chitosan nanoparticles
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2022 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 101347
Xinye Chen ◽  
Shuang Wang ◽  
Xiaohui Zhang ◽  
Yuanman Yu ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  

Food Control ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 132 ◽  
pp. 108545
Ran Zhao ◽  
Weiliang Guan ◽  
Pingan Zheng ◽  
Fang Tian ◽  
Zhenzhe Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sarangapani Sreelatha ◽  
Nadimuthu Kumar ◽  
Tan Si Yin ◽  
Sarojam Rajani

The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) causes black rot disease in cruciferous crops, resulting in severe yield loss worldwide. The excessive use of chemical pesticides in agriculture to control diseases has raised significant concern about the impact on the environment and human health. Nanoparticles have recently gained significant attention in agriculture owing to their promising application in plant disease control, increasing soil fertility and nutrient availability. In the current study, we synthesized thymol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (TCNPs) and assessed their antibacterial activity against Xcc. The synthesis of TCNPs was confirmed by using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the functional groups, size, and shape of TCNPs, with sizes ranging from 54 to 250 nm, respectively. The antibacterial activity of TCNPs against Xcc was investigated in vitro by liquid broth, cell viability, and live dead staining assay, and all of them demonstrated the antibacterial activity of TCNPs. Furthermore, TCNPs were found to directly inhibit the growth of Xcc by suppressing the growth of biofilm formation and the production of exopolysaccharides and xanthomonadin. The ultrastructure studies revealed membrane damage in TCNP-treated Xcc cells, causing a release of intracellular contents. Headspace/gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed changes in the volatile profile of Xcc cells treated with TCNPs. Increased amounts of carbonyl components (mainly ketones) and production of new volatile metabolites were observed in Xcc cells incubated with TCNPs. Overall, this study reveals TCNPs as a promising antibacterial candidate against Xcc.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 898
María Mondéjar-López ◽  
Alberto José López-Jiménez ◽  
Joaquín C. García Martínez ◽  
Oussama Ahrazem ◽  
Lourdes Gómez-Gómez ◽  

The current status of controversy regarding the use of certain preservatives in cosmetic products makes it necessary to seek new ecological alternatives that are free of adverse effects on users. In our study, the natural terpene thymoquinone was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by DLS and TEM, showing a particle size of 20 nm. The chemical structure, thermal properties, and release profile of thymoquinone were evaluated and showed a successful stabilization and sustained release of terpenes. The antimicrobial properties of the nanoparticles were evaluated against typical microbial contaminants found in cosmetic products, showing high antimicrobial properties. Furthermore, natural moisturizing cream inoculated with the aforementioned microorganisms was formulated with thymoquinone-chitosan nanoparticles to evaluate the preservative efficiency, indicating its promising use as a preservative in cosmetics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Muhammad H. Sultan ◽  
Sivakumar S. Moni ◽  
Osama A. Madkhali ◽  
Mohammed Ali Bakkari ◽  
Saeed Alshahrani ◽  

AbstractThe present study was carried out to develop cisplatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CCNP) and cisplatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticle surface linked to rituximab (mAbCCNP) as targeted delivery formulations. The two formulations (CCNP and mAbCCNP) exhibited significant physicochemical properties. The zetapotential (ZP) values of CCNP and mAbCCNP were 30.50 ± 5.64 and 26.90 ± 9.09 mV, respectively; while their particle sizes were 308.10 ± 1.10 and 349.40 ± 3.20 z.d.nm, respectively. The poly dispersity index (PDI) of CCNP was 0.257 ± 0.030 (66.6% PDI), while that of mAbCCNP was 0.444 ± 0.007 (57.60% PDI). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that CCNP had endothermic peaks at temperatures ranging from 135.50 to 157.69 °C. A sharp exothermic peak was observed at 95.79 °C, and an endothermic peak was observed at 166.60 °C. The XRD study on CCNP and mAbCCNP revealed distinct peaks at 2θ. Four peaks at 35.38°, 37.47°, 49.29°, and 59.94° corresponded to CCNP, while three distinct peaks at 36.6°, 49.12°, and 55.08° corresponded to mAbCCNP. The in vitro release of cisplatin from nanoparticles followed zero order kinetics in both CCNP and mAbCCNP. The profile for CCNP showed 43.80% release of cisplatin in 6 h (R2 = 0.9322), indicating linearity of release with minimal deviation. However, the release profile of mAbCCNP showed 22.52% release in 4 h (R2 = 0.9416), indicating linearity with sustained release. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 ATCC human breast cancer cell line showed that CCNP exerted good cytotoxicity, with IC50 of 4.085 ± 0.065 µg/mL. However, mAbCCNP did not elicit any cytotoxic effect. At a dose of 4.00 µg/mL cisplatin induced early apoptosis and late apoptosis, chromatin condensation, while it produced secondary necrosis at a dose of 8.00 µg/mL. Potential delivery system for cisplatin CCNP and mAbCCNP were successfully formulated. The results indicated that CCNP was a more successful formulation than mAbCCNP due to lack of specificity of rituximab against MCF-7 ATCC human breast cancer cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Elisabetta Mazzotta ◽  
Rita Muzzalupo ◽  
Adriana Chiappetta ◽  
Innocenzo Muzzalupo

In this research, a new ecofriendly and sustainable fungicide agent, with the ability to control Verticillium wilt, was developed. To this purpose, a green extract of olive leaf (OLE) was prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and characterized in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Then, OLE was loaded in chitosan nanoparticles (CTNPs) to combine the antifungal activity of CTNPs and phenolic compounds to obtain an important synergic effect. Nanoparticles were synthetized using the ionic gelation technique and characterized in terms of sizes, polydispersity index, Z-potential, encapsulation efficiency, and release profile. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of OLE were performed by the HPLC method. OLE-loaded CTNPs exhibited good physicochemical properties, such as a small size and positive surface charge that significantly contributed to a high antifungal efficacy against Verticillum dahliae. Therefore, their antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro, using the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) assay in a concentration range between 0.071 and 1.41 mg/mL. Free OLE, blank CTNPs, and OLE-loaded CTNPs possessed MIC values of 0.35, 0.71, and 0.14 mg/mL, respectively. These results suggest an important synergic effect when OLE was loaded in CTNPs. Thereafter, we tested the two higher concentrations on tomato plants inoculated with V. dahliae, where no fungal growth was observed in the in vitro experiment, 0.71 and 1.41 mg/mL. Interestingly, OLE-loaded CTNPs at the higher concentration used, diminished the symptoms of Verticillium wilt in tomato plants inoculated with V. dahliae and significantly enhanced plant growth. This research offers promising results and opens the possibility to use OLE-loaded CTNPs as safe fungicides in the control strategies of Verticillium wilt at open field.

2022 ◽  
Eman Tawfik ◽  
Mohamed Ahmed

The utilization of chitosan nanoparticles is a novel technique for gene transformation into plant tissues. It takes a few minutes to transform gene to plant. UidA gene was detected in <i>Escherichia coli</i> (K12 strain) using polymerase chain reaction analysis by UidA-specific primers. The gene was transformed into the explants of two different plant species (<i>Solanum tuberosum</i> and <i>Paulownia tomentosa</i>). These plants have different natures as crop and woody plants respectively. Therefore, they have different abilities to express the UidA gene. The gene is expressed into blue color in plant tissues due to the formation and expression of the GUS enzyme. The transformation of the UidA gene was detected morphologically by the formation of blue color; and molecular using PCR. Chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Visible spectroscope and photographing with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). As a result of this research, it is suggested that chitosan nanoparticles be used in gene transformation into plant tissues. Because it is safe, quick, and inexpensive, as well as biocompatible and biodegradable.

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