surgical interventions
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Muneera Altayeb ◽  
Amani Al-Ghraibah

<span>Determining and classifying pathological human sounds are still an interesting area of research in the field of speech processing. This paper explores different methods of voice features extraction, namely: Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs), zero-crossing rate (ZCR) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). A comparison is made between these methods in order to identify their ability in classifying any input sound as a normal or pathological voices using support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, the voice signal is processed and filtered, then vocal features are extracted using the proposed methods and finally six groups of features are used to classify the voice data as healthy, hyperkinetic dysphonia, hypokinetic dysphonia, or reflux laryngitis using separate classification processes. The classification results reach 100% accuracy using the MFCC and kurtosis feature group. While the other classification accuracies range between~60% to~97%. The Wavelet features provide very good classification results in comparison with other common voice features like MFCC and ZCR features. This paper aims to improve the diagnosis of voice disorders without the need for surgical interventions and endoscopic procedures which consumes time and burden the patients. Also, the comparison between the proposed feature extraction methods offers a good reference for further researches in the voice classification area.</span>

Vascular ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 170853812110682
Omar R Vayani ◽  
Manish J Patel ◽  
Thuong Van Ha ◽  
Jeffrey A Leef ◽  
Jonathan M Lorenz ◽  

Objectives The objective of this study is to document the combined use of catheter-based thrombectomy/thrombolysis with endovascular repair of high-risk segments of the inferior vena cava in the setting of iatrogenic and traumatic injuries. While the use of endovascular techniques to treat caval thrombosis is well documented and often preferred due to its minimally invasive nature, there is still little literature that focuses on the nuances related to injury of high mortality areas of the IVC as a result of major trauma, transplant, and other surgical interventions. Methods An IRB-approved retrospective review of all patients undergoing IVC thrombectomy was performed at a single tertiary care academic center between January 2018 and July 2021. Cases were subsequently selected based on those who underwent primary mechanical thrombectomy followed by endovascular stenting (or angioplasty). Among this cohort, four patients who underwent this procedure in the context of iatrogenic and traumatic injuries were included. Results All four patients undergoing primary mechanical thrombectomy followed by endovascular stenting (or angioplasty) due to IVC thrombus and/or stenosis were technically successful with immediate positive clinical outcomes. Conclusions Mechanical thrombectomy in conjunction with IVC recanalization via stenting may be a useful intervention with promising technical success and positive clinical outcomes for occlusive thrombosis and IVC stenosis.

Peter Hegarty ◽  
Annette Smith

AbstractSurgical interventions on infants with intersex characteristics are considered justified by some on the grounds that they carry a high risk of intolerable stigma. However, public understanding of intersex and its medicalization are under-researched. We review recent qualitative and quantitative studies of the understandings of intersex and its medicalization among people who have no particular professional or public experience of intersex. First, such laypeople reason about clinical dilemmas by drawing on values in similar ways as expert healthcare professionals do. Second, laypeople can over-estimate the utility of current ‘umbrella terms,’ including intersex, for people with direct familial experience of intersex. Third, beliefs about good and bad effects of medical intervention are affected by framing intersex as either a medical condition or the natural basis for a social identity. Fourth, sexual identity is the best evidenced predictor of opinions about early surgical intervention and its legal limitation on human rights grounds. We argue that possible stigmatizing reactions from the public may not be a solid basis on which to justify early surgical intervention on intersex characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jayoung Park ◽  
Jongho Heo ◽  
Woong-Han Kim

The global surgery research team of the JW LEE Center for Global Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, introduced team-based health workforce training programs for pediatric cardiac surgery in Ethiopia and Côte d'Ivoire. A team-based collaborative capacity-building model was implemented in both countries, and details of the program design and delivery were documented. The research team shared their experiences and identified achievements, lessons, and challenges for cardiac surgical interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Future directions were put forward to advance and strengthen the low-and middle-income countries “Safe Surgery.”

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 363
Antonio Lopez-Villegas ◽  
Rafael Jesus Bautista-Mesa ◽  
Miguel Angel Baena-Lopez ◽  
Antonio Garzon-Miralles ◽  
Miguel Angel Castellano-Ortega ◽  

(1) Background: The large global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has overloaded the public health systems and reduced the regular healthcare activity, leading to a major health crisis. The main objective of this study was to carry out a comparative evaluation of the healthcare activities in the hospitals of Eastern Andalusia, Spain. (2) Methods: In this study, an observational, multicentered, and retrospective approach was adopted to compare the healthcare activities of the Poniente Hospital (PH) and the Alto Guadalquivir Health Agency (AGHA). Data was collected over a period of 24 months, i.e., from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020, and the variables evaluated were: patients seen in the hospital emergency service (HES), X-ray tests performed, patients cited in outpatient consultations, surgical interventions performed, and patients included in the waiting list. (3) Results: The analysis of the above-mentioned variables revealed a significant reduction in the number of patients registered in 2020 at HES as compared to that in 2019 for both PH (p = 0.002) and AGHA (p < 0.001). Moreover, the number of surgical interventions in 2020 was significantly reduced from that in 2019 for both PH (p = 0.001) and AGHA (p = 0.009). Moreover, for PH (p < 0.001), a significant reduction was observed in the waiting list admissions in 2020 compared to that in 2019; however, no significant difference in the waiting list admissions between the years 2020 and 2019 was observed for AGHA (p = 0.446). In 2020, the number of teleconsultations was significantly increased from that in 2019 for both PH (p < 0.001) and AGHA (p = 0.006). (4) Conclusion: The analysis carried out indicates that in 2020, compared to 2019, healthcare activity was significantly reduced in most of the parameters included in this study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 22-28
Veysel Barış Turhan ◽  
Mutlu Şahin ◽  
Halil Fatih Gök ◽  
Doğan Öztürk ◽  
Bülent Öztürk ◽  

Objective: Emergency surgical interventions due to colorectal cancer (CRC) obstruction are risk factors for poor prognosis. This study aims to compare emergency and elective surgeries for colorectal tumours performed in a single center. Material and Methods: CRC patients operated on between November 2014 and November 2019 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; Patients operated under elective conditions, and patients operated under the emergency diagnosis of ileus or acute abdomen. Results: A total of 103 CRC patients were included in the study. Forty-five (43.7%) were operated in emergency situations, and 58 (56.3%) electively. 45.6% of the emergency cases were found to be Stage 3B and 4 (p=0.009). Bleeding and constipation were more common in elective cases, whereas in emergency cases, applications related to ileus and perforation were quite frequent (p<0.001). It was found that 62.3% of the tumors in emergency cases were seen in sigmoid and rectosigmoid regions (p=0.015). There was no anastomosis in 60.0% of emergency cases (p<0.001). Conclusion: In the hospital area where the study was applied, compared to other countries, more patients with CRC underwent emergency surgery for intestinal obstruction. Therefore, necessary measures must be taken to prevent further increases in these rates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 723
Zhang Xiling ◽  
Thomas Puehler ◽  
Jette Seiler ◽  
Stanislav N. Gorb ◽  
Janarthanan Sathananthan ◽  

Patients with the complex congenital heart disease (CHD) are usually associated with right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction and typically require multiple surgical interventions during their lives to relieve the right ventricular outflow tract abnormality. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement was used as a non-surgical, less invasive alternative treatment for right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction and has been rapidly developing over the past years. Despite the current favorable results of transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement, many patients eligible for pulmonary valve replacement are still not candidates for transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement. Therefore, one of the significant future challenges is to expand transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement to a broader patient population. This review describes the limitations and problems of existing techniques and focuses on decellularized tissue engineering for pulmonary valve stenting.

Ethel Avrahamov-Kraft ◽  
Alon Yulevich ◽  
Yechiel Sweed

Abstract Introduction The use of electric bicycles (EBs) among children younger than 18 years of age is rapidly increasing worldwide and becoming a substantial contributor to road accidents. We analyzed patterns and severity of pediatric bicycle-related injuries, comparing children riding EBs and classic bicycles (CBs). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study (January 2016–December 2018) of patients arriving at our medical center due to a bicycle accident. Data were collected from medical records and included demographics, injury characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Results Of 561 children, 197 (35%) were EB riders and 364 (65%) were CB riders. Injury severity score (ISS) of EB cyclists was significantly higher than CB cyclists (mean 4.08 ± 4.67 and 3.16 ± 2.84, respectively, p = 0.012). The rate of accidents involving motorized vehicles was higher in the EB versus CB group (25.9 vs. 11.3%, p < 0.001). Head injuries were the most common type of injury in both groups; incidence was higher in CB than in EB cyclists. However, loss of consciousness was more common in the EB group (18.3 and 12.1%, respectively, p = 0.057). Lower extremity injuries were more common in EBs versus CBs (55.8 and 37.6%, respectively, p < 0.001). Orthopaedic surgical interventions were significantly higher in the EB group (49.2 vs. 33.2%, p < 0.001), and length of stay in hospital and admission to pediatric intensive care unit were more common in EB compared with CB, although not significantly. Conclusion Injury severity of EB patients was significantly higher than that of CB patients. Accidents involving motorized vehicles were more common in the EB group. Head injury associated with loss of consciousness was significantly higher in EB patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 62-64
A. N. Shapkina ◽  
E. S. Shmireva ◽  
E. P. Yakovleva ◽  
M. V. Kozlova ◽  
T. S. Chernyshenko

Objective: To introduce the analysis of the clinical picture, treatment strategy and complications among children having multiple foreign magnetic bodies (FB).Methods: Retrospective analysis of the treatment of 796 children from 2013 to September 2021 having stomach and intestine FB. Comprehensive study included plan radiography of the abdomen, fiberoptic gastroduodenoscopy, etc.Results: Magnets were detected in 33 (4.15%) out of 796 cases. 9 patients swallowed multiple foreign magnetic bodies (FB) within time interval. The parts fixed in different parts of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and required surgical removal. All patients had multiple perforations of different GIT parts. It required suturing gut wall, bowel resection applying gastrointestinal anasto mosis and celiogrhaphy, resection applying anastomosis and by leaving the programmed laparostomy. Every patient recovered. Algorithm of supervision of children having FB GIT.Conclusions: Multiple foreign magnetic bodies of GIT among children in the current moment are the most dangerous foreign objects accompanied with big amount of complications. They are observed among children of any age and gender and require complicated and long surgical interventions. Multiple foreign magnetic bodies of GIT can be suspected in case of severe surgical pathology along with the lack of passage of radiopaque FB in GIT. Urgent surgical intervention is required in case of detecting it.

2022 ◽  
Brendan Santyr ◽  
Mohamad Abbass ◽  
Alan Chalil ◽  
Amirti Vivekanandan ◽  
Margaret Lauren Tindale ◽  

Introduction: Chronic facial pain is a prevalent group of conditions and when refractory to common treatments poses a social and economic burden. The last decade has seen a multitude of advancements in the multimodal management of pain. Ablative or neuromodulatory interventions targeting the nucleus caudalis (NC) of the trigeminocervical complex is one such treatment that has remained underutilized. Methods: Here we present a systematic review of the literature and historical perspective regarding interventions targeting the NC. We examine the various intervention techniques, clinical indications, and procedural efficacy. A novel outcome reporting scheme was devised to allow comparison between studies using differing outcome reporting methods. Results: A review of the literature revealed 49 retrospective studies published over the last 80 years, reporting on 858 patients. The most common technique was the open NC dorsal root entry zone nucleotomy/tractotomy (n=515, 60.0%); however, there has been an emergence of novel approaches such as endoscopic (n=6, 0.7%) and spinal cord stimulation (n=20, 2.3%) in the last 10 years. Regardless of intervention technique or preoperative diagnosis, 90.4% of patients demonstrated some improvement from treatment. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights recent advancements in NC intervention technique and the wide range of facial pain syndromes for which these interventions show promising efficacy. New and less invasive techniques continue to emerge, however prospective studies remain absent in the literature. Future work should address efficacy comparisons between intervention type and preoperative diagnosis.

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