quantitative studies
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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ebina Justin M.A. ◽  
Manu Melwin Joy

Purpose The three objectives served by this review are to provide readers a limpid insight about the topic performance management (PM), to analyse the latest trends in PM literature and to illustrate the theoretical perspectives. It would be fascinating for the practitioners and researchers to see the latest trends in the PM system, which is not yet covered in previous reviews. The study covers the historical and theoretical perspectives of human resource management practices. We also try to unveil some of the theoretical debates and conflicts regarding the topic. Design/methodology/approach We reviewed 139 studies on PM published within the last 20 years (2000–2020). The method used here is the integrative review method. The criteria used to determine studies are articles from peer-reviewed journals regarding the PM system published between 2000 and 2020. The initial search for studies was conducted using an extensive journal database, and then an intensive reference-based search was also done. Each selected article was coded, themes were identified, and trends for every 5 years were determined. All the articles were analysed and classified based on the methodology used to identify qualitative and quantitative studies. Findings The review concludes that PM literature's emphasis shifted from traditional historical evaluations conducted once or twice a year to forward-looking, feedback-enriched PM systems. By segregating the studies into 5-year periods, we could extract five significant trends that prevailed in the PM literature from 2000 to 2020: reactions to PM system, factors that influence PM system, quality of rating sources, evaluating the PM system and types of the PM system. The review ends with a discussion of practical implications and avenues for future research. Research limitations/implications It is equally a limitation and strength of this paper that we conducted a review of 139 articles to cover the whole works in PM literature during the last 20 years. The study could not concentrate on any specific PM theme, such as exploring employee outcomes or organizational outcomes. Likewise, the studies on public sector and non-profit organizations are excluded from this review, which constitutes a significant share of PM literature. Another significant limitation is that the selected articles are classified only based on their methodology; further classification based on different themes and contexts can also be done. Originality/value The study is an original review of the PM literature to identify the latest trends in the field.

2022 ◽  
Nurlela Mufida ◽  
Moses Glorino Rumambo Pandin

ABSTRACT Background: Hand washing is an alternative, effective and inexpensive method that can be used to prevent infectious diseases. Washing hands with soap can improve children's health. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hand hygiene intervention on the level of knowledge and skills of elementary school students. The method used to conduct this research is a critical review, namely by reviewing articles from databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, Direct, Medline. The search keywords used were: quantitative studies on delivery, intervention, hand hygiene, skills, children, and primary school. The selected articles are articles that meet the standard writing criteria, which were published between 2017-2021, both in English and Indonesian. Based on these evaluation criteria, 20 (twenty) studies were obtained. From the results of a literature search, several studies on the use of intervention strategies to provide hand hygiene health education found that although there were other intervention strategies to improve hand hygiene, there were significant differences in both knowledge and skills after being given the intervention. Keywords: hand hygiene intervention, knowledge, skills

Peter Hegarty ◽  
Annette Smith

AbstractSurgical interventions on infants with intersex characteristics are considered justified by some on the grounds that they carry a high risk of intolerable stigma. However, public understanding of intersex and its medicalization are under-researched. We review recent qualitative and quantitative studies of the understandings of intersex and its medicalization among people who have no particular professional or public experience of intersex. First, such laypeople reason about clinical dilemmas by drawing on values in similar ways as expert healthcare professionals do. Second, laypeople can over-estimate the utility of current ‘umbrella terms,’ including intersex, for people with direct familial experience of intersex. Third, beliefs about good and bad effects of medical intervention are affected by framing intersex as either a medical condition or the natural basis for a social identity. Fourth, sexual identity is the best evidenced predictor of opinions about early surgical intervention and its legal limitation on human rights grounds. We argue that possible stigmatizing reactions from the public may not be a solid basis on which to justify early surgical intervention on intersex characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 746
Youli Zhang ◽  
Zhanrui Leng ◽  
Yueming Wu ◽  
Hui Jia ◽  
Chongling Yan ◽  

Plant invasion is significantly affected by environmental factors in the recipient habitats and affects the stability and sustainable development of society. The invasiveness of alien plants may be increased by anthropogenic-mediated disturbances, such as fluctuations in nutrients caused by excessive emissions of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To improve our understanding of the interactions between N and P fluctuations and invasive alien plants, the current report focuses on the biogeochemical behavior of N and P among invasive alien plants, native plants, and the soil within the plant–soil ecosystem. Our research, together with a synthesis of the literature, shows that fluctuations in N and P resources provide more opportunities and competitiveness for plant invasion. At the same time, the biogeochemical cycles of N and P are promoted because of their efficient and increased utilization and rate of release by invasive alien plants. However, there is no consensus on whether the N and P compositions of invasive species are different from those of the natives in their habitat. Quantitative studies that compare N and P contents in plant, litter, and soil between native plant communities and invaded communities on a global scale are an indispensable area of research focus for the future.

2022 ◽  
Peilin Song ◽  
Yongqiang Zhang ◽  
Jianping Guo ◽  
Jiancheng Shi ◽  
Tianjie Zhao ◽  

Abstract. Surface soil moisture (SSM) is crucial for understanding the hydrological process of our earth surface. Passive microwave (PM) technique has long been the primary tool for estimating global SSM from the view of satellite, while the coarse resolution (usually >~10 km) of PM observations hampers its applications at finer scales. Although quantitative studies have been proposed for downscaling satellite PM-based SSM, very few products have been available to public that meet the qualification of 1-km resolution and daily revisit cycles under all-weather conditions. In this study, we developed one such SSM product in China with all these characteristics. The product was generated through downscaling the AMSR-E/AMSR-2 based SSM at 36-km, covering all on-orbit time of the two radiometers during 2003–2019. MODIS optical reflectance data and daily thermal infrared land surface temperature (LST) that had been gap-filled for cloudy conditions were the primary data inputs of the downscaling model, so that the “all-weather” quality was achieved for the 1-km SSM. Daily images from this developed SSM product have quasi-complete coverage over the country during April–September. For other months, the national coverage percentage of the developed product is also greatly improved against the original daily PM observations, through a specifically developed sub-model for filling the gap between seams of neighboring PM swaths during the downscaling procedure. The product is well compared against in situ soil moisture measurements from 2000+ meteorological stations, indicated by station averages of the unbiased RMSD ranging from 0.052 vol/vol to 0.059 vol/vol. Moreover, the evaluation results also show that the developed product outperforms the SMAP-Sentinel (Active-Passive microwave) combined SSM product at 1-km, with a correlation coefficient of 0.55 achieved against that of 0.40 for the latter product. This indicates the new product has great potential to be used for hydrological community, agricultural industry, water resource and environment management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 80-100
Rahayu Mardikaningsih ◽  
Samsul Arifin

Human assets as one of the elements of manufacturing are the riding pressure of each organisation. They have a main function in understanding the organisation's goals. Companies ought to constantly inspire them to offer the excellent paintings effects in order that organisation sports aren't hampered consistent with their workload and responsibilities. Good paintings effects are primarily based totally at the lifestyles of a cause for fulfillment and there are numerous variables that have effect on this. This studies targets to research and decide the impact of labor supervision, paintings revel in, and paintings cappotential on fulfillment motivation. This quantitative studies takes the populace targeted on personnel who paintings withinside the manufacturing phase of a multinational organisation in Sidoarjo. Respondents on this observe have been a hundred and twenty respondents. The analytical device used, particularly SPSS model 25 program. The sampling method on this observe the usage of purposive sampling method. The analytical device used is more than one linear regression analysis. The effects confirmed that each one hypotheses have been demonstrated correct. Work supervision has a massive effective impact on fulfillment motivation. Work revel in and paintings cappotential even have a massive have effect on fulfillment motivation. The 3 of them offer a massive impact concurrently on fulfillment motivation. Keywords: job supervision, work experience, work ability, achievement motivation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002214652110661
Nick Graetz ◽  
Courtney E. Boen ◽  
Michael H. Esposito

Quantitative studies of racial health disparities often use static measures of self-reported race and conventional regression estimators, which critics argue is inconsistent with social-constructivist theories of race, racialization, and racism. We demonstrate an alternative counterfactual approach to explain how multiple racialized systems dynamically shape health over time, examining racial inequities in cardiometabolic risk in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. This framework accounts for the dynamics of time-varying confounding and mediation that is required in operationalizing a “race” variable as part of a social process ( racism) rather than a separable, individual characteristic. We decompose the observed disparity into three types of effects: a controlled direct effect (“unobserved racism”), proportions attributable to interaction (“racial discrimination”), and pure indirect effects (“emergent discrimination”). We discuss the limitations of counterfactual approaches while highlighting how they can be combined with critical theories to quantify how interlocking systems produce racial health inequities.

Meng Yaw ◽  
Hyungseok David Jeong ◽  
Kunhee Choi

When alternative contracting techniques are considered, one innovative approach for assuring the performance of a transportation infrastructure project is offering contractors flexibility about when they start the project. Although such flexible notice-to-proceed (NTP) provisions are becoming more common, quantitative studies examining their impact on project performance are nonexistent. This study investigates the likely effects of flexible NTP provisions on competitive bidding, bid prices, and contract time. A dataset gathered from the North Carolina Department of Transportation, United States, was carefully stratified by type and size of project to allow for unbiased analysis. The results from the hypothesis testing revealed that projects with flexible NTP provisions were more competitive in relation to bidding. The results also indicated a positive correlation between the length of flexible time window and award growth. This study is the first of its kind and will help state transportation agencies make better-informed decisions by providing a point of reference when adopting NTP provisions for alternative contracting projects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Monika Frania ◽  
Fernando Luís de Sousa Correia

Interpersonal competences in relationship building, collaboration and teamwork are essential both in F2F education and in distance or hybrid styles of education. In the face of the COVID-19 crisis, as well as previous trends, some or all of the higher education didactics were transferred to the online environment. In this context, the Online Collaborative Learning (OCL) model, now known as collaborativism, is gaining importance. This research aims to diagnose and compare the level of interpersonal competences and attitude in the OCL model among students preparing for the profession of an educator, pedagogue or teacher in the autonomous region of Madeira and in Poland. Quantitative studies were conducted using the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire by D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M.T. Wittenberg and H.T. Reis—as adapted by Poland and Portugal. In addition, the respondents expressed their views on OCL in the self-written questionnaire. According to the research findings, the highest level of competence in the Portuguese group was achieved by the respondents in terms of: Emotional Support (EW), Conflict Management and Resolution (RK) and Negative Assertion—Asserting Influence (AO). In the Polish group, EW was the lowest. The highest level of interpersonal competences was observed for Conflict Management and Resolution (RK), Disclosure (US) and Initiation (IR). The largest group of the surveyed students in both countries expressed a positive attitude towards implementing OCL in their courses of study and declared their willingness to be a member of a group that learns online together.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001112872110617
Shi Yan ◽  
Jason W. Walker

Legal and qualitative studies have highlighted that courtroom actors consider multiple aspects of criminal records. However, most quantitative studies on sentencing only included the number of prior convictions or arrests, with little attention to the seriousness trends of those priors. Taking stock from studies on criminal careers, we used group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) to identify patterns of escalation and de-escalation among a defendant sample in New York State ( n = 56,017), and then examined the role of trajectory groups in four decision points: dismissal, charge reduction, incarceration, and incarceration length. We found that escalation, de-escalation, and a higher stable level of crime seriousness were associated with less favorable outcomes at multiple decision points.

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