water retention capacity
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
E. M. M. Bartieres ◽  
D. M. Dresch ◽  
L. C. Reis ◽  
Z. V. Pereira ◽  
R. M. Mussury ◽  

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the functioning of the photosystem II and quality of C. xanthocarpa seedlings cultivated under intermittent water deficit and shading levels and the influence of shading on recovery potential after suspension of the stress conditions. The seedlings were subjected to three levels of shading (0, 30, and 70%), six periods of evaluation (start: 0 days; 1st and 2nd photosynthesis zero: 1st and 2nd P0; 1st and 2nd recovery: 1stand 2nd REC; and END), and two forms of irrigation (control: periodically irrigated to maintain 70% substrate water retention capacity, and intermittent irrigation: suspension of irrigation). The plants subjected to intermittent irrigation conditions at 0% shading showed a reduction in water potential (Ψw) and potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum efficiency of the photochemical process (Fv/F0) and an increase in basal quantum production of the non-photochemical processes (F0/Fm). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in the leaves than in the roots. The C. xanthocarpa is a species sensitive to water deficit but presents strategies to adapt to an environment under temporary water restriction, which are more temporary are most efficient under shading. The seedlings with water deficit at all levels of shading exhibited higher protective antioxidant activity and lower quality at 0% shading. The shading minimizes prevents permanent damage to the photosystem II and after the re-irrigation, the evaluated characteristics showed recovery with respect to the control group, except POD and SOD activities in the leaves.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 228
Natalia Rosa-Sibakov ◽  
Maria Julia de Oliveira Carvalho ◽  
Martina Lille ◽  
Emilia Nordlund

Oat bran is a nutritionally rich ingredient, but it is underutilized in semi-moist and liquid foods due to technological issues such as high viscosity and sliminess. The aim of this work was to improve the technological properties of oat bran concentrate (OBC) in high-moisture food applications by enzymatic and mechanical treatments. OBC was hydrolyzed with β-glucanase (OBC-Hyd) and the water-soluble fraction (OBC-Sol) was separated. OBC, OBC-Hyd and OBC-Sol were further microfluidized at 5% dry matter content. Enzymatic treatment and microfluidization of OBC reduced the molecular weight (Mw) of β-glucan from 2748 kDa to 893 and 350 kDa, respectively, as well as the average particle size of OBC (3.4 and 35 times, respectively). Both treatments increased the extractability of the soluble compounds from the OBC samples (up to 80%) and affected their water retention capacity. OBC in suspension had very high viscosity (969 mPa·s) when heated, which decreased after both enzyme and microfluidization treatments. The colloidal stability of the OBC in suspension was improved, especially after microfluidization. The addition of OBC samples to acid milk gels decreased syneresis, improved the water holding capacity and softened the texture. The changes in the suspension and gel characteristics were linked with reduced β-glucan Mw and OBC particle size.

Marcello Alinovi ◽  
Massimiliano Rinaldi ◽  
Maria Paciulli ◽  
Paola Littardi ◽  
Emma Chiavaro

AbstractIn breadmaking, dietary fibres are used to improve the nutritional quality of the final products; on the other hand, they may affect the physical and sensory properties. This work aimed to the evaluate, on pan breads, the effect of substituting 3 g of wheat flour with an equivalent amount of fibre rich ingredients: chestnut peels (CP) or wheat bran (WB), in comparison to a traditional wheat bread formulation (C). The effect of four levels of added water (54, 60, 66, 71 g/100 of flour) was also tested. The fibre content of CP (33%) and WB (42%) affected their water binding capacity and, consequently, the quality of the final loaves, according to the different water addition levels. In bread crumb, water content and water activity increased proportionally to the water addition levels, being instead in the crust also affected by the presence of fibres: lower water retention capacity was observed for CP, in comparison to WB and C. The loaf volume resulted higher for C in comparison to WB and CP, in relation to the larger dimensions of the crumb pores, probably due to the interfering effect of fibres during the development of the gluten network. Crumb hardness resulted higher for C at low water addition levels, being instead higher for CP at high water addition levels. CP showed a darker and redder colour, than both WB and C bread, for the presence of the brown pigments carried by chestnut peels. PCA analysis confirmed that more water is required for both the fibre-enriched breads to show characteristics similar to the control loaves.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hongyang Du ◽  
Benxue Chen ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Huaipan Liu ◽  
Ronald Kurtenbach

Polyamines are small positively charged molecules in plants and play important functions in many biological processes under various environmental stresses. One of the most confounding problems relating to polyamines (PAs) in stresses is the lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying their function(s). Furthermore, a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the sub-cellular level, especially in tree plants under drought stress. Therefore, in this research, by simulating natural drought stress with polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotic stress, the relationship between the levels of conjugated polyamines and the activity of H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane was elucidated with the roots of two plum (Prunus salicina L.) cultivars, which were different in drought tolerance, as experimental materials. Furthermore, free PA levels and the activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and transglutaminase (TGase), which were closely associated with the levels of free and conjugated PAs, were also detected. Results showed that under osmotic stress, the increases of the levels of non-covalently conjugated (non-CC) spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), covalently conjugated (CC) putrescine (Put) and Spd in the plasma membrane of drought-tolerant Ganli No. 5 were more significant than those of drought-sensitive Suli No. 3, indicating that these conjugated PAs might be involved in the tolerance of plum seedlings to stress. Furthermore, the conjugated PAs were closely correlated with plum seedling growth, water retention capacity, plasma membrane damage degree, and hydrogen (H+)-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. To get more complementary pieces of evidence, we subjected plum seedlings to combined treatments of PEG and exogenous PA (Spd and Spm), and an inhibitor of SAMDC [methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone), (MGBG)] or TGase (o-phenanthroline). These results collectively suggested that non-CC Spd and Spm, CC Put and Spd in plasma membrane might function in enhancing the tolerance of plum seedlings to osmotic stress by stabilizing membrane structure and therefore elevating H+-ATPase activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (6) ◽  
pp. 22-30
V. I. Alexeeva ◽  
A. Z. Platonova

The results of biological evaluation of awnless bromegrass varieties in different agroclimatic zones of Yakutia are presented. A total of 143 collection varieties of awnless bromegrass from the genetic collection of VIR, other research institutions and local wild specimen were used in the research. The varieties studied are highly winter-hardy, the breeding specimen numbers to a greater extent. The drought tolerance of the varieties grown in the three zones of Yakutia is evaluated. A close relationship between winter hardiness and drought tolerance (water retention capacity) in awnless bromegrass was established. The correlation coefficient averaged 0.74. The intensity of transpiration in awnless bromegrass cultivars is evaluated. Analysis of the daily dynamics of transpiration revealed that during the initial development phase of generative shoots (emergence into a tube), the minimum intensity of transpiration occurred in the evening and the maximum in the morning and afternoon hours. During the earing and flowering phase, the intensity of transpiration depends on weather conditions. It has been established that high winter hardiness of awnless bromegrass accounts for high hay yield; low water-holding capacity accounts for winter hardiness and maximum hay yield in the conditions of Yakutia's cryolithozone. The correlation coefficients between winter hardiness, drought tolerance parameters and hay yield at different herbage levels averaged –0,85… –0,24. The standard variety of awnless bromegrass Kamalinsky 14 is stable and highly adapted to the conditions of Yakutia, and is recommended as a seed parent in the selection process for awnless bromegrass. When selecting varieties of awnless bromegrass, attention should be paid to varieties from local breeding, as well as populations of expeditionary collections across Yakutia, which have high seed yields.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Katieli Martins Todisco ◽  
Ezequiel José Pérez-Monterroza ◽  
Natália Soares Janzantti ◽  
Maria Aparecida Mauro

ABSTRACT: Edible coatings based on polysaccharides have been applied on pieces of fruits and vegetables before drying because of their potential to improve physical and nutritional characteristics of dehydrated plant foods. In the present study, physical and thermal properties of pectin-based films, with and without the incorporation of by-products obtained from the processing of red guava, were determined. These properties allow one to predict the likely behaviour of these films when used as edible coatings on guava pieces, during and after their dehydration. Thus the structural and morphological characteristics and the physical, thermal and sorption properties of the films and of the fruit pulp were determined, using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the static gravimetric method to determine the water-sorption curves. The addition of by-products provided crystallinity to the pectin film, attributed to their cellulose content, and hardly altered the water retention capacity of the pectin films. However, the pectin contributed to presenting a slightly higher sorption moisture at equilibrium, as compared to the guava pulp. The glass transition temperatures reported at extremely low moisture contents, both in the pulp and in the films with added by-products, indicated that at intermediate moisture contents, the fruit/film ensemble was in the rubbery state at room temperatures, providing softness to the dehydrated product. The images showed good integration of the edible films with the surface of the guava pieces.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 02006
Rustam Gakaev

Common areas of research needed to measure soil carbon include: (1) the impact of forest management, (2) the impact of climate change, and (3) the impact of increased carbon dioxide. The organic matter of the soil has a great influence on the productivity of the site due to its effect on the physical (bulk density, water retention capacity), biological (microbial populations) and chemical (cation exchange capacity) properties of soils. Recently, there have also been claims of the benefits of dead wood for forest ecosystems. However, as with all nutrients, too much carbon in the soil can have negative consequences, especially with regard to nitrogen immobilization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 727-733
Boreddy Surya Prakash Reddy ◽  
Sriram Vasudevan ◽  
Shibu K Mani ◽  
Sirisha Uppaluri ◽  
M Sudakar

Sustainability in irrigation is an essential step towards responsible water consumption. In recent years, many studies have sketched climate-resilient agricultural practices to fight drought and uncertain rainfall patterns. Major rain-fed crops such as paddy and wheat require aid when there are abnormal dry spells. To mitigate the loss of crops from such events, superabsorbent polymers can be used. Soils amended with hydrogel or Superabsorbent polymer (SAP) retain moisture during drought to prevent loss of water through evaporation and percolation. This allows the crop to grow with less shock from drought. This study compares rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth rate under application (treatment groups) and non-application (control groups) of hydrogel, considering their high-water requirement. NDLR07 (recently developed) and BPT5204 (local variety) rice varieties were chosen for the current study. Randomized controlled trials were performed for each variety on a control group (NC & BC) and 3 treatment groups with 20% (NT20 & BT20), 40% (NT40 & BT40), and 60% (NT60 & BT60) deficit water supplies respectively. N, T, C refers to seed type, treatment group, control group respectively. Intermittent drought condition was imposed for 14 days to assess the resilience of crops. The water retention capacity of the sandy loam soil was better for treatment groups by 20% than control groups even at an average temperature of 40 ℃. Treatment groups continued growing through the drought phase and after, while control groups showed stagnation. Among the tested treatment groups, NT20 had the highest growth among all trials. The results of the study suggested that hydrogel application can help to combat droughts and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural production by restricting the involvement of climate changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. e37079
Milena Christy Santos ◽  
Édila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho ◽  
Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos ◽  
Danielle Rezende Vilela ◽  
Izabel Costa Silva Neta ◽  

Drought stress is a major limiting factor for the development of maize, and the identification of the expression of genes related to this stress in seeds and seedlings can be an important tool to accelerate the selection process. The expression of genes related to tolerance to water deficit in seeds and in different tissues of maize seedlings were evaluated. Four tolerant genotypes (91-T, 32-T, 91x75-T, 32x75-T) and four non-tolerant genotypes (37-NT, 57-NT, 37x57-NT and 31x37-NT) were seeded in a substrate with 10% (stress) and 70% (control) water retention capacity. The expression of 4 enzymes were evaluated: catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PO), esterase (EST), and heat-resistant protein (HRP), as well as the relative expression of 6 genes: ZmLEA3, ZmPP2C, ZmCPK11, ZmDREB2A/2.1s, ZmDBP3 and ZmAN13 were evaluated in seed, shoots and roots of seedlings submitted or not to stress. There was variation in the expression of CAT, PO, SOD, EST and HRP enzymes among the evaluated genotypes and also in the different tissues evaluated. Higher expression of the CAT and PO was observed in the shoots. There was a greater expression of the EST in the genotypes non-tolerant to water deficit. HRP was expressed only in seeds. In the aerial part of maize seedlings, classified as tolerant, higher expression of genes ZmLEA3 and ZmCPK11 was observed. There was a higher expression of the ZmAN13 and ZmDREB2A/2.1S genes in roots developed under stress conditions and a higher expression of the ZmPP2C gene in seeds of line 91-T, which is classified as tolerant to drought stress.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Dongxu Zhao ◽  
Jie Ru ◽  
Tong Wang ◽  
Yanjie Wang ◽  
Longfei Chang

Current ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) always proves inadequate in terms of large attenuation and short working time in air due to water leakage. To address this problem, a feasible and effective solution was proposed in this study to enhance IPMC performance operating in air by doping polyethylene oxide (PEO) with superior water retention capacity into Nafion membrane. The investigation of physical characteristics of membranes blended with varying PEO contents revealed that PEO/Nafion membrane with 20 wt% PEO exhibited a homogeneous internal structure and a high water uptake ratio. At the same time, influences of PEO contents on electromechanical properties of IPMCs were studied, showing that the IPMCs with 20 wt% PEO presented the largest peak-to-peak displacement, the highest volumetric work density, and prolonged stable working time. It was demonstrated that doping PEO reinforced electromechanical performances and restrained displacement attenuation of the resultant IPMC.

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