, and organizational levels. Following this, a theory-driven logic model was mapped out to promote hand hygiene, based on situational analysis. Conclusion. This study suggests that designing integrated interventions based on a multilevel socioecological approach has the greatest potential to improve hand hygiene compliance in healthcare workers. The logical model proposed in this study can thus provide a useful guide for designing and conducting future experimental research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 64
Kathryn Lambe ◽  
Sinéad Lydon ◽  
Jenny McSharry ◽  
Molly Byrne ◽  
Janet Squires ◽  

Background: Despite the effectiveness of hand hygiene (HH) for infection control, there is a lack of robust scientific data to guide how HH can be improved in intensive care units (ICUs).  The aim of this study is to use the literature, researcher, and stakeholder opinion to explicate potential interventions for improving HH compliance in the ICU, and provide an indication of the suitability of these interventions. Methods: A four-phase co-design study was designed. First, data from a previously completed systematic literature review was used in order to identify unique components of existing interventions to improve HH in ICUs. Second, a workshop was held with a panel of 10 experts to identify additional intervention components. Third, the 91 intervention components resulting from the literature review and workshop were synthesised into a final list of 21 hand hygiene interventions. Finally, the affordability, practicability, effectiveness, acceptability, side-effects/safety, and equity of each intervention was rated by 39 stakeholders (health services researchers, ICU staff, and the public). Results: Ensuring the availability of essential supplies for HH compliance was the intervention that received most approval from stakeholders. Interventions involving role models and peer-to-peer accountability and support were also well regarded by stakeholders. Education/training interventions were commonplace and popular. Punitive interventions were poorly regarded. Conclusions: Hospitals and regulators must make decisions regarding how to improve HH compliance in the absence of scientific consensus on effective methods. Using collective input and a co-design approach, the guidance developed herein may usefully support implementation of HH interventions that are considered to be effective and acceptable by stakeholders.

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