phytochemical profile
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. G. Toledo ◽  
J. G. de L. de Souza ◽  
C. B. Santana ◽  
A. P. Mallmann ◽  
C. V. dos Santos ◽  

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 36-47
Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak ◽  
Fatih Göger ◽  
İsmail Çelik ◽  
Ümit Budak ◽  
Esra Küpeli Akkol ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shreedhar S. Otari ◽  
Suraj B. Patel ◽  
Manoj M. Lekhak ◽  
Savaliram G. Ghane

Barleria terminalis Nees and Calacanthus grandiflorus (Dalzell) Radlk. are endemic medicinal plants of the Western Ghats of India. The aim of the present research work was to investigate phytochemical profile, potent bioactives using RP-HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS and to evaluate their bioactivities. Acetone was found to be the best extraction medium for separating phytochemicals. Similarly, acetone and methanol extracts exhibited potential antioxidant properties. Ethanol extract of B. terminalis stem showed potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (89.10 ± 0.26%) inhibitory activity. Inhibition of α-amylase (36.96 ± 2.96%) activity was observed the best in ethanol extract of B. terminalis leaves and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (94.33 ± 0.73%) in ethanol extract of C. grandiflorus stem. RP-HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of several phenolic compounds (gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid and coumaric acid) and phenylethanoid glycoside (verbascoside). The highest phenolics content were observed in B. terminalis (GA (4.17 ± 0.002), HBA (3.88 ± 0.001), VA (4.54 ± 0.001), CHLA (0.55 ± 0.004) mg/g DW, respectively). Similarly, LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of phenolics, glycosides, terpenes, steroids, fatty acids, etc. Moreover, positive correlation between studied phytochemicals and antioxidants was observed in principal component analysis. Based on the present investigation, we conclude that B. terminalis and C. grandiflorus can be further explored for their active principles particularly, phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoids and their use in drug industry for pharmaceutical purposes.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 193
Molelekwa Arthur Moroole ◽  
Simeon Albert Materechera ◽  
Wilfred Otang-Mbeng ◽  
Rose Hayeshi ◽  
Cor Bester ◽  

The use of medicinal plants for contraception remains a common practice among South African ethnic groups. The present study assessed the phytochemical profile, cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity and efficacy of a herbal mixture used for contraception by the Batswana of South Africa. An aqueous extract was prepared from equal quantities (in terms of weight) of Bulbine frutescens (roots), Helichrysum caespititium (leaves) and Teucrium trifidum (leaves) based on a recipe used by traditional health practitioners. The phytochemical profiles of the freeze-dried herbal mixture were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, cytotoxicity was determined using an MTT assay on Vero cells and in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated using seven Sprague Dawley rats per control and treatment groups. The control group received distilled water while test groups received 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg of the herbal mixture, which was administered orally once a day for three consecutive days. Subsequently, female rats were paired 1:1 with males for 3 days. Their weights were measured weekly and incidence of pregnancy was recorded. The GC-MS chromatogram revealed the presence of 12 identified and 9 unidentified compounds. In terms of safety, the herbal mixture had an IC50 value of 755.2 μg/mL and 2000 mg/kg, which was the highest tested dose that caused no mortality or morbidity in the rats. A contraceptive efficacy of 14.5% was exerted with 50 mg/kg herbal mixture extract while other doses had no effects given that all the rats were pregnant. Based on a chi-square test (p < 0.05), there was no correlation between the tested herbal mixture doses and contraception, nor on the weight of the rats. Overall, the herbal mixture extract was found to be safe but had limited contraceptive efficacy at the tested doses. In future studies, exploring increased dose range, solvent extract types and hormonal analysis will be pertinent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Michelle Maylla Viana De Almeida ◽  
Fernando Dos Santos Araújo ◽  
Alberício Pereira Andrade ◽  
Pedro Gregório Vieira Aquino ◽  
Roberta De Lima Valença ◽  

Cereus jamacaru DC. is an endemic cactus of the Brazilian semiarid region empirically used by humans for forage, food and medicinal purposes. In this paper, we characterize the physicochemical and phytochemical profile of the C. jamacaru cladode and fruits, outlining their nutritional implications. We evaluate the basic physicochemical characteristic of the fruits and the main classes of chemical compounds present in aqueous and ethanolic extracts from cladode, peel, and pulp of ripe and semi-ripe fruits through qualitatively and quantitatively methods. We analyze the data through descriptive statistics and variance analysis. The fruits have appropriate pH, acidity, and total soluble solid levels for the fruit processing industry and fresh consumption. We identified the presence of saponins, tannins, flavones, flavonols, and xanthones in all samples, but alkaloids and steroids were both detected in cladodes exclusively. The phenolic compound and flavonoid contents vary according to the extraction method and sample class. The cladodes and pulp of ripe fruits have the highest flavonoid levels, while the content of phenolic compounds had a high level in peels of ripe and semi-ripe fruits. The presence of these bioactive compounds implies that C. jamacaru products have relevant pharmacological interest and functionality for human (fruits) and domestic ruminant (cladodes) food. These applications can boost the agricultural-economic exploration of C. jamacaru and contribute to income generation, and improve human and animal nutrition.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 160
Francisca Hernández ◽  
Lucía Andreu-Coll ◽  
Andreia Bento-Silva ◽  
Ana Teresa Serra ◽  
Pedro Mena ◽  

This research analyzed the phytochemical profile of prickly pear fruits from ‘Orito’ cultivar stored under cold conditions (2 °C, 85–90% RH) and shelf-life conditions at room temperature (stored at 20 °C for three days after cold storage) for 28 days, mimicking the product life cycle. A total of 18 compounds were identified and quantitated through HPLC-DAD-MS/MS (High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic -Diode Array Detector- Mass Spectrometry) analyses. Phenolic acids such as eucomic acid and betalains such as indicaxanthin were the predominant chemical families, and piscidic acid was the most abundant compound. During cold storage, the content of eucomic acid isomer/derivative and syringaresinol increased, and citric acid decreased, which could be caused by the cold activation of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes. However, no significant differences were found in the content of these compounds during shelf-life storage. These results showed that ‘Orito’ fruit marketability would be possible up to 28 days after harvesting, retaining its profile, which is rich in bioactive compounds.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 287
Nur Khaleeda Zulaikha Zolkeflee ◽  
Nurul Shazini Ramli ◽  
Azrina Azlan ◽  
Faridah Abas

Anti-diabetic compounds from natural sources are now being preferred to prevent or treat diabetes due to adverse effects of synthetic drugs. The decoction of Muntingia calabura leaves was traditionally consumed for diabetes treatment. However, there has not been any published data currently available on the processing effects on this plant’s biological activity and phytochemical profile. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of three drying methods (freeze-drying (FD), air-drying (AD), and oven-drying (OD)) and ethanol:water ratios (0, 50, and 100%) on in vitro anti-diabetic activities of M. calabura leaves. In addition, an ultrahigh-performance-liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used to characterize the metabolites in the active extract. The FD M. calabura leaves, extracted with 50% ethanol, is the most active extract that exhibits a high α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 0.46 ± 0.05 and 26.39 ± 3.93 µg/mL, respectively. Sixty-one compounds were tentatively identified by using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS from the most active extract. Quantitative analysis, by using UHPLC, revealed that geniposide, daidzein, quercitrin, 6-hydroxyflavanone, kaempferol, and formononetin were predominant compounds identified from the active extract. The results have laid down preliminary steps toward developing M. calabura leaves extract as a potential source of bioactive compounds for diabetic treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Łukasz Świątek ◽  
Elwira Sieniawska ◽  
Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally ◽  
Nabeelah Bibi Sadeer ◽  
Krzysztof Kamil Wojtanowski ◽  

This study presents the evaluation of biological activities and chemical profiling of Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir. and Oenanthe silaifolia M. Bieb. The phytochemical profile, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated. The aqueous extract of O. aquatica possessing the highest content of phenolics (60.85 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract), also exhibited the strongest radical scavenging potential against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (79.46 and 148.66 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, respectively), the highest reducing ability (207.59 and 107.27 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, for cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant activity, respectively), metal chelating potential (33.91 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent/g extract) and total antioxidant ability (1.60 mmol Trolox equivalent/g extract). Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) permitted tentative identification of compounds from simple organic acids, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids and their glycosides in O. aquatica and O. silaifolia extracts. The methanolic extract of O. aquatica substantially depressed acetylcholinesterase (3.67 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract), tyrosinase (126.66 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract), and α-amylase (0.83 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract) enzymes. The methanolic extract of O. silaifolia showed highest enzymatic inhibitory property against butyrylcholinesterase, and its aqueous extract depressed α-glucosidase activity (0.26 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). All tested extracts exerted selective toxicity towards cancer cell lines, and the highest anticancer potential was found for O. aquatica aqueous extract on FaDu and HeLa cells with CC50 of 57.36 and 47.16 µg/mL, respectively. Significant antiviral activity against HSV-1 (HHV-1) was found for both aqueous extracts in concentrations of 1000 µg/mL, which inhibited the HSV-1 cytopathic effect (CPE) in virus infected VERO cells and reduced the virus infective titer by more than 3 log (logCCID50/mL). This study has produced critical scientific data on O. aquatica and O. silaifolia, which are potential contenders for the development of novel phyto-pharmaceuticals.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Mateusz Stelmasiewicz ◽  
Łukasz Świątek ◽  
Agnieszka Ludwiczuk

Liverwort endophytes could be a source of new biologically active substances, especially when these spore-forming plants are known to produce compounds that are not found in other living organisms. Despite the significant development of plant endophytes research, there are only a few studies describing liverwort endophytic microorganisms and their metabolites. In the presented study, the analysis of the volatile compounds obtained from thallose liverwort species, Marchantia polymorpha L., and its endophytes was carried out. For this purpose, non-polar extracts of plant material and symbiotic microorganisms were obtained. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Compounds with the structure of diketopiperazine in the endophyte extract were identified. Liverwort volatile extract was a rich source of cuparane-, chamigrane-, acorane-, and thujopsane-type sesquiterpenoids. The cytotoxicity of ethyl acetate extracts from endophytic microorganisms was evaluated on a panel of cancer (FaDu, HeLa, and SCC-25) cell lines and normal (VERO), and revealed significant anticancer potential towards hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and cervical adenocarcinoma.

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