association pattern
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2022 ◽  
Vol 139 ◽  
pp. 102629
Haoran Wang ◽  
Haiping Zhang ◽  
Shangjing Jiang ◽  
Guoan Tang ◽  
Xueying Zhang ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259901
Tarja Rajalahti ◽  
Eivind Aadland ◽  
Geir Kåre Resaland ◽  
Sigmund Alfred Anderssen ◽  
Olav Martin Kvalheim

Aerobic fitness (AF) and lipoprotein subclasses associate to each other and to cardiovascular health. Adiposity and physical activity (PA) influence the association pattern of AF to lipoproteins almost inversely making it difficult to assess their independent and joint influence on the association pattern. This study, including 841 children (50% boys) 10.2 ± 0.3 years old with BMI 18.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2 from rural Western Norway, aimed at examining the association pattern of AF to the lipoprotein subclasses and to estimate the independent and joint influence of PA and adiposity on this pattern. We used multivariate analysis to determine the association pattern of a profile of 26 lipoprotein features to AF with and without adjustment for three measures of adiposity and a high-resolution PA descriptor of 23 intensity intervals derived from accelerometry. For data not adjusted for adiposity or PA, we observed a cardioprotective lipoprotein pattern associating to AF. This pattern withstood adjustment for PA, but the strength of association to AF was reduced by 58%, while adjustment for adiposity weakened the association of AF to the lipoproteins by 85% and with strongest changes in the associations to a cardioprotective high-density lipoprotein subclass pattern. When adjusted for both adiposity and PA, the cardioprotective lipoprotein pattern still associated to AF, but the strength of association was reduced by 90%. Our results imply that the (negative) influence of adiposity on the cardioprotective association pattern of lipoproteins to AF is considerably stronger than the (positive) contribution of PA to this pattern. However, our analysis shows that PA contributes also indirectly through a strong inverse association to adiposity. The trial was registered 7 May, 2014 in with trial reg. no.: NCT02132494 and the URL is

2021 ◽  
Vol 912 (1) ◽  
pp. 012056
A Susilowati ◽  
H H Rachmat ◽  
K S Yulita ◽  
D Elfiati ◽  
I M Ginting

Abstract Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia) is a medicinal plant with various benefits and has long been used to cure various diseases such as cancer, gingivitis, intestinal worms, and anti-inflammatory anti-malarial, and tonic after childbirth. The root has high economic value leading to unsustainable harvest and drastic population decline. As initial data in conservation activities, information regarding the association of pasak bumi in Batang Lubu Sutam natural forest has not been obtained. Therefore, this research was conducted to determine the pasak bumi distribution and its association within their natural habitat in Batang Lubu Sutam forest. The study was conducted by using the vegetation analysis method using a plotted path determined by purposive sampling. Data analysis was performed by calculating association indices, including the Ochiai index (Oi), Dice index (Di), and Jackard index (Ji). The results showed that pasak bumi were found in the seedling and sapling stage in the research location and form a degree of association with several plants. The species that formed the highest degree of association with the pasak bumi at both levels of regeneration was Shorea leprosula with an Ochiai index value of 0.85 at the seedling level and 0.94 at the sapling level.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105566562110363
Abiola Omodan ◽  
Pamela Pillay ◽  
Lelika Lazarus ◽  
Kapil Satyapal ◽  
Anil Madaree

Introduction The defects found in Tessier clefts number 3 and number 4 come in various forms in different patients. These variations have to a great extent affected not only documentation of these craniofacial defects but invariably their treatment and communication amongst craniofacial researchers. This study has not only documented the clinical presentation of these clefts in a South African population but has also incorporated the clinical presentation of Tessier clefts number 3 and 4 from different regions of the world. Methods The records of 8 patients, who had been treated for either Tessier clefts number 3 or 4, were reviewed and compared with 16 studies pulled from the literature systematically. The defects recorded as well as associated clefts and other congenital malformations were documented, and findings were compared. Results The anatomical and clinical presentation of the patients was compared to the reviewed literature and the different parameters were documented. In addition, associated clefts were also recorded in the study—it was noted that the association pattern recorded in Tessier cleft number 4 in this study did not conform to its traditional counterpart. Conclusion This study concluded that the clinical presentations of these clefts, however variable, seem to have a similar presentation worldwide. Additionally, associated clefts do not conform to the original Tessier classification system and therefore it is imperative for these patterns to be clearly mapped out.

2021 ◽  
Yunhui Zhang ◽  
Peng Yao ◽  
Chuang Sun ◽  
Sanzhong Li ◽  
Xiaochong Shi ◽  

Geology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Andrea Baucon ◽  
Carlos Neto de Carvalho ◽  
Fabrizio Felletti ◽  
Gabriele Tosadori ◽  
Alexandre Antonelli

Species of burrowing animals have changed substantially over evolutionary time scales, but, surprisingly, burrows display persisting morphological patterns throughout the Phanerozoic. Deep-sea burrows are geometrically patterned, whereas shallow-marine burrows display simpler morphologies. This divergence between burrow associations is one of the central conundrums of paleontology, but it has never been quantitatively demonstrated, and the organizing principles responsible for this structure remain unknown. We show that the divergence of burrow associations has been shaped by small-world dynamics, which is proposed as a major macroevolutionary force in marine environments. Using network analysis, our study reveals that the association patterns between burrow morphotypes in 45 paleontological sites span ~500 m.y. Strong statistical support is demonstrated for a surprising association pattern, according to which the data set is optimally partitioned into two subgroups of tightly associated burrow types. These groups correspond to shallow- and deep-marine biomes. Our analysis demonstrates that across the Phanerozoic Eon, burrows did not assemble randomly nor regularly, following instead small-world assembly rules remarkably similar to those that shape human social networks. As such, small-world dynamics deeply influenced gene flow and natural variation in heritable behavior across evolutionary time.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 727
Moustafa M. Nasralla ◽  
Basiem Al-Shattarat ◽  
Dhafer J. Almakhles ◽  
Abdelhakim Abdelhadi ◽  
Eman S. Abowardah

The literature on engineering education research highlights the relevance of evaluating course learning outcomes (CLOs). However, generic and reliable mechanisms for evaluating CLOs remain challenges. The purpose of this project was to accurately assess the efficacy of the learning and teaching techniques through analysing the CLOs’ performance by using an advanced analytical model (i.e., the Rasch model) in the context of engineering and business education. This model produced an association pattern between the students and the overall achieved CLO performance. The sample in this project comprised students who are enrolled in some nominated engineering and business courses over one academic year at Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia. This sample considered several types of assessment, such as direct assessments (e.g., quizzes, assignments, projects, and examination) and indirect assessments (e.g., surveys). The current research illustrates that the Rasch model for measurement can categorise grades according to course expectations and standards in a more accurate manner, thus differentiating students by their extent of educational knowledge. The results from this project will guide the educator to track and monitor the CLOs’ performance, which is identified in every course to estimate the students’ knowledge, skills, and competence levels, which will be collected from the predefined sample by the end of each semester. The Rasch measurement model’s proposed approach can adequately assess the learning outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Johannes Hertel ◽  
Almut Heinken ◽  
Ines Thiele

The effects of the microbiome on the host's metabolism are core to understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Herein, we develop the paradigm of in silico in vivo association pattern analyses, entailing a methodology to combine microbiome metabolome association studies with in silico constraint-based microbial community modelling. By dissecting confounding and causal paths, we show that in silico in vivo association pattern analyses allows for causal inference on microbiome-metabolome relations in observational data. Then, we demonstrate the feasibility and validity of our approach on a published multi-omics dataset (n=346), demonstrating causal microbiome-metabolite relations for 43 out of 53 metabolites from faeces. Finally, we utilise the identified in silico in vivo association pattern to estimate the microbial component of the faecal metabolome, revealing that the retrieved metabolite prediction scores correlate with the measured metabolite concentrations, and they also reflect the multivariate structure of the faecal metabolome. Concluding, we integrate with hypothesis-free screening association studies and knowledge-based in silico modelling two major paradigms of systems biology, generating a promising new paradigm for causal inference in metabolic host-microbe interactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 536-543
Om Prakash Goshain ◽  
Satish Kumar Sharma

Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disease that has affected the social and personal life of patients. The disease causes the most disturbing symptoms of chorea, which is characterized by uncontrolled body movements. HD patients are being treated by providing drugs that maintain neurotransmission balance and relieve chorea symptoms. HD has been associated with mutant Huntingtin protein (mHtt) with more than thirty-six polyQ stretches at N terminal of 34 kDaHtt protein. mHtt protein undergoes misfolding, which leads to accumulation of toxic mHtt aggregates in the brain. The phenomenon of protein aggregation initiates a cascade of events, eventually leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and misregulated unfolding protein response (UPR). Different molecular targets have been identified from ER stress and UPR pathways for finding potential molecules that can treat HD. Overall, the mechanism causes structural transitions in mHtt, which can be controlled at the subatomic and molecular level by molecular dynamic simulations (MDS). The MDS strategies help to observe structural changes in the mHtt protein and association pattern between the protein and novel drug compounds. Hence, this study explains the journey of HD research to computational strategies and the scope of structural drug designing in psychologically disturbing Huntington’s disease.

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